During what period did classical management theory come about?
During the industrial revolution the focus shifted from using machines to increase productivity to increasing what?
Employee productivity and efficiency.
The development of classical management theory came from finding the best ways for workers to do what?
Perform and manage their tasks.
A “classical” manager must of had a good understanding of what, so that they could structure the organization according to tasks and assign workers in view of that?
What three separate branches emerged as Classical Management theory expanded throughout the first half of the 20th century?
Bureaucratic management, classical scientific management and classical administrative management.
Who created the idea of bureaucratic management?
What management type looked for ways to bring a more formalized structure to organizations and created the idea of organizations being more authoritative, rigid and structured?
In the late 1800s, Max Weber criticized organizations for running their businesses like what?
A family (‘mom and pop’).
In relation to early 1800 businesses, Weber believed the informal organization of “family ran” business caused what?
Employees to be loyal to their bosses and not to the organization.
Weber believed that a supervisor’s power should be based on what?
Individual’s position within the organization, level of professional competence and adherence to explicit rules and regulations.
What are six Characteristics of Bureaucratic Organizations?
-Formal hierarchy distinguishes the level of authority within an organization.
-Management by rules and regulations provides a set of standard operating procedures.
-Division of labor & work specialization align employees with their organizational tasks.
-Managers maintain an impersonal relationship with employees.
-Competence, not personality, is the basis for job appointment.
-Formal written records document all rules, regulations, procedures, decisions and actions.
Classical scientific theorists spent their time researching what three things?
How a job was done, steps taken to complete the work, & amount of time it took.
The result of Classical scientific theorists research led to the development of what four principles of scientific management?
– Provide workers with a precise, scientific approach for how to complete tasks.
– Carefully choose and train each employee on one specific task.
– Communicate with employees to ensure the method is the most productive/efficient.
– Create the appropriate division of labor.
The application of the scientific management principles requires a great deal of what up front?
Henry Ford provides a good example of what, with his development of the assembly line?
Classical scientific management.
Who is known as the father of scientific management?
Who observed how the gross, almost deliberate, inefficiencies of workers led to low levels of productivity?
Frederick Taylor attributed that employees were underpaid, their potential was unused, and there was a great deal of waste and inefficiency of workers and work processes to what three things?
-Employees believed that if they were more productive, fewer jobs would be needed.
-They were paid the same for low productivity as they would be for high productivity.
-Workers wasted much of their time using less-than-optimal methods for completing work.
What is now known as scientific management, Frederick Taylor’s new approach advocated the use of what, to scrutinize individualized tasks of production work to find the most effective method?
What studies did Frederick Taylor use to determine how long it should take a person to complete a task when the correct movements were made?
Time and motion studies.
Frederick Taylor looked for ways to standardize what, so that each worker had the right one for the job?
Frederick Taylor believed that an employee’s effort towards reaching higher levels of productivity should be directly tied to what?
According to Frederick Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management, management should replace guidelines with what?
A precise, scientific approach for each task of a worker’s job.
According to Frederick Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management, management should do what for each worker according to the job they will hold for the company?
Recruit, select, train, and develop each worker according to the job they will hold.
According to Frederick Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management, there should be a level of cooperation between who, to be sure that jobs match plans and principle of the developed methods?
Staff and management.
According to Frederick Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management, managers should provide the appropriate division of labor and responsibility between managers and workers; that is, the managers were responsible for what, and the employees were responsible for what?
Managers planning the work, and the employees for following that plan.
What are Fayol’s 14 principles addressing the organization as a whole including both the work and the worker?
-Division of Work
-Unity of Command
-Unity of Direction
-Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest
-Stability of Tenure of Personnel
-Esprit de Corps
What principle refers to how close employees are to the decision-making process?
What is a term that refers to a direct chain of command in the military, ranking staff from the highest to the lowest level?
What term states managers should strive to minimize employee turnover. Personnel planning should be a priority?
Stability of Tenure of Personnel.
What term states employees should be given the necessary level of freedom to create and carry out plans?
The administrative school of management was founded on what six functions, or roles, of management?
Taylor did not focus on the human element. His scientific approach to work focused on building a better, stronger, faster and more productive team through what?
Fayol saw workers as humans possessing elements that required a more general approach to getting the work done. He saw it as a whole what?
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become increasingly skilled and efficient?
Division of Work.
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: Managers must have the authority to give orders, but they must also keep in mind that with authority comes responsibility?
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: Discipline must be upheld in organizations, but methods for doing so can vary?
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: Employees should have only one direct supervisor?
Unity of Command.
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager and using one plan?
Unity of Direction.
Which of Fayol’s 14 management principles sates: The interests of one employee should not be allowed to become more important than those of the group. This includes managers..?
Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest.
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were able to explore how what two studies could be used to identify the best possible way for a worker to complete a particular task?
Time and motion.
Scientific management concentrated on the productivity of who?
Administrative management focused on management processes and principles of what?
The entire organization.
Weber, Fayol, Follett, and Bernard researched and developed a broad spectrum of topics, including 7 things such as what?
-The philosophy of management
-Clarification of business terms and concepts relating to management
-Social responsibilities of management
-Functional responsibilities of management
-Leadership, power, and authority
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