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ALPHAPA13

This in the broadest possible terms as anything that places an adjustive demand on an organism
Stress
During this stage, the heart pounds, the pulse races, breathing quickens, the muscles tense, and digestion is inhibited. General adaptation syndrome (GAS) to describe how stress, on the biological level, can incapacitate an individual. The GAS encompasses three stages of physiological reaction to a wide variety of stressors: These three stages are:
Alarm stage, sometimes referred to as an emergency reaction.
Exemplified on the animal level by the so-called fight-or-flight syndrome

1. Alarm (fight or flight)
2. .Resistance (adaptation is optimal. seems to have handled the stress successfully)
3. Exhaustion (body no longer able to maintain resistance)

Changes to the body at the Alarm Stage include:
• Heart rate increase. Blood flow increases to heart, lungs, and large muscles.
• Blood pressure increase. Perspiration, especially to palms.
• Large muscle groups tense. Large muscle groups tense.
• Digestive secretions slow. Adrenaline rush.
• Dry mouth due to saliva decrease. Increase blood sugar.
• Bowel activity decreases. Hypervigilance.
• Extremities become cool. Pupils dilate.
• Sphincters tighten. Increased hearing acuity.
• More white blood cells enter the bloodstream. Increased blood clotting.
• Cholesterol remains in the blood longer. Increased metabolism.
• Dilation of the lung passages and increased respiration.
During this stage, bodily resources are mobilized to deal with the specific stressors, and adaptation is optimal.
the resistance stage
During this stage, the body reaches a point where it is no longer capable of maintaining resistance.
Exhaustion stage.
During this stage, Hormonal defenses break down, and many emotional reactions that appeared during the alarm stage may reappear, often in intensified form
Exhaustion stage.
True or False?
There is considerable agreement that some types of stress can worsen the symptoms of almost any condition, but recent medical research suggests there is little evidence that stress is the exclusive or the principal cause of any disease.
True
Particularly for women, Engel found that the most common trigger for sudden death was: (2)
major loss of a spouse or self-esteem
For men, sudden danger more often was a trigger
Nine (9) characteristics of a Type A Personality are:
• Under constant stress, much of which is self-generated.
• Continuous pressure to accomplish.
• Hostile and demanding.
• Always in a hurry; sense of time urgency.
• Continuing impatience.
• Intense and ambitious.
• Believes time should be used “constructively”.
• Has difficulty relaxing and feels guilty when not working.
• Compelled to challenge, and not understand, another type A personality.
The qualities underlying type A characteristics include the following: (4)
1. Constant state of being “on guard”.
2. Hypermasculinity.
3. Constantly working against time.
4. Lack of insight into one’s own psychological needs.
The physiological implications of having a Type A Personality are as follows: (4)
1. Seven times as likely to develop heart disease.
2. Higher cholesterol and triglyceride (blood fat) levels (sudden stress increases triglyceride; prolonged stress increases cholesterol).
3. Clotting elements have greater tendency to form within coronary arteries.
4. Excess accumulation of insulin in blood.
Six (6) characteristics of a Type B Personality are:
1. Less competitive and less rushed.
2. More easygoing.
3. Better able to separate work from play.
4. Relatively free of a sense of time urgency.
5. Ambitions are kept in perspective.
6. Generally philosophical about life.
Seven (7) characteristics of a workaholic include:
• Readily buck the system; often bucked by the bureaucracy.
• Display well-organized hostility toward the system’s imperfections.
• Obsessed with perfection in their work.
• Haunted by deep-seated fear of failure; will “play to win” at all games.
• Prefer labor to leisure.
• Constantly juggle two or more tasks (called multitasking).
• Many are overachievers and “get things done”
Being a workaholic can lead to: (3)
• Gastrointestinal problems.
• Cardiovascular disease.
• Divorce.
The single-most-potent stressor for police officers was:
Killing someone in the line of duty.
The fourth-most-potent stressor for police officers was:
Was handling child abuse cases
These Sergeants reported the most organizational/administrative stress.
Sergeants in charge of substations
detectives reported the least
For officers in the 31 – to 35-year-old range, the single most powerful stressor was:
shift work
For African Americans police officers , the highest-ranking stressor was:
Inadequate support by the police department.
There are Five (5) basic phases of Post-Shooting Reaction, they are:
1. The first phase- concern about being able to pull the trigger
2. The second phase – is the actual killing experience
3. The third stage – is that of exhilaration that comes from having been able to put one’s training into action
4. The fourth phase – called the recoil, remorse and nausea phase.
5. The fifth phase – rationalization and acceptance
During this phase, law enforcement service members may seem detached and preoccupied, going through the motions of their job duties, and operating on what could be characterized as “behavioral autopilot.”
The recoil/remorse phase
During this phase, a variety of posttraumatic symptoms may be seen, most of which will resolve themselves in a few days or weeks. This reaction is typically classified as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Recoil phase
During this phase law enforcement officers wrestle with this single event for a lifetime:
The fifth phase, rationalization and acceptance
The most common symptoms of PTSD are:
• Headaches. Stomach upset.
• Nausea. Weakness and fatigue.
• Muscle tension and twitches. Changes in appetite and sexual functioning.
• Sleep impairment, with frequent awakenings and often nightmares.
• Intrusive imagery and flashbacks may occur. Distorted memories.
• Anxiety and depression. Panic attacks.
• Unusual and disorienting feelings of helplessness, fearfulness, and vulnerability.
• Self-second-guessing and guilt feelings.
Alcohol problems among police officers manifest themselves in a number of ways: (6)
1. A higher than normal absentee rate before and immediately following the officer’s regular day off.
2. Complaints of insubordination by supervisors.
3. Complaints by citizens of misconduct in the form of verbal and physical abuse.
4. Intoxication during regular working hours.
5. Involvement in traffic accidents while under the influence of alcohol on and off duty.
6. Reduced overall performance
It has been suggested further that policing is especially conducive to alcoholism because of the following three (3) reasons:
1. Police officers frequently work in an environment in which social drinking is commonplace.
2. It is relatively easy for them to become social drinkers.
3. The nature of police work and the environment in which it is performed provide the stress stimulus
Police departments now have a broad mix of employee assistance programs to assist officers with their drinking problems, including: (4)
1. Self-assessment checklists.
2. Peer counseling.
3. Counseling with in-house psychologists and those on retainers.
4. Support groups
The following conditions or behaviors has been found to be associated with alcohol abuse or problem drinking: (12)
Drinking alone regularly
Needing a drink to get over a hangover
Needing a drink at a certain time each day
Finding it harder and harder to get along with others
Memory loss while or after drinking
Drinking to relieve stress, fear, shyness, insecurity.
Driving skill deteriorating
More and more family and friends worrying about drinking habits
Becoming moody, jealous, or irritable after drinking
“Binges” of heavy drinking
Heavy weekend drinking
Able to drink more and more with less and less effect
A national study of 2,200 police officers found that this percent had serious drug problems.
10 percent
Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids on both sexes include: (5)
1. Increased aggression, known as “roid rage”.
2. Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, or obstructed blood vessels.
3. Acne.
4. Liver tumors, jaundice, and peliosis hepatitis, blood-filled cysts.
5. Pre-teens and teenagers: accelerated bone maturation, leading to permanently short stature
Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Men include: (4)
1. Breast enlargement.
2. Testicular atrophy with consequent sterility or decreased sperm count.
3. Impotence.
4. Enlarged prostate.
Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids on Females include: (7)
1. Breast diminution.
2. Clitoral enlargement.
3. Facial hair growth.
4. Deepened voice.
5. Menstrual irregularities.
6. Excessive body hair.
7. Baldness.
Although not physically addicting, steroids can cause a psychological dependence that can be divided into three stages:
1. The initial stage of exploration.
2. A continuing stage of regular usage.
3. Cessation from use.
This is one of the most critical issues regarding steroid usage.
Liability
Cessation of Steroid usage will come only when the following two (2) things occur:
1. Subjects become disinterested or
2. Are confronted with their problems.
One of the most comprehensive studies ever undertaken to examine police suicide was conducted by the New York City Police Department. Of 57 police suicides reported by the department over a 9-year period, these were the leading factors in cases in which a contributing factor was identified.
Relationship problems and depression
The method most used by officers committing suicide is:
The service weapon
An ongoing study of police suicides in the United States reveals that 95 percent involved the use of the officer’s service weapon.
Studies of other police departments have revealed that suicides are more common among: (4)
1. Older officers.
2. Are related to alcoholism.
3. Physical illness.
4. Impending retirement.
Five (5) other clues have been cited to help explain the high rate of self-inflicted death among police officers:
1. The regular availability of firearms.
2. Continuous-duty exposure to death and injury.
3. Social strain resulting from shift work.
4. Inconsistencies within the criminal justice system.
5. The perception among police officers that they labor under a negative public image.
A study of the Detroit Police Department found that the vast majority of police officers who took their lives were white, young, male, high school educated, and married. Alcohol abuse was fairly common among the sample (42 percent), as was a formal diagnosis of psychosis (33 percent). However, these types of difficulties were more prevalent in the Detroit sample:
Marital difficulties
This is the first step toward helping at-risk officers:
Identifying at-risk officers
What percentage of officers give some notice of their intention to commit suicide:
About 75%
These twin feelings indicate a high risk of suicide:
Hopelessness and helplessness.
The reasons for the non reporting of police domestic violence include: (3)
1. Victims with low esteem who think they “got what they deserved,” .
2. Threats from their attackers of more severe physical harm if the victims do call the police.
3. The belief that fellow officers will not take action against “one of their own.”
Departments should look to develop a line of communication directly with the domestic partners of recruits and officers. The dual purpose of establishing such contact is to: (2)
1. Underscore the department’s zero tolerance policy, even with the police chief.
2. Provide victims with an avenue for direct communication with a department employee who is trained in handling such calls.
An individual or a family member of an officer may recognize early indicators of potential violence, such as issues of power and control. The model policy calls for a formal system of: (3)
1. Documenting
2. Sharing.
3. Responding to information from concerned partners and family members
Warning signs that may indicate a likelihood of violent behavior in police officers that should be recognized by supervisors include: (6)
1. Increased use of force in arrest situations.
2. Drug/alcohol problems.
3. Frequent tardiness or absences.
4. Verbal disputes.
5. Physical altercations.
6. Other aggressive behavior
The services that can be made available to the police employee include the following: (5)
1. Employee assistance program referral.
2. Internal professional counseling (police psychologist).
3. External professional counseling (contract/referral).
4. Advocacy support from local agencies.
5. Peer support program (with clear reporting and confidentiality guidelines).
A department must take the following seven (7) actions, all of which are critical steps in responding to allegations of domestic abuse by police officers:
1. Communications officer/dispatcher documentation
2. Patrol response
3. On-scene supervisor response
4. Crime scene documentation
5. Arrest decisions
6. Weapon removal
7. Department follow-up
Officers can eliminate or reduce stress by engaging in the so-called stress inoculation activities: (10)
1. Exercise rigorously for 20 to 30 minutes at least three times per week.
2. Maintain a proper diet, including minimizing the intake of foods high in salt and cholesterol.
3. Develop leisure interests and hobbies.
4. Meditate and pray.
5. Avoid maladaptive responses to stress, such as smoking and drinking.
6. Establish support groups.
7. Develop a network of friends, including people outside the department.
8. Monitor yourself.
9. Use relaxation techniques, such as biofeedback, yoga, progressive muscle relaxation, tai chi, imagery, and breathing exercises.
10. Make sure your career and other expectations are consistent with your actual situation.
Sleep deprivation is often not thought of as a stress factor, it can be a significant factor in the creation of stress. Sleep deprivation can cause the following to occur in police officers:
Increased mood swings Impaired judgment
Decrease in adaptability to certain situations. Heightened sense of threat.
Increased anxiety or depression. Increased chances of mental.
Reduced eye-hand coordination. Weight gain. Pain, backaches, headaches.
Inability to relax. cause restless sleep, provoke heightened alert response.
Gastrointestinal problems. Damage to the cardiovascular system.
Use of more sick leave. Inappropriate uses of force more frequently.
More vehicle accidents. More accidental injuries.
Greater difficulty dealing with the community members and other law enforcement agencies. Higher likelihood of dying in the line of duty.
A sleep deprivation study found that not sleeping for this many hours impaired a person’s motor skills to an extent equivalent to having an alcohol toxicity of 0.05 percent.
for 17 hours
A sleep deprivation study found that not sleeping for this many hours impaired a person’s motor skills to an extent equivalent to having an alcohol toxicity of 0.10 percent.
For 24 hours
This level of deprivation would impair speech, balance, coordination, and mental judgment
A study found that four out of eight officers involved in on-the-job accidents and injuries were impaired because of:
Fatigue
The growth of employee assistance programs (EAPs) in the law enforcement field can be traced back to the early 1950s. Many programs, such as those initiated in Boston, New York, and Chicago, were created to deal primarily with:
Alcohol abuse
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
• Under constant stress, much of which is self-generated.
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Continuous pressure to accomplish.
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Hostile and demanding
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Always in a hurry; sense of time urgency
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Continuing impatience
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Intense and ambitious
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Believes time should be used “constructively”.
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Has difficulty relaxing and feels guilty when not working
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Compelled to challenge, and not understand, another type A personality
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Seven times as likely to develop heart disease
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Clotting elements have greater tendency to form within coronary arteries
Type A personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Less competitive and less rushed
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
More easygoing.
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Better able to separate work from play
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Relatively free of a sense of time urgency
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Ambitions are kept in perspective.
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Generally philosophical about life
Type B personality
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Has an addiction to work
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
When absent from the job, may experience withdrawal symptoms similar to those of withdrawal from other addictions.
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Is agitated and depressed when not working.
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
May account for up to 5 percent of the working world
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Readily buck the system; often bucked by the bureaucracy
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Display well-organized hostility toward the system’s imperfections
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Obsessed with perfection in their work.
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Haunted by deep-seated fear of failure; will “play to win” at all games.
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Prefer labor to leisure
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Constantly juggle two or more tasks (called multitasking).
The Workaholic
The following charactristic is consistent with which personality type, Type A, Type B or the Workaholic:
Many are overachievers and “get things done”
The Workaholic
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Increased aggression, known as “roid rage”.
Both male and female
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, or obstructed blood vessels.
Both male and female
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Acne.
Both male and female
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Liver tumors, jaundice, and peliosis hepatitis, blood-filled cysts.
Both male and female
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Pre-teens and teenagers: accelerated bone maturation, leading to permanently short stature
Both male and female
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Breast enlargement
Men Only
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Impotence.
Men Only
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Facial hair growth.
Women only
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Deepened voice
Women only
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Excessive body hair.
Women only
The following characteristic is considered an adverse effect of the use of anabolic steroids on men, women, or both sexes: Baldness.
Women only

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