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6.3 Big Business and Labor

Andrew Carnegie
Son of a poor family that became one of the first industrial moguls to make his own fortune; Carnegie Steel
Carnegie’s Strategies
1. continually searched for ways to make better products more cheapy
2. hired talented people by offering stock and benefits; encouraged competition
*tryed to control the whole steel industry
vertical integration
process in which the suppliers are bought out in order to control the raw materials and transportation system
horizontal integration
buying out or merging all companies that produce similar products
social darwinism
theory that some individuals of a species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others so not. also explains how the process of “natual selection” weeded out less-suited individuals and enabled the best-adapted to survive
Charles Darwin
Philospher who came up with the theory of social darwinism and wrote the book On the Origin of Species
On the Origin of Species
Charles Darwin’s book that explained the theory of social darwinism
Herbert Spencer
english philosopher who used Darwin’s biological theories to explain the evolution of human society
laissez faire
“allow to do” doctrine that states that the marketplace should not be regulated by the federal government
William G. Sumner
Yale professor that promoted the theory of laissez faire and that success and failure in business were governed by natural law and that no one had the right to intervene
monopoly
when a firm buys out all its competitors to achieve complete control over its industry’s production, wages, and prices
J.P. Morgan
head banker of United States Steel that was one of the most successful holding companies
United States Steel
one of the most successful holding companies
Carnegie Steel
Steel company created by Andrew Carnegie. Produced the largest portion of the nation’s steel
John D. Rockefeller
Established Standard Ol of Ohio. He joined competing companies in trust greements
Trustees
people that ran the separate companies as one large corporation
Standard Oil of Ohio
oil company established by John D. Rockefeller which used trust to gain total control of the oil industry in america
Robber Barons
people who used the tactic of paying employees low wages and driving out competitors by selling product at a lower price than it cost to produce. Then, when the market was controlled, hiking up prices; Rockefeller
philanthropists
giving away money for a good cause
Rockefeller Foundation
establishment that provided funds to found the University of Chicago, and created a medical institute that helped cure yellow fever
Sherman Antitrust Act
made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with free trade between states or with other countries
captial
money for investments
sweatshops
A factory or workshop, esp. in the clothing industry, where manual workers are employed at very low wages for long hours and under poor conditions
Jacob Riis
Personal voice of the sweatshops
National Labor Union
first large scale labor union
William H. Sylvis
formed the National Labor Union
Colored National Labor Union
group of african american laborers that were not allowed to join the National Labor Union
Uriah Stephens
founded the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
Noble Order of the Knights of Labor
“an injury to one is the concern of all.” supported equal pay and equal work for all. saw strikes, or refusals to work, as a last resort
strikes
refusals to work
Samuel Gompers
President of the American Federation of Labor. Also led the Cigar Makers’ International Union to join with other craft unions
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
focused on collective bargaining, or negotiation between representatives of labor and management, to reach written agreements on wages, hours, and working conditions. Used strikes as a major tactic
Eugene V. Debs
felt unions should include all laborers; American Railway Union (ARU)
American Railway Union
Union formed of unskilled AND skilled workers
Socialism
economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth
Karl Marx
communist German philosopher
Industrial Workers of the Work/Wobblies
Radical unionists and socialists group that formed to try to achieve better conditions for workers
William “Big Bill” Haywood
Head of the Wobblies
Great Strike of 1877
workers of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad struck to protest their second wage cut in two months. Thw work stoppage spread to other lines. After state governors asked President Rutherford B. Hayes to intervene, saying that the strikers were impeding interstate commerce, federal troops ended the strike
Haymarket Affair
People gathered at Chicago’s Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. Bomb was thrown at police line and police fired at workers (caused public to turn against the labor movement)
Carnegie Steel Homestead Plant
steel plant created by Carnegie that produced most of the United States Steel
Henry Clay Frick
President of Carnegie Steel Company’s Homestead plant
Pinkerton Detective Agency
Hired by Frick to protect the steel plant
Pullman Strike
company laid off many employees and cut wages of the rest. strike was called in the spring of 1894
Panick of 1893
closing and bankcrupcy of many businesses caused by the economy
arbitration
negotiation with strikers
boycott
to refuse to use of by a product from a certain business
strikebreakers
people hired to replace strikers
blacklist
list of people that other employeers could see so that they could never agian get railroad jobs
Mary Harris Jones
prominent organizer in the women’s labor movement. organized the United Mine Workers of America
United Mine Workers of American
formed by Jones for rights of miners
Pauline Newman
first female organizer of the International Ladies’ Garment Worker’s Union, also supported “Uprising of the 20,000” because she was a former garment worker and the strike won labor agreements for strikers
Internationa Ladies Garment Workers’ Union
formed by Pauline Newman. labor union for garment workers’
“uprising of 20,000”
strike that won labor agreements and improved working conditions for some strikers
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
fire at a garment factory. The fire spread through oil-soaked machines engulfing the 8th-9th-10th floors. When workers tried to flee, all doors were locked but one. The door that was unlocked was blocked by fire. 146 women died
“yellow-dog contracts”
in attempt to keep workers from rebelling, employeers had to start sign contracts saying that they wouldn’t strike, picket line, or boycott

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