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American Imperialism Prep Exam

What is imperialism?
A.the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones
B.the building of secret alliances among powerful nations
C.the internal expansion of territories within one’s own borders
D.the political desire to bring economic prosperity to one’s country
A.the economic and political domination of a strong nation over weaker ones
How did the rise in factories influence the American drive toward imperialism?
A.There was a lack of laborers for factories, and owners searched for cheap labor elsewhere.
B.Goods from factories were able to be shipped overseas at very low prices.
C.No country had access to all the natural resources needed to run their industries.
D.Factories generated a great deal of wealth that investors wanted to make use of.
C.No country had access to all the natural resources needed to run their industries.
A foreign area whose rulers are allowed to retain power in exchange for the protection of a more powerful nation is called
A.a colony.
B.a state.
C.a territory.
D.a protectorate.
D.a protectorate.
John Fiske’s idea of Anglo-Saxonism promoted the notion that
A.England had a duty to spread its country across the globe.
B.English-speaking countries were superior to others.
C.colonies must be assimilated into American culture.
D.Americans should stay out of international affairs.
B.English-speaking countries were superior to others.
What new American attitude toward international affairs led to the building-up of the U.S. Navy?
A.a willingness to go to war to protect American interests overseas
B.a desire to forge alliances with European nations
C.the hope that Europe and America would join forces economically
D.the anger at Britain’s colonization in Africa
A.a willingness to go to war to protect American interests overseas
How did U.S. attempts at opening trade with Japan influence Japanese culture?
A.Japan began trading with America but remained aloof from American culture.
B.Japan formed an alliance with China to protect their interests.
C.The Japanese began an industrial revolution of their own.
D.The Japanese refused to change and maintained a closed society
C.The Japanese began an industrial revolution of their own.
Why did the United States seek trade cooperation with Latin America?
A.to increase Latin American exports to the United States
B.to limit Latin American exports to the United States
C.to increase Latin American demand for American products
D.to spread American culture to the people of Latin America
C.to increase Latin American demand for American products

The idea that the U.S. and Latin America should work together became known as

A.Economic Aggression.

B.Pan-Americanism.

C.Latin Imperialism.

D.Central Americanism.

B.Pan-Americanism.
This graph supports which of the following statements about U.S. exports around the beginning of the twentieth century? a. Asia was a growing market for American goods. b. China purchased the least amount of U.S. exports. c. Europe became less important as a market for U.S. goods. d. Vast Chinese markets excited American business leaders.
This graph supports which of the following statements about U.S. exports around the beginning of the twentieth century?
a. Asia was a growing market for American goods.
b. China purchased the least amount of U.S. exports.
c. Europe became less important as a market for U.S. goods.
d. Vast Chinese markets excited American business leaders.
b. China purchased the least amount of U.S. exports.
In the late 1800s, many European nations were looking overseas for places to sell their goods because
a. Asia and Africa were producing goods that Europeans wanted.
b. tariffs had reduced trade among industrialized nations.
c. they could sell their goods at higher prices in Asia and Africa.
d. they were producing more than other industrialized nations could buy.
b. tariffs had reduced trade among industrialized nations.
The Treaty of Kanagawa gave the United States trading rights at two ports in
a. China.
b. Hawaii.
c. Japan.
d. the Philippines.
c. Japan.
In 1899 the United States established American Samoa as a
a. client state.
b. colony.
c. protectorate.
d. territory.
c. protectorate.
To His Excellency William McKinley, President, and the Senate, of the United States of America . . .
We, the undersigned, native Hawaiian citizens . . . who are members of the Hawaiian Patriotic League of the Hawaiian Islands, and others who are in sympathy with the said League, earnestly protest against the . . . [addition] of the said Hawaiian Islands to the said United States of America in any form or shape.
— Petition, 1897What were these Hawaiian citizens protesting?

a. The forced annexation of the islands as a U.S. territory after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy
b. The classification of the islands as a protectorate after the Hawaiian government signed a treaty with the United States
c. The granting of U.S. statehood to the islands after they were purchased from the Hawaiian monarch
d. The colonization of the islands by political refugees from the United

a. The forced annexation of the islands as a U.S. territory after the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy
Critics of the plan to annex the Philippines argued that the cost would outweigh the economic benefits, that imperialism violated American principles, and that
a. Filipinos were likely to rebel against American control.
b. competition from Filipino labor would drive down American wages.
c. Filipinos would not be capable of living under American democracy.
d. opening new markets would actually harm American businesses.
b. competition from Filipino labor would drive down American wages.
The United States became an imperial power as a result of
a. the Boxer Rebellion.
b. the Open Door policy.
c. the Pan-American conference.
d. the Spanish-American War.
d. the Spanish-American War.
5. As the United States industrialized, many Americans concluded that the nation needed new overseas markets to
a. compete with Latin American nations.
b. keep its economy strong.
c. protect its overseas investments.
d. provide inexpensive labor.
b. keep its economy strong.
In 1894 the United States caused an economic crisis in Cuba by
a. blockading the island.
b. passing a tariff on sugar.
c. preventing trade with Spain.
d. withdrawing American investments.
b. passing a tariff on sugar.
Until 1886, about one-third of the population of Cuba was
a. enslaved.
b. from England.
c. from the United States.
d. part of the Spanish military.
a. enslaved.
President Roosevelt believed that having a canal through Central America would save time and money for commercial and military shipping and
a. was necessary for maintaining influence in Asia.
b. was vital to U.S. power in the world.
c. would benefit the people of Central America.
d. would establish a new market for U.S. goods.
b. was vital to U.S. power in the world.
Some people who opposed the annexation of the Philippines believed that imperialism
a. brought American ideals to people who were not ready for them.
b. contradicted fundamental principles of the United States.
c. provided a large market for American goods.
d. reaffirmed the United States as a world power.
b. contradicted fundamental principles of the United States.
In 1898 U.S. President William McKinley faced strong pressure to go to war against Spain, including public anger over the explosion of the USS Maine and
a. calls for assistance from Cuban rebels.
b. jingoism within the Republican Party.
c. panic among Americans in Cuba.
d. war fever within the U.S. military.
b. jingoism within the Republican Party.
To ensure that all nations would have access to China’s markets, President McKinley and Secretary of State John Hay pursued which of the following policies?
a. dollar diplomacy
b. imperialism
c. Open Door policy
d. the Roosevelt Corollary
c. Open Door policy
Formed as a result of the Pan-American conference of 1889, the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics is known today as the
a. North American Free Trade Agreement.
b. North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
c. Pan-American Union.
d. Organization of American States.
d. Organization of American States.
Although the United States bought raw materials from Latin America in the 1800s, Latin America
a. bought most of its manufactured goods from Europe.
b. exported manufactured goods to the United States.
c. relied on the United States for additional raw materials.
d. sold raw materials to Europe at a much lower price.
a. bought most of its manufactured goods from Europe.
President Roosevelt used the West African saying “Speak softly and carry a big stick” to express his belief that
a. attacks on U.S. interests must be met with a strong military response.
b. displaying U.S. power to the world would deter nations from fighting.
c. imperialism violates fundamental American principles.
d. the United States has an obligation to promote development in other nations.
b. displaying U.S. power to the world would deter nations from fighting.
On May 1, 1898, Commodore George Dewey led his squadron into Manila Bay in
a. Cuba.
b. Hawaii.
c. the Philippines.
d. Spain.
c. the Philippines.
According to the time line, Filipinos continued to resist occupation until a. April 1902. b. December 1898. c. February 1899. d. March 1901.
According to the time line, Filipinos continued to resist occupation until
a. April 1902.
b. December 1898.
c. February 1899.
d. March 1901.
a. April 1902.
Under the Treaty of Paris, the United States acquired the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and
a. Cuba.
b. Guam.
c. Panama.
d. Samoa.
b. Guam.
Based on the map above, by 1900 the United States had become a major power in the Caribbean and in a. Africa. b. China. c. the Pacific. d. South America.
Based on the map above, by 1900 the United States had become a major power in the Caribbean and in
a. Africa.
b. China.
c. the Pacific.
d. South America.
c. the Pacific.
Which of the following statements best describes the effectiveness of the Spanish military during the Spanish-American War?
a. The Spanish fleet was effective, but Spanish soldiers were ill-prepared.
b. The Spanish military was ill-prepared and ineffective.
c. The Spanish military was prepared for battle and very effective.
d. Spanish soldiers were highly effective, but the Spanish fleet was not prepared.
b. The Spanish military was ill-prepared and ineffective.
Under the policy known as “dollar diplomacy,” President Taft supported Latin American industry in order to increase trade and profits for U.S. business and
a. exert influence over the governments of Latin American countries.
b. lift Latin America countries out of poverty and social disorder.
c. prevent European countries from intervening in Latin America.
d. protect U.S. investments in Latin America from local rebellions.
b. lift Latin America countries out of poverty and social disorder.
When he took office, President Woodrow Wilson opposed imperialism and wanted the United States to
a. compete aggressively with European powers for global influence.
b. engage in free trade with nations in Central and Latin America.
c. promote democracy to create a world free of revolution and war.
d. retreat from any involvement in the affairs of foreign nations.
c. promote democracy to create a world free of revolution and war.
In 1900 a group in China killed more than 200 foreigners in what came to be known as the
a. Beijing Rebellion.
b. Boxer Rebellion.
c. China Rebellion.
d. Secret Rebellion.
b. Boxer Rebellion.
In 1899 U.S. Secretary of State John Hay asked countries with leaseholds in China
a. not to use their influence to close Chinese markets to other nations.
b. not to discriminate against other nations doing business in their sphere of influence.
c. to demand compensation for damages incurred during the Boxer Rebellion.
d. to establish a system for defending their interests from rebellions in China.
b. not to discriminate against other nations doing business in their sphere of influence.
President Wilson decided to intervene in Mexico in 1914 in the hope of
a. forcing out German forces.
b. increasing U.S. influence there.
c. overthrowing General Huerta.
d. promoting democracy there.
c. overthrowing General Huerta.
On July 3, 1898, American warships in Santiago Harbor
a. caused the Spanish to panic and flee.
b. destroyed every vessel in the Spanish fleet.
c. fought the Spanish fleet to a standstill.
d. secured the surrender of the Spanish forces.
b. destroyed every vessel in the Spanish fleet.
To prevent any nation from controlling trade in China, President Theodore Roosevelt helped negotiate a resolution to a war between
a. China and Japan.
b. Japan and England.
c. Japan and Russia.
d. China and Russia.
c. Japan and Russia.
After the Spanish-American War, Congress gradually allowed Puerto Ricans greater self-government, and in 1917 it
a. allowed Puerto Ricans to elect their own governor.
b. granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship.
c. granted statehood to Puerto Rico.
d. recognized Puerto Rico as an independent nation.
b. granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship.
Today, the Philippines are an
a. American commonwealth.
b. American protectorate.
c. independent country.
d. unincorporated territory.
c. independent country.
In the late 1890s, Russia, Germany, France, and Britain demanded “leaseholds” in China that would give each country
a. an advantage over the United States.
b. a market for Chinese goods.
c. a protectorate in Asia.
d. a sphere of influence in China.
d. a sphere of influence in China.
The foreign policy of President Roosevelt’s successor, William Howard Taft, differed from Roosevelt’s because
a. Roosevelt placed more emphasis on diplomacy and less on the use of military force.
b. Roosevelt supported the Open Door policy in China and Taft did not.
c. Taft placed less emphasis on military force and more on economic development.
d. Taft supported intervening in Latin America to preserve stability and Roosevelt did not.
c. Taft placed less emphasis on military force and more on economic development.
At the Pan-American conference, Secretary of State James G. Blaine wanted to create a customs union with low tariffs, in the hope that it would
a. drive profits higher for American and European manufacturers.
b. increase the price of American products in Latin America.
c. lower the price of raw materials from Latin America.
d. turn the Latin Americans away from European products.
d. turn the Latin Americans away from European products.
“When next I realized that the Philippines had dropped into our laps . . . I sought counsel from all sides—Democrats as well as Republicans . . . and I am not ashamed to tell you, gentlemen, that I went down on my knees and prayed to Almighty God for light and guidance more than one night.”
—U.S. President William McKinleyIn the excerpt, when McKinley says that the Philippines “dropped into our laps,” he is describing the
a. annexation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War.
b. defeat of the Spanish fleet by Commodore George Dewey.
c. defeat of Filipino guerillas by U.S. military forces.
d. establishment of an American naval base in Manila Bay.

a. annexation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War.
The Roosevelt Corollary stated that the United States would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to
a. extend American influence in Central and South America.
b. maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere.
c. protect American business interests and investments in Latin America.
d. shape the less-civilized nations in the Western Hemisphere.
b. maintain economic and political stability in the Western Hemisphere.
Spanish General Valeriano Weyler herded hundreds of thousands of rural Cubans into “reconcentration camps” in order to
a. damage American investments in Cuba.
b. encourage American intervention in Cuba.
c. exterminate Cuban rebel forces.
d. prevent them from aiding Cuban rebels.
d. prevent them from aiding Cuban rebels.
To give Europeans less reason to intervene in Latin American affairs, President Taft’s administration worked to
a. build up the militaries of Latin American allies.
b. deploy U.S. battleships to Latin America.
c. negotiate treaties with major European powers.
d. replace European loans with loans from U.S. banks.
c. negotiate treaties with major European powers.
During construction of the Panama Canal, progress was slowed as a result of
a. President Roosevelt’s “big stick” policy.
b. diseases that sickened workers.
c. objections in Congress to the canal.
d. Panama’s revolt against Colombia.
b. diseases that sickened workers.
Cuban rebels rose up against the Spanish in 1895, when Cuba was
a. an American protectorate.
b. in financial distress.
c. granted autonomy by Spain.
d. a U.S. trading partner.
b. in financial distress.
President Wilson followed Roosevelt’s example in the Caribbean, sending troops to intervene in Haiti and in
a. Cuba.
b. the Dominican Republic.
c. Guatemala.
d. Panama.
b. the Dominican Republic.
In addition to economic motives, many Americans supported overseas expansion because they believed that
a. American military might should be unrivaled in the world.
b. European imperialism threatened to harm less-developed nations in Asia and Africa.
c. the nation was destined to expand overseas and spread its civilization to others.
d. the United States had much to learn from less-developed nations.
c. the nation was destined to expand overseas and spread its civilization to others.
Puerto Rico
•________________?_____________________________
• Residents granted U.S. citizenship in 1917
• Governors have been elected by popular vote since 1948
• Adopted both a constitution and commonwealth status in 1952Which of the following best replaces the question mark in this list of information about Puerto Rico?
a. Became a U.S. state during the Reconstruction era
b. Was ceded to the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
c. Signed an annexation treaty with the United States after World War I
d. Was promised U.S. military protection as part of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

b. Was ceded to the United States as a result of the Spanish-American War
1. The USS Maine sinks in Havana Harbor.
2. The U.S. Congress declares war.
3. The Treaty of Paris is signed.How did these events affect the United States?
a. They increased public support for cuts in U.S. defense spending.
b. They prompted the end of Dollar Diplomacy in Latin America.
c. They set a precedent of including territorial acquisitions in settlements.
d. They helped establish the United States as an imperial power similar to European nations.

d. They helped establish the United States as an imperial power similar to European nations.
U.S. control of the Philippines
+
Cuban independence
+
U.S. control of Puerto Rico
+
U.S. control of Guam = ?Which sentence provides information needed to complete both the cause and effect portions of this diagram?
a. The 1898 Spanish-American War led to world power status for the United States.
b. The 1914 opening of the Panama Canal encouraged international trade.
c. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles contributed to the start of World War II in Europe.
d. The 1929 stock-market crash set off the Great Depression in the United States.

a. The 1898 Spanish-American War led to world power status for the United States.
Which outcome was an important effect of the 1898 voyage of the USS Oregon?
a. Increased U.S. foreign aid to the developing countries in South America
b. Increased U.S. public support for the construction of a canal through Central America
c. Decreased U.S. economic influence in the Western Hemisphere
d. Decreased U.S. naval presence in the Caribbean Sea
b. Increased U.S. public support for the construction of a canal through Central America
• Statement 1: The U.S. oil industry boomed due to oil deposits found in conquered territories.
• Statement 2: Rebuilding its devastated army cost the United States an enormous amount of money.
• Statement 3: The acquisition of new territories allowed for the expansion of U.S. commercial trade.
• Statement 4: Territorial losses forced the United States to purchase expensive natural resources from other countries.Which statement would most likely be found in a history of the economic impact of the Spanish-American War on the United States?
a. Statement 1
b. Statement 2
c. Statement 3
d. Statement 4

c. statement 3
Which of these was a major goal of Jane Addams’s Settlement House movement in Chicago?
a. The founding of women’s colleges
b. The introduction of prison reform
c. The assimilation of immigrants
d. The establishment of public libraries
c. The assimilation of immigrants
During the nineteenth century, one way political bosses gained voter support was by —
a. campaigning for women’s suffrage
b. advocating the use of poll taxes
c. making improvements in urban infrastructure
d. Providing public assistance for former slaves
c. making improvements in urban infrastructure
6. During the Gilded Age there was a notable increase in federal support for —
a. the growth of big business
b. involvement in foreign wars
c. the acquisition of foreign territories
d. increased temperance regulations
a. the growth of big business
Which of the following was the main reason for the rapid settlement of the Great Plains during the late 1800s?
a. Congress passed a law requiring all public lands to be sold at auction.
b. Congress passed a law allowing people to claim public land and convert it to private property through homesteading.
c. Speculators bought large parcels of land and then built factory towns to attract new immigrants.
d. Native Americans sold most of their tribal lands directly to railroad companies.
b. Congress passed a law allowing people to claim public land and convert it to private property through homesteading.
During the Progressive Era, one goal of state-level political reformers was to —
a. prevent party leaders from amending campaign platforms
b. increase the influence of business owners on regulatory legislation
c. promote the principle of direct democracy
d. limit the use of judicial review by circuit courts
c. promote the principle of direct democracy
And shortly afterward . . . a physician, made the discovery that the carcasses of steers which had been condemned as tubercular by the government inspectors . . . were left upon an open platform and carted away to be sold in the city. . . .
—Upton Sinclair, The Jungle, 1906
Public response to revelations such as the one in this excerpt led to the establishment of regulations that were eventually enforced by the —
a. Food and Drug Administration
b. Centers for Disease Control
c. Department of Commerce
d. Institution of Education Sciences
a. Food and Drug Administration
Which of the following occurred between 1865 and 1900 as a result of the rapid industrialization of the United States?
a. Social and economic class divisions began to disappear.
b. Concerns about air pollution led to stricter environmental regulations.
c. Union membership increased as workers sought better pay and conditions.
d. Factory owners introduced wage-equity policies for women in the workplace.
c. Union membership increased as workers sought better pay and conditions.
Many Progressives opposed social Darwinism because it promoted the idea that —
a. people in lower classes were not capable of economic success
b. immigration weakened national unity
c. the government should take responsibility for the well-being of people
d. poverty could be eradicated through increased economic regulation

Reasons for Economic Problems of the Gilded Age

• Rapid growth of trusts and monopolies
• Ruthless business tactics of robber barons
• Use of unfair practices by the railroads such as rebates, pools, and differential rates

One way the U.S. government responded to the problems caused by the conditions in the list above was by —
a. passing the Interstate Commerce Act
b. implementing the silver standard for currency
c. creating a federal jobs program for the unemployed
d. establishing a new tax on capital gains

a. passing the Interstate Commerce Act
Which of the following occurred as a result of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
a. Workers secured a greater share of company profits.
b. The influence of labor unions on factory owners was reduced.
c. The federal government could dissolve business monopolies.
d. Businesses were required to pay fees to open overseas locations.
c. The federal government could dissolve business monopolies.
What was one reason for the expansion of machine politics in the late nineteenth century?
a. The rapid influx of immigrants made it difficult for local governments to provide basic services.
b. Federal restrictions prevented voters from influencing government decisions at the local level.
c. The economy was too tightly regulated to allow urban growth.
d. Settlement houses failed to help immigrants adjust to life in the city.
a. The rapid influx of immigrants made it difficult for local governments to provide basic services.
A business incurs operating costs by paying
a. Interest on a bank loan
b. Property taxes to the government
c. Rent to a landlord
d. Wages to hourly employees
d. Wages to hourly employees
Loans, mortgages, and taxes are an example of a company’s
a. Fixed costs
b. Pools
c. Stock
d. Vertical integration
a. Fixed costs
In the Credit Mobilier scandal, Union Pacific investors got rich by
a. Accepting bribes from business owners to route railroad tracks through their towns
b. Achieving a monopoly in hauling freight along their railroad’s tracks
c. Conspiring with other railroads to set high prices
d. Paying inflated bills from a construction company that they controlled
d. Paying inflated bills from a construction company that they controlled
Combining many firms engaged in the same type of business into one corporation is called
a. A holding company
b. A monopoly
c. Horizontal integration
d. Vertical integration
c. Horizontal integration
According to the concept of laissez-faire, prices and wages are best determined by the
a. Federal government
b. Free market
c. Gross national product
d. Individual states
b. Free market

Passed by Congress in 1914, the Clayton Antitrust Act outlawed practices that restricted competition but

a. allowed price discrimination.
b. did not break up monopolies.
c. exempted labor unions.
d. permitted unfair trade practices.

c. exempted labor unions.

Which of the following progressive reforms permitted citizens to introduce legislation and required legislatures to vote on the legislation?

a. direct primary
b. initiative
c. recall
d. referendum

Under a federal reserve system, banks would have to keep part of their deposits in one of 12 reserve banks, which would

a. Allow banks to offer higher interest rates to customers
b. Encourage banks to make more loans to businesses
c. Provide a cushion against unexpected financial losses
d. Protect banks from competition with foreign nations

c. Provide a cushion against unexpected financial losses
Who claimed there would be a workers revolution in which workers would seize control of the factories and create a socialist society?
a. Anarchists
b. Knight of Labor
c. Marxists
d. Pullman Company
c. Marxists

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