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391-FIX-100-2

Many people are familiar with SWOT analysis—analyzing Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats—which is used to aid in ____.
a.project initiation
c.strategic planning
b.project planning
d.strategic initiation.
C
The ____ step in the planning process is to tie the information technology strategic plan to the organization’s overall strategic plan.
a.first
c.third
b.second
d.fourth.
A
In the ____ information technology planning stage, the analysis outlines business processes that are central to achieving strategic goals and helps determine which ones could most benefit from information technology.
a.Project Planning
b.Business Area Analysis
c.Resource Allocation
d.Information Technology Strategy Planning.
B
In the ____ stage, organizations tie information technology strategy to mission and vision of organization and identify key business areas.
a.Project Planning
b.Business Area Analysis
c.Resource Allocation
d.Information Technology Strategy Planning.
D
In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations define project scope, benefits, and constraints.
a.Project Planning
b.Business Area Analysis
c.Resource Allocation
d.Information Technology Strategy Planning.
A
.In the ____ stage of selecting information technology projects, organizations select information technology projects.
a.Project Planning
b.Business Area Analysis
c.Resource Allocation
d.Information Technology Strategy Planning.
C
.Research shows that ____ is the number one reason cited for why organizations invest in information technology projects.
a.providing financial incentives
b.supporting implicit business objectives
c.supporting explicit business objectives
d.keeping abreast of technological advances.
C
.Author ____, who developed the concept of the strategic value of competitive advantage, has written several books and articles on strategic planning and competition.
a.James Bacon
c.Robert Cooper
b.Michael Porter
d.Carol Matlack.
B
.Projects that address ____ are much more likely to be successful because they will be important to the organization.
a.a balanced scorecard
c.broad organizational needs
b.a weighted scoring model
d.net present value.
C
.One method for selecting projects based on ____ is to determine whether they first meet three important criteria: need, funding, and will.
a.broad organizational needs
b.using a weighted scoring model
c.implementing a balanced scorecard
d.categorizing information technology projects.
A
.____ are new requirements imposed by management, government, or some external influence.
a.Opportunities
c.Problems
b.Commands
d.Directives.
D
.____ analysis is a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in time.
a.Cost of capital
c.Cash flow
b.Net present value
d.Payback.
B
.The first step in determining the NPV is to ____.
a.determine the estimated costs and benefits for the life of the project and the products it produces
b.determine the discount rate
c.calculate the net present value
d.determine the cash flow.
A
.In the mathematical formula for determining the NPV, the variable n is ____.
a.the year of the cash flow
c.the amount of cash flow each year
b.the last year of the cash flow
d.the discount rate.
B
.The ____ is the minimum acceptable rate of return on an investment.
a.return on investment
c.external rate of return
b.internal rate of return
d.required rate of return.
D
.You can determine a project’s ____ by finding what discount rate results in an NPV of zero for the project.
a.internal rate of return (IRR)
c.payback period
b.required rate of return
d.return on investment (ROI).
A
.In a weighted scoring model, the sum of all of the criteria’s weights must total ____ percent.
a.0
c.100
b.50
d.150.
C
.A(n) ____ is a methodology that converts an organization’s value drivers, such as customer service, innovation, operational efficiency, and financial performance, to a series of defined metrics.
a.payback analysis
c.weighted scoring model
b.balanced scorecard
d.net present value analysis.
B
. A(n) ____ is a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project’s objectives and management.
a.balanced scorecard
c.net present value analysis
b.business case
d.project charter.
D
.A(n) ____ is a document that describes the products or services to be created by the project team.
a.contract
c.project charter
b.statement of work
d.business case.
B
.____ support contributes the most to successful information technology projects.
a.Stakeholder
c.Executive
b.Team
d.User.
C
.A(n) ____ is a document used to coordinate all project planning documents and help guide a project’s execution and control.
a.project management plan
c.scope statement
b.statement of work
d.contact.
A
.The ____ section of the project plan should describe the major project functions and activities and identify those individuals who are responsible for them.
a.organizational charts
b.other organizational or process-related information
c.project responsibilities
d.management objectives.
C
.The ____ section of the project management plan describes how to monitor project progress and handle changes.
a.management objectives
c.risk management
b.project controls
d.technical processes.
B
.The ____ section of the project management plan describes specific methodologies a project might use and explains how to document information.
a.management objectives
c.risk management
b.project controls
d.technical processes.
D
.The project schedule information section of the project management plan might include ____.
a.a detailed budget
c.a detailed schedule
b.key deliverables
d.project staffing.
C
.The majority of time on a project is usually spent on ____, as is most of the project’s budget.
a.execution
c.closing
b.planning
d.monitoring and controlling.
A
.Most systems analysts begin their careers as ____.
a.database administrators
c.project managers
b.CEOs
d.programmers.
D
.On large projects, many project managers say that ____ percent of the job is communicating and managing changes.
a.50
c.90
b.70
d.100.
C
.____ should result in improvements in project performance.
a.Corrective actions
c.Preventive actions
b.Corrective reports
d.Proactive methods.
A
.____ provide information on how project execution is going.
a.Performance reports
c.Deliverables
b.Change requests
d.Contracts.
A
.Which of the following is an important input to the integrated change control process?
a.Deliverables
b.Work performance information
c.Approved and rejected change requests
d.Approved and validated defect repair.
B
.A(n) ____ is a formal, documented process that describes when and how official project documents may be changed.
a.integrated change control
c.performance report
b.change request
d.change control system.
D
.A(n) ____ is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes to a project.
a.CCA
c.CCC
b.CCB
d.CCD.
B
.____ ensures that the descriptions of the project’s products are correct and complete.
a.CCB
c.Configuration management
b.Correction management
d.Product description management.
C
.____ tools track the execution of business process flows and expose how the state of supporting IT systems and resources is impacting end-to-end business process performance in real time.
a.BSM
c.CCA
b.CCB
d.BSC.
A
The term ____ describes a product produced as part of a project.
a.end-product
c.deliverable
b.scope
d.outcome.
C
There are ____ main processes involved in project scope management.
a.three
c.five
b.four
d.six.
C
____ involves defining and documenting the features and functions of the products produced during the project as well as the processes used for creating them.
a.Collecting requirements
c.Controlling scope
b.Defining scope
d.Verifying scope.
A
____ involves reviewing the project charter, requirements documents, and organizational process assets to create a scope statement, adding more information as requirements are developed and change requests are approved.
a.Planning scope
c.Controlling scope
b.Defining scope
d.Verifying scope.
B
____ involves formalizing acceptance of the project deliverables and during this phase the key project stakeholders, such as the customer and sponsor for the project, inspect and then formally accept the deliverables during this process.
a.Planning scope
c.Controlling scope
b.Defining scope
d.Verifying scope.
D
The main outputs of ____ are accepted deliverables and change requests.
a.planning scope
c.defining scope
b.controlling scope
d.verifying scope.
D
____ involves controlling changes to project scope throughout the life of the project, which is a challenge on many information technology projects.
a.Planning scope
c.Controlling scope
b.Defining scope
d.Verifying scope.
C
Good ____ is very important to project success because it helps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimates, it defines a baseline for performance measurement and project control, and it aides in communicating clear work responsibilities.
a.scope planning
c.scope definition
b.scope management
d.scope verification.
C
An up-to-date ____ is an important document for developing and confirming a common understanding of the project scope.
a.scope management plan
c.WBS
b.project scope statement
d.decomposition.
B
.Of the following constraints, it is most difficult to describe, agree upon, and meet the ____ goal of many projects.
a.scope
c.cost
b.time
d.technical.
A
.A(n) ____ is a deliverable-oriented grouping of the work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project.
a.project charter
c.project scope statement
b.business case
d.work breakdown structure.
D
.In the WBS, the name of the entire project is the top box, called Level ____.
a.0
c.2
b.1
d.3.
B
.In the WBS, the main groupings for the work are listed in Level ____.
a.0
c.2
b.1
d.3.
C
.Many people confuse tasks on a WBS with ____.
a.goals
c.responsibilities
b.objectives
d.specifications.
D
.The ____ tasks vary the most from project to project.
a.closing
c.planning
b.monitoring and controlling
d.executing.
D
.The ____ should list and describe all of the deliverables required for the project.
a.project charter
c.WBS
b.scope statement
d.Gantt chart.
B
.In the ____, you use a similar project’s WBS as a starting point.
a.top-down approach
c.mind-mapping approach
b.bottom-up approach
d.analogy approach.
D
.The ____ approach involves refining the work into greater and greater levels of detail.
a.analogy
c.top-down
b.bottom-up
d.mind mapping.
C
.The ____ approach is best suited to project managers who have vast technical insight and a big-picture perspective.
a.analogy
c.top-down
b.bottom-up
d.mind mapping.
C
.Project managers often use the ____ approach for projects that represent entirely new systems or approaches to doing a job, or to help create buy-in and synergy with a project team.
a.analogy
c.top-down
b.bottom-up
d.mind mapping.
B
.After discovering WBS items and structure using the ____ technique, you could then translate the information into chart or tabular form.
a.analogy
c.top-down
b.bottom-up
d.mind mapping.
D
.____ involves formal acceptance of the completed project scope by the stakeholders.
a.Scope verification
c.Scope control
b.Scope planning
d.Scope definition.
A
.The goal of ____ is to influence the factors that cause scope changes, assure changes are processed according to procedures developed as part of integrated change control, and manage changes when they occur.
a.scope verification
c.scope planning
b.scope control
d.scope definition.
B
.____ is a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them.
a.Prototyping
c.RAD
b.JAD
d.Use case modeling.
D
. ____ uses highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders—the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on—to jointly define and design information systems.
a.Prototyping
c.RAD
b.JAD
d.Use case modeling.
B
There are ____ main processes involved in project time management.
a.two
c.six
b.four
d.ten.
C
____ involves identifying the specific activities that the project team members and stakeholders must perform to produce the project deliverables.
a.Defining activities
c.Estimating activity resources
b.Sequencing activities
d.Estimating activity durations.
A
The main outputs of the ____ process are an activity list, activity attributes, milestone list, and requested changes.
a.defining activities
c.resource estimating activities
b.sequencing activities
d.duration estimating activities.
A
____ involves identifying and documenting the relationships between project activities.
a.Defining activities
c.Estimating activity resources
b.Sequencing activities
d.Estimating activity durations.
B
____ involves estimating the number of work periods that are needed to complete individual activities.
a.Defining activities
c.Estimating activity resources
b.Sequencing activities
d.Estimating activity durations.
D
____ involves analyzing activity sequences, activity resource estimates, and activity duration estimates to create the project schedule.
a.Estimating activity durations
c.Controlling the schedule
b.Developing the schedule
d.Estimating activity resources.
B
____ involves controlling and managing changes to the project schedule.
a.Estimating activity durations
c.Controlling the schedule
b.Developing the schedule
d.Estimating activity resources.
C
Outputs from ____ include performance measurements, organizational process assets updates, change requests, project management plan updates, and project document updates.
a.estimating activity durations
c.controlling the schedule
b.developing schedules
d.estimating activity resources.
C
The ____ provide(s) schedule-related information about each activity, such as predecessors, successors, logical relationships, leads and lags, resource requirements, constraints, imposed dates, and assumptions related to the activity.
a.activity list
c.activity descriptions
b.milestones
d.activity attributes.
D
.The goal of ____ is to ensure that the project team has complete understanding of all the work they must do as part of the project scope so they can start scheduling the work.
a.defining activities
c.estimating activity resources
b.sequencing activities
d.estimating activity durations.
A
.____ results in supporting detail to document important product information as well as assumptions and constraints related to specific activities.
a.Defining activities
c.Estimating activity resources
b.Sequencing activities
d.Estimating activity duration.
A
.____ involves evaluating the reasons for dependencies and the different types of dependencies.
a.Defining activities
c.Estimating activity resources
b.Sequencing activities
d.Estimating activity duration.
B
.____ dependencies are inherent in the nature of the work being performed on a project.
a.Mandatory
c.External
b.Discretionary
d.Internal.
A
.____ dependencies are sometimes referred to as soft logic and should be used with care since they may limit later scheduling options.
a.Mandatory
c.External
b.Discretionary
d.Internal.
B
.____ dependencies involve relationships between project and non-project activities.
a.Mandatory
c.External
b.Discretionary
d.Internal.
C
.____ occur when two or more activities follow a single node.
a.Combinations
c.Merges
b.Conflicts
d.Bursts.
D
.On a network diagram, all arrowheads should face toward the ____.
a.top
c.right
b.left
d.bottom.
C
.The ____ is a network diagramming technique in which boxes represent activities.
a.PDM
c.ADM
b.AOA
d.POA.
A
.In a ____ relationship, the “from” activity must finish before the “to” activity can start.
a.start-to-start
c.finish-to-finish
b.finish-to-start
d.start-to-finish.
B
.In a ____ relationship, the “from” activity cannot start until the “to” activity is started.
a.start-to-start
c.finish-to-finish
b.finish-to-start
d.start-to-finish.
A
.In a ____ relationship, one task cannot finish before another finishes.
a.start-to-start
c.finish-to-finish
b.finish-to-start
d.start-to-finish.
C
.A ____ is a hierarchical structure that identifies the project’s resources by category and type.
a.work breakdown structure
c.network diagram
b.resource breakdown structure
d.critical path analysis.
B
.The activity list, activity attributes, activity resource requirements, resource calendars, project scope statement, enterprise environmental factors, and organizational process assets all include information that affect ____.
a.definitions
c.resource estimates
b.sequences
d.duration estimates.
D
.The ultimate goal of ____ is to create a realistic project schedule that provides a basis for monitoring project progress for the time dimension of the project.
a.defining activities
c.developing the schedule
b.sequencing activities
d.estimating activity duration.
C
.____ provide(s) a standard format for displaying project schedule information by listing project activities and their corresponding start and finish dates in a calendar format.
a.Gantt charts
c.Critical chain scheduling
b.Critical path analysis
d.PERT analysis.
A
.____ is a network diagramming technique used to predict total project duration.
a.A Gantt chart
c.Critical chain scheduling
b.Critical path analysis
d.PERT analysis.
B
.The critical path is the ____ path through a network diagram, and it represents the ____ time it takes to complete a project.
a.longest; longest
c.shortest; longest
b.longest; shortest
d.shortest; shortest.
B
.____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of any immediately following activities.
a.Total slack
c.Free time
b.Total float
d.Free slack.
D
.____ is the amount of time an activity can be delayed from its early start without delaying the planned project finish date.
a.Total slack
c.Total time
b.Free float
d.Free slack.
A
.The ____ for an activity is the latest possible time an activity might begin without delaying the project finish date.
a.early entry date
c.late start date
b.late entry date
d.early start date.
C
.____ is a technique for making cost and schedule trade-offs to obtain the greatest amount of schedule compression for the least incremental cost.
a.Crushing
c.Fast tracking
b.Crashing
d.Expediting.
B
.____ involves doing activities in parallel that you would normally do in sequence.
a.Crushing
c.Fast tracking
b.Crashing
d.Expediting.
C
.____ is a method of scheduling that considers limited resources when creating a project schedule and includes buffers to protect the project completion date.
a.A Gantt chart
c.Critical chain scheduling
b.Critical path analysis
d.PERT analysis.
C
.Critical chain scheduling protects tasks on the critical chain from being delayed by using ____, which consist of additional time added before tasks on the critical chain that are preceded by non-critical-path tasks.
a.critical paths
c.dummy activities
b.feeding buffers
d.fast tracking.
B
.____ states that work expands to fill the time allowed.
a.Murphy’s Law
c.Parkinson’s Law
b.Newton’s Law
d.Moore’s Law.
C
.____ use(s) probabilistic time estimates—duration estimates based on using optimistic, most likely, and pessimistic estimates of activity durations—instead of one specific or discrete duration estimate.
a.Critical Path Analysis
c.Critical Chain Scheduling
b.Gantt charts
d.PERT.
D
.The goal of ____ is to know the status of the schedule, influence the factors that cause schedule changes, determine that the schedule has changed, and manage changes when they occur.
a.activity duration estimating
c.schedule control
b.schedule development
d.activity resource estimating.
C
.Project managers often illustrate progress with a ____ showing key deliverables and activities.
a.Tracking Gantt chart
c.network diagram
b.Gantt chart
d.PERT chart.
A
.Project managers must use discipline to control ____.
a.project bursts
c.project critical paths
b.project schedules
d.project dependencies.
B

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