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AP Gov chapter 8 vocab

head of state
the apolitical, unifying role of the president as symbolic representation of the whole country
head of government
the political role of the president as leader of a political party and chief arbiter of who gets what resources
chief administrator
the president’s executive role as the head of federal agencies and the person responsible for the implementation of national policy
a presidential advisory group selected by the president, made up of the vice president, the heads of the federal executive departments, and other high officials to whom the president elects to give the cabinet status
the president’s role as the top officer of the country’s military establishment
chief foreign policy maker
the president’s executive role as the primary shaper of relations with other nations
formal agreements with other countries; negotiated by the president and requiring approval by two-thirds of the Senate
executive agreement
a presidential arrangement with another country that creates foreign policy without the need for Senate approval
State of the Union address
a speech given annually by the president to joint session of Congress and to the nation announcing the president’s agenda
presidential veto
a president’s authority to reject a bill passed by Congress may be overridden only by a two-thirds majority in each house
executive orders
clarifications of congressional policy issued by the president and having the full force of law
senatorial courtesy
tradition of granting senior senators of the president’s party considerable power over federal judicial appointments in their home states
solicitor general
the justice Department officer who argues the government’s cases before the Supreme Court
pardoning power
a president’s authority to release or excuse a person from the legal penalties of a crime
inherent powers
presidential powers implied but not explicitly stated in the Constitution
power to persuade
a president’s ability to convince Congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administrations agenda
going public
a president’s strategy of appealing to the public on an issue, expecting that public pressure will be brought to bear on other political actors
cycle effect
the predictable rise and fall of a president’s popularity at different stages of a term in office
honeymoon period
the time following an election when a president’s popularity is high and congressional relations are likely to be productive
legislative liaison
executive personnel who work with members of Congress to secure their support in getting a president’s legislation passed
divided government
political rule split between two parties: one controlling the White House and the other controlling one or both houses of Congress
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
collection of nine organizations that help the president with policy and political objectives
Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
organization within the EOP that oversees the budgets of departments and agencies
Council of Economic Advisors
organization within the EOP that advises the president on economic matters
National Security Council (NSC)
organization within the EOP that provides foreign policy advice to the president
White House Office
the approximately four hundred employees within the EOP who work most closely and directly with the president
chief of staff
the person who oversees the operations of all White House staff and controls access to the president
presidential style
image projected by the president that represents how he would like to be perceived at home and abroad

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