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Principles of Marketing

INTRODUCTION    

According to Peter Drucker, “management theorist, explains that managers give direction to their organizations, provide leadership, and decide how to use organizational resources to accomplish goals” (Daft 8). Because of the notion that a manager is highly placed and powerful executive in a large company, some of us may think that management is practice only by such a ranking executive. In fact management is an essential factor in any organization, regardless of size and purpose. The principles of “management” do not hold for business enterprises alone, but are applicable as well as to all other organizations and groups be they sports or athletic, political, military, educational, and cultural.

Everyone considered himself as a manager. In a sole proprietorship, it would be the owner. In a big company, it would be the directors. Management is the function of planning, organizing, and directing the resources and activities of an enterprise for the attainment of its objectives with effectiveness and economy. The work of managements divisible into two aspects: organization and administration. Some writers identify the functions off management as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling while others lengthen this list by adding innovating, representing, coordinating, and communicating.

In management, there is no set of rules to be applied in prescribed manners for specific situations; there is no single “correct” solution to a management problem. Thus, managerial judgments and decisions may differ with different managers. Management is good when competent people are place as heads of the departments, when these men are responsible for and are in control of all activities and when they work as a team under the leadership of a strong executive.

Statement of the Problem

This research was conceptualized and constructed to identify the role and importance of management specifically in business and sports.

  1. What are business management and sports management?

1.1. History

1.2. Marketing

1.3. Career

  1. Why management is important in business and sports?
  2. How management is a factor of success in business and sport?

Related Literature  

What are business management and sports management?

People have engaged in business activities since the earliest beginnings of community existence. When early man produced more crops and or caught more game animals than he could consume and bartered the excess for something produced or caught by a neighbor, he was engaged in business. From its simple beginnings in the dim reaches of man’s prehistoric past, business grew and proliferated, because increasingly complex and comprehensive, until it came to dominate the overall culture of humanity.

Sport management “is the study and practice involved in relation to all people, activities, organizations, and businesses in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any product that is sport, fitness, and recreation related; and sport products can be goods, services, people, places, or ideas (Parkhouse 3). Sports management developed for centuries and it has been known as an academic pursuit. This course shares two basic elements “sport and business administration, or management” (Parkhouse 3).

History

Business is generated by activity and through the centuries, it has grown in complexity to provide for, as well as to cope with technological development. Modern technology is developing so fast that life today is different from few generations ago. Many developments which we take for granted today were unknown to the generations of pre-World War II. In their time they had no television, jet airplanes, computers, antibiotics, air conditioning, plastic goods, transistors radios, synthetic fibers, nor any of our instant food or beverage products. Today, a mere power failure in our electricity network is sufficient to disrupt and upset our daily activities.

There is much diversity in business, because business covers the whole range of human wants. There are very diverse functions, industries, structures, practices, and organizational units and businesses. All business enterprises involve people and deal with people. Every business is an organization, which may be simple or highly complex in structure. All are subject to public opinion, public acceptance, government regulation or supervision, taxation, and technological change. All business institutions have resources which are managed under the pressures of a money economy.

From an applied perspective, “sport management has been in existence for centuries” (Parkhouse 3). “Herod, king of Judaea, was honorary president of the eleventh century Olympics” (Parkhouse 2).  The Games was opened with superb ceremony and it was followed by athletic competition where thousand of viewers were entertained.  “According to Parks and Olafson (1987), given the magnitude of such events, their must have been purveyors of food and drink, promoters, purchasing agents, marketing personnel and management directors” (Parkhouse 2).

Both academic discipline and professional occupation was rise from sport management. According to Soucie and Doherty, it is the main source of income and a full-time job for a significant number of people. At present, the term practitioners signify these individuals and it includes all persons employed in the applied field of sport management.

Marketing     

Marketing “is the delivery of customer satisfaction at a profit” (Kotler 5). It is part of the function of marketing to take the goods from the producers and to perform the necessary functions to make them available to the consumers when he wants them. Marketing also developed a demand for goods which will satisfy the demand of the consumers.

In marketing of industrial, commercial and consumers’ goods, certain inescapable tasks must be performed. These task are called marketing functions. These functions are: buying, selling, transportation, storage, standardization, finance, risk-taking and the providing of market information.

In the foregoing classification, assembling refers to the bringing under one management of goods, which may then be sorted, graded, and sorted for current or later distribution. Wholesalers who gather products from hundreds of thousands of producers for resale to retailers perform the act of assembling.

In sport management, “sport marketing defined as the anticipation, management, and satisfaction of sport consumers’ wants and needs through the application of marketing principles and practice” (Parkhouse 229). Sport marketing begins with the consumers and it also ends with them. According to Daft, in order to have efficient and successful sports marketing, focus on the understanding of sports consumer and provide them necessary and appropriate products and services the will satisfy and meet their needs.

Career

Career “is the sequence of positions held by a person during his or her lifetime” (Robbins and Coulter 324). Many of us harbor and nurture the ambition of carving for ourselves a successful career in business. The field of modern business is vast and growing. While the largeness of the area makes the preparation for a career in business a task requiring talent and dedicated effort, the same vastness encourages us with the conviction that there should be room for those who are determined to succeed.

In sport management, “career refers to one’s progress from the first job to the final job before retirement” (Parkhouse 371). Several factors need to consider in making decisions about a job in sport management. Some of them are the following, objective factors such as “job description, organizational type, and geographical location” Parkhouse 371).

Information organization philosophy and policies; organizational type and size; task and activities are just some important factors to remember in job description. Organizational type is also important to know because in compasses the people within an organizations. Differences among organization are rampant and it must be given better classification in order to excel employees to their appropriate field of expertise.

Geographical location must also be considered in career management. According to Parkhouse, references in geographical locations may be based on the proximity of family and friends, or even health. It is very important to consider because as they will enhance one’s quality life. After all, “a job is only a tool to enjoy one’s life” (Parkhouse 371).

Why management is important in business and sports?

Good management actions are very important in both business and sport. One factor every businessman must always be aware of is the constant stream of changes sweeping through all facets of our life. These changes, particularly those generated by science and technology profoundly affect the business sphere.

The pace of development is accelerating, so much so that many new skills in new industries of business and in sport are being demanded, and flexibility in operations must be a goal in planning. Investment in sophisticated equipments, such as global passenger aircraft or computer systems, sports vehicles must be rapidly written off since technology keeps producing better models to replace quickly those which still have many years of serviceability.

A management is considered good when competent men are place as heads of the departments, when these men are responsible for and are control of all activities and when they work as a team under the leadership of a strong executive.

Management is also good when changes in business or in sport activities could be affected on short notice.

For example, there were many companies in the United States during second World War, which on short notice, had to liquidate their normal business and convert to a new war products and quite frequently on a scale many times greater than the former production.

The above mentioned effective changes were the result of intelligent planning, capable performance, and fine teamwork in other words, good management.

How management is a factor of success in business and sport?

Management is said to be successful when it makes industry efficient, and this efficiency is measured concretely in terms of quality and quantity of products produced with the minimum efforts at the least possible cost.

Many of John D. Rockfeller’s competitors went out to business not because his oil was better than theirs. Many competitors of Mr. Henry Ford have gone out of business not necessarily because the Ford car was better than theirs. These businessmen became successful not only because of their product but also because of their skills in good management.

In any products or services in both business and sport, it was not money alone, neither was it opportunity, nor industry, nor brain. Better management is the secret of the financial success of thousands businessmen and sport managers. Both successful businessmen and sport managers are better organizers as they know how to combine money and opportunity and brains to bring about successful results.

Conclusions

People go into business or sport for a variety of reasons. They may go into business as owners and employers or as employee. The decision to go into business and not into some other activity as the priesthood or medicine or law, may be the result of conscious thought and deliberate preparation over a period of years. Also it may be due to the fact that a person finds no easier or more satisfactory of earning and living.

Whether a person goes into business as an employer or employee, he faces the hazards of loss and other problems inherent in the conduct of business. Both owner and employee need essentially the same personal characteristics that are required to succeed. Both also enjoy certain values which are derived when people go into business.

“Physical education and athletic programs have different purposes” (Rao 3). Sport is important in once life growth and development. It provides opportunities in both sport and business. The unique learning opportunities in sport could be applied also in business through good and efficient management.

The history of business and sport management is almost the same in the process of development. Rapid changes in environment and technologies affect the development of both business and sport management. In the field of marketing though business management and sport management has its own strategies in promoting their products and services they have the same objective to satisfy their consumer. In terms of career management, both have something to do with products, services, and organizations. The objective of business and sport management still correlate with good and efficient management to hit the goal of satisfying the consumer.

The major factor of motivation for going into business and sport is profit. Individuals enter into these activities because of a reward for their toiling in the form of monetary benefits. Aside from this returns must be realized by their productive assets so as to maintain a satisfactory level of productive assets so as to maintain a satisfactory level of productive operations.

Work Cited   

Daft, Richard. Management. 4th ed. Philadelphia: The Dryden Press, 1997.

Kotler, Philip. Principles of Marketing. 9th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2001.

Parkhouse, Bonnie L. The Management of Sport: Its Foundation and Application. 4th ed.

            Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Rao, V.K. Sports Education. New Delhi: APH Pub., 2006.

Robbins, Stephen, and Coulter, Mary. Management

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. 7th ed. New Jersey: Pearson

            Educational, 2002.

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