logo image

621 Chapter 2

Many of the theories and concepts of project management are difficult to understand.
a. True
*b. False
If project managers lead projects in isolation, it is unlikely that those projects will ever truly serve the needs of the organization.
*a. True
b. False
Using a systems approach is critical to successful project management.
*a. True
b. False
Few business and information technology students understand the concepts of systems and performing a systems analysis.
a. True
*b. False
Although it is easier to focus on the immediate and sometimes narrow concerns of a particular project, project managers and other staff must keep in mind the effects of any project on the interests and needs of the entire system or organization.
*a. True
b. False
When you separate business and organizational issues from project management planning, you do a better job of ensuring project success.
a. True
*b. False
Organizational issues are often the least difficult part of working on and managing projects.
a. True
*b. False
According to the symbolic frame, what is most important about any event in an organization is what actually happened.
a. True
*b. False
Most colleges and universities have very strong functional organizations.
*a. True
b. False
An organization that uses a project organizational structure earns their revenue primarily from performing projects for other groups under contract.
*a. True
b. False
Project managers in matrix organizations have staff from various functional areas working on their projects.
*a. True
b. False
Assigning staff part-time to the project often creates underutilization and/or misallocation of staff resources.
a. True
*b. False
Project organizations may miss economies of scale available through the pooling of requests for materials with other projects.
*a. True
b. False
The same organization can have different subcultures.
*a. True
b. False
An organizational culture with strong unit integration makes the project manager’s job more difficult.
a. True
*b. False
External project stakeholders generally include the project sponsor, project team, support staff, and internal customers for the project.
a. True
*b. False
Technical and analytical skills guarantee success in project management.
a. True
*b. False
The best way to kill a project is to withhold the required money, human resources, and visibility for the project.
*a. True
b. False
If project managers have functional management commitment, they will also have adequate resources and not be distracted by events that do not affect their specific projects.
a. True
*b. False
If a project manager does not submit a potential project in the proper format, it could be rejected.
*a. True
b. False
It is much more expensive to make major changes to a project during earlier phases.
a. True
*b. False
Most IT projects involve a major amount of software development.
a. True
*b. False
The Adaptive Software Development (ASD) life cycle model assumes that software development follows an adaptive approach because the requirements cannot be clearly expressed early in the life cycle.
*a. True
b. False
Since the organization usually commits more money as a project continues, a management review should occur after each phase to evaluate progress, potential success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals.
*a. True
b. False
The nature of hardware development projects is more diverse than software-oriented projects.
a. True
*b. False
Within the category of programmer, there are several job titles used to describe the specific technologies the programmer uses, such as project manager programmer, systems analyst programmer, macro developer, and so on.
a. True
*b. False
It is rare for technical specialists or project managers to remain with the same company for a long time.
*a. True
b. False
Because of the nature of information technology projects, the people involved come from very similar backgrounds and possess similar skill sets.
a. True
*b. False
Because of overlaps in their duties, hardware specialists usually understand the language of database analysts, and vice versa.
a. True
*b. False
COBOL programmers cannot be of much help on a Java project.
*a. True
b. False
____ describes a holistic view of carrying out projects within the context of the organization.
a. Systems philosophy
b. Systems thinking
c. Systems analysis
d. Systems approach
*b. Systems thinking
The term “systems approach” emerged in the ____.
a. 1940s
b. 1950s
c. 1960s
d. 1970s
*b. 1950s
____ is a problem-solving approach that requires defining the scope of the system, dividing it into its components, and then identifying and evaluating its problems, opportunities, constraints, and needs.
a. Systems philosophy
b. Systems management
c. Systems troubleshooting
d. Systems analysis
*d. Systems analysis
The ____ focuses on different groups’ roles and responsibilities in order to meet the goals and policies set by top management.
a. structural frame
b. human resources frame
c. political frame
d. symbolic frame
*a. structural frame
The ____ focuses on producing harmony between the needs of the organization and the needs of the people.
a. structural frame
b. human resources frame
c. political frame
d. symbolic frame
*b. human resources frame
The ____ assumes that organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups.
a. political frame
b. symbolic frame
c. structural frame
d. human resources frame
*a. political frame
A ____ is the hierarchy most people think of when picturing an organizational chart.
a. project organizational structure
b. system organizational structure
c. matrix organizational structure
d. functional organizational structure
*d. functional organizational structure
In a ____, program managers report to the CEO.
a. project organizational structure
b. system organizational structure
c. matrix organizational structure
d. functional organizational structure
*a. project organizational structure
In a ____, personnel often report to both a functional manager and one or more project managers.
a. project organizational structure
b. system organizational structure
c. matrix organizational structure
d. functional organizational structure
*c. matrix organizational structure
Project managers have the most authority in a pure ____.
a. functional organizational structure
b. project organizational structure
c. matrix organizational structure
d. circular organizational structure
*b. project organizational structure
Project managers have the least amount of authority in a pure ____.
a. functional organizational structure
b. project organizational structure
c. matrix organizational structure
d. circular organizational structure
*a. functional organizational structure
In a ____ matrix organizational structure, the project manager controls the project budget and has moderate to high authority.
a. weak
b. balanced
c. strong
d. functional
*c. strong
____ is a set of shared assumptions, values, and behaviors that characterize the functioning of an organization.
a. Organizational politics
b. Organizational philosophy
c. Organizational culture
d. Organizational structure
*c. Organizational culture
The ____ characteristic of organizational culture describes the degree to which management’s decisions take into account the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
a. member identity
b. group emphasis
c. people focus
d. unit integration
*c. people focus
____ refers to the degree to which the organization monitors and responds to changes in the external environment.
a. Means-ends orientation
b. Open-systems focus
c. Conflict tolerance
d. Risk tolerance
*b. Open-systems focus
Many companies have realized that information technology is integral to their business and have created a vice president or equivalent-level position for the head of information technology, often called the ____.
a. CPO
b. CFO
c. CEO
d. CIO
*d. CIO
A ____ is a collection of project phases.
a. project life cycle
b. project feasibility
c. project planning cycle
d. project acquisition
*a. project life cycle
In early phases of a project life cycle, resource needs are usually ____ and the level of uncertainty is ____.
a. lowest; highest
b. high; lowest
c. lowest; lowest
d. highest; highest
*a. lowest; highest
A preliminary or rough cost estimate is developed in the ____ phase, and an overview of the work involved is created.
a. implementation
b. development
c. concept
d. close-out
*c. concept
In the ____ phase, the project team creates more detailed project plans, a more accurate cost estimate, and a more thorough WBS.
a. development
b. implementation
c. concept
d. close-out
*a. development
In the ____ phase, the project team creates a definitive or very accurate cost estimate, delivers the required work, and provides performance reports to stakeholders.
a. development
b. implementation
c. concept
d. close-out
*b. implementation
The ____ model assumes that requirements will remain stable after they are defined.
a. spiral life cycle
b. waterfall life cycle
c. prototyping life cycle
d. RAD life cycle
*b. waterfall life cycle
The ____ model provides for progressive development of operational software, with each release providing added capabilities.
a. spiral life cycle
b. RAD life cycle
c. waterfall life cycle
d. incremental build life cycle
*d. incremental build life cycle
The ____ model requires heavy user involvement, and developers use a model to generate functional requirements and physical design specifications simultaneously.
a. RAD life cycle
b. prototyping life cycle
c. spiral life cycle
d. incremental build life cycle
*b. prototyping life cycle
The ____ model uses an approach in which developers work with an evolving prototype.
a. incremental build life cycle
b. waterfall life cycle
c. RAD life cycle
d. spiral life cycle
*c. RAD life cycle
Most trade schools, colleges, and universities did not start offering degrees in computer technology, computer science, management information systems, or other information technology areas until the ____.
a. 1950s
b. 1970s
c. 1980s
d. 1990s
*b. 1970s
To handle complex situations effectively, project managers need to take a(n) ____________________ view of a project and understand how it relates to the larger organization.
Correct Answer(s):
a. holistic
A(n) ____________________ is an overall model for thinking about things as systems.
Correct Answer(s):
a. systems philosophy
____________________ are sets of interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Systems
____________________ addresses the business, technological, and organizational issues associated with creating, maintaining, and making a change to a system.
Correct Answer(s):
a. Systems management
The three spheres of systems management are business, organization, and ____________________.
Correct Answer(s):
a. technology
The ____________________ is usually depicted in an organizational chart.
Correct Answer(s):
a. structural frame
The ____________________ focuses on symbols and meanings.
Correct Answer(s):
a. symbolic frame
Three general classifications of organizational structures are ____________________, project, and matrix.
Correct Answer(s):
a. functional
In a(n) ____________________ organizational structure, project managers have little or no authority.
Correct Answer(s):
a. functional
When project managers use a(n) ____________________, they are better able to make decisions that address the needs of the entire organization.
Correct Answer(s):
a. systems approach
Experienced project managers know it is often best to balance the degree of ____________________ to get good project results.
Correct Answer(s):
a. control
Some projects have a senior manager called a(n) ____________________ who acts as a key proponent for a project.
Correct Answer(s):
a. champion
A major element of good practice concerns ____________________, which addresses the authority and control for key IT activities in organizations, including IT infrastructure, IT use, and project management.
Correct Answer(s):
a. IT governance
A(n) ____________________ is a product or service, such as a report, a training session, a piece of hardware, or a segment of software code, produced or provided as part of a project.
Correct Answer(s):
a. deliverable
In the ____________________ phase, there should be some sort of customer acceptance of the entire project.
Correct Answer(s):
a. close-out
b. closeout
Understanding the ____________________ is just as important to good project management as understanding the phases of the traditional project life cycle.
Correct Answer(s):
a. product life cycle
A(n) ________________________________________ is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing information systems.
Correct Answer(s):
a. SDLC
b. systems development life cycle
c. systems development life cycle (SDLC)
The term ______________________________ has become popular to describe new approaches that focus on close collaboration between programming teams and business experts.
Correct Answer(s):
a. agile software development
Management reviews, called phase exits or ____________________, are very important for keeping projects on track and determining if they should be continued, redirected, or terminated.
Correct Answer(s):
a. kill points
A(n) ______________________________ is a group of senior executives from various parts of the organization, who regularly review important corporate projects and issues.
Correct Answer(s):
a. executive steering committee

Need essay sample on "621 Chapter 2"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
×
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
|
Complete Buyer Protection
|
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy