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AP HG Ch.13 study guide Urban Patterns

Burgess developed the first urban land use model which depicts land use in
concentric rings.
Who did not develop urban land use models
Many barrier islands on the east coast of the United States are examples of what pattern of development?
The Township and Range pattern of land division in the United States created this type of land ownership pattern on the landscape?
The Township and Range land division method helped to create what type of rural settlement pattern?
What is true of an edge city?
It has a large amount of recently developed retail and office space.
Central place theory describes the
spatial patterns of urban and outlying areas based on the flow of goods and services.
What aspect of the design of Brasilia, Canberra, and Washington, D.C., was different from the design of most other urban centers?
They were designed as show places to reflect the power and wealth of their respective countries.
What model of urban structure depicts a commercial spine bordered by an elite residential sector extending outward from the central business district?
Latin American city
Edge cities have been described as the “tenements of the information age” because these cities have
many high-density townhouse developments designed for people working in nearby office buildings.
The sector model of city structure assumes that typical spatial behavior involves people commuting primarily
in and out of downtown.
What describes a primate city?
It is disproportionately large in relation to the next largest cities in that country.
What were not crucial to the emergence of the first cities
separation of the ruling system and the religious system.
What is not a reason for the rise of suburban development in the 1950s
better public transportation.
What region had the smallest percentage of people living in urban areas at the end of the twentieth century?
South Asia
The development of high-speed rail lines, highways, and communications systems has created cities that seem to be apart from traditional central-place hierarchies because they have developed complementary functions. Which of the following is an example of these so-called network cities?
What development is predicted by the von Thunen model of land use around cities?
Large-scale growing of flowers and vegetables in the Netherlands
What area of the United States is known as a megalopolis?
The Mid-Atlantic
In the past, many urban areas were viewed as “male spaces” becausewomen had comparatively few opportunities to
find employment and buy property.
Today, city planners work to create healthy urban environments by designing neighborhoods and streets that allow residents to
engage in regular exercise.
Urban political districts are often created by dividing a city using
its natural physical boundaries.
In a futuristic version of Hoyt’s sector model, low-income populationswould be most likely to live close to
high-speed rail lines.
The gravity model, which can be used to calculate the bonds between different urban centers, assumes that two cities located close together
would attract more people than two cities located far apart.
Residents of edge cities and suburban areas have long depended on automobiles and public transportation to access
jobs in large cities.
A greenbelt policy encourages a city to curb the amount of construction on a city’s edges to encourage growth in
the city’s core.
The political powers of a city council are typically outlined in
the state’s constitution.
In the United States, it has been demonstrated that a sudden influx of wealth into an urban ghetto typically leads to
desegregation and economic development within the ghetto.
In many American cities, public transportation and emergency response services must be improved within the next 25 years primarily to serve
the aging Baby Boomer population.
Landless residents of large cities often band together to address their concerns through political demonstrations that may later solidify into
grassroots organizations.
When a city is not designed to be sustainable and eco-friendly, it has the potential to become
an urban heat island.
The 1970s and 1980s departure of Caucasian middle- and high-income families from urban areas to outlying areas, termed “white flight,” was characterized primarily as
a racial movement.
Housing cooperatives present a unique housing option for many urban residents, as they are often
democratically controlled and community-owned.
Opponents of automobile dependency in cities argue that traffic congestion creates a constant demand for
bigger, more streamlined roads.
Cities must develop afford able urban housing and working spaces in order to encourage an increase in the number of
arts and creative jobs.
Increasingly, residents of gated communities, both within cities and in suburbs are commonly recognized as having
high incomes and elite lifestyles.
Many American cities developed unevenly between the Industrial Revolution and the late 1900s because developers and investors rejected city plans that allowed
businesses and housing to be close together.
The concentric zone model provided a way for urban residents to gradually move up economically and socially by allowing them
to migrate progressively away from the central business district.
In Harris and Ullman’s multiple-nuclei model, a city could be understood as lacking a central business district if
different industries were concentrated in one of the main city ‘s suburbs.
After World War II, the government of many European nations countered urban housing shortages by building
subsidized housing blocks within the city.
Until recently, many transportation plans for urban areas failed to create space for environmentally friendly corridor transportation such as
pedestrian walkways and bicycle paths.
As an urban neighborhood’s socioeconomic status decreases, its residents are more likely to be denied the opportunity to
enter into mortgages and receive home loans.
Studies in urban areas such as Washington, D.C., have indicated that when the number of high-wage jobs increases in the suburbs, the number of low-wage jobs is likely to rise
in the central city.
Many of today’s emerging megacities, such as Rio de Janeiro and Guangzhou, are actually not one distinct city but
multiple cities that have merged.
In developing nations such as Egypt, large numbers of individuals leave rural areas on a seasonal basis mainly to find work in
large cities.
Central place theory lost ground in the 20th century as city networks came to be seen as determining the importance of cities more than
the size of the cities and less developed areas surrounding them.
An excellent example of a primate city that serves as the focus of a country and its culture is
Copenhagen, Denmark.
Since the 1980s, there has been a trend to build suburbs and edge cities within the United States
increasingly farther away from the central city.
In the city of Jerusalem, the concentric zone model can be modified to account for the presence of at least two central business districts for
at least two di fferent ethnic and religious populations.
What was a global city in the Western world during the time of the Greek and Roman Empires?
Alexandria, Egypt.
Christaller’s central place theory, what provides a reason why a certain number of human settlements exist in an urban system, assumes that all consumers
have the same income and shop in the same way.
The rank-size rule does not work when one considers the distribution of
all of the cities in a given country.
The concentric zone model is portrayed as a series of rings, with the outermost ring being the
commuter zone.
A city seeking to reenergize an inactive central business district should take steps to
plan events that will increase the number of residents and visitors within the district.
In cities such as Chicago, individuals who take positions as members of a municipal council primarily engage in activities to
make sure that the city government functions correctly.
During the 1950s, many urban American neighborhoods came to be segregated because of redlining, a practice engaged in by
banks and other lending institutions.
In the sector model, also known as the Hoyt model, it is proposed that a city should grow outward from its center because
major lines of transportation will carry commuters to outlying areas.
When a large city experiences a sudden spike in internal immigration, that is, citizens of that country begin flocking to the city, the population of the city is likely to include
individuals who were formerly residents of rural areas and smaller cities.
Green building is a form of gentrification because it
raises property values throughout a neighborhood.
During the Neolithic Revolution, the majority of cities originated in areas where the population was able to
generate an agricultural surplus.
In Europe’s Industrial Revolution, the rate of rural-urban migration increased as many members of which group left the fields for the factories?
The peasants
The earliest cities appear to have developed from villages in which much of the population was already linked by
complex kinship structures.
What is a likely result of a rapid rise in the rate of rural-urban migration?
Overcrowding in urban areas
Many of the earliest cities grew rapidly because they were religious centers that attracted
pilgrims and pilgrimages
Many political leaders in the earliest cities funded centralized administrations by taxes collected on
the sale of agricultural harvests.
When rural-urban migration is a cycle rather than a flow, it is likely because rural residents must return to rural areas to
raise agricultural crops.
A major problem facing modern megacities is
air pollution.
Global cities such as New York and London are characterized as such primarily because they are home to
international business centers.
In global cities, frequent displacement of minority populations with low incomes is often caused by the process of
Suburbanization causes cities to lose populations to areas surrounding them, which leads to
decentralization and urban sprawl.
A common violation of the rank-size rule occurs when the largest, or primate, city of a country is not much bigger than
the smaller cities of a country.
Christaller’s central place theory explains that settlements will form in a triangular hexagonal lattice, with the geometric shapes forming
market areas.
Edge cities typically grow on the borders of large urban areas at points near
major roads and airports.
The rank-size rule is a tool used by geographers but could also be considered a tool of applied
In central place theory, range, or the maximum distance a consumer will travel to buy a good, is proportional to
the cost of obtaining the good.
The gravity model, used to predict flows of human activity between places, has been criticized for its inability to take into account
the evolution of patterns
In a concentric zone model, the zones outside the core are sized according to
what people will pay for the land.
The sector model, developed by Hoyt in the late 1930s, is accurate in explaining the growth of numerous industrial cities in
Great Britain.
Geographers Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman developed their multiple-nuclei model during a time when many people began to use cars to navigate cities more easily. What decade was it?
The simplest form of the gravity model looks at the interaction between
two towns.
The multiple-nuclei model holds that a typical metropolitan area has multiple centers, one of what is the central business district (CBO) and the others of which are
suburban downtowns.
As many cities discourage heavy industry from taking place within city limits, they work to motivate urban employers to increase the number of
service jobs.
Job sprawl involves the migration of jobs out of the urban cores of cities and into
the outermost rings surrounding cities.
Quantifying changes in population requires demographers to measure fertility, mortality, and migration, with the requirement that the migration be
permanent or long lasting.
American cities experiencing deindustrialization have simultaneously been prone to an increase in
Public housing is typically defined as affordable housing offered to low income urban residents by
local, state, and federal agencies.
Housing in edge cities is often meant to create a semi-rural fantasy space in what houses and gardens are typically
well manicured and gated.
When a city’s terrain is rugged and the city lacks basic infrastructure,what type of network offers the most flexibility for urban transportation?
A grid of roads
Cities in areas that have a high chance of being affected by natural disasters are required to develop emergency transit plans to
help urban residents evacuate in response to natural disasters.
What would be considered a primate city?
Paris, France
What best describes the urban hierarchy of settlements?
Hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis
The United Kingdom has established greenbelts around certain cities to prevent what?
Urban sprawl
According Ullman and Harris’s multiple nuclei model, what develops at the outskirts of core cities?
Edge cities
What city were the concentric zone model and the sector model based on when they were developed in the early 20th century?
What do most cities in the developing world have in common?
Urban areas are ringed by shantytowns.
The Pentagon in Washington, D.C., is a good example of a
symbolic landscape.
What one characteristic links megacities?
Each has a population of more than 10 million people.
Medieval cities in Europe usually had what characteristic in common?
Protective walls
What statement would be the most accurate regarding the bid-rent theory?
Land value is the highest in the central business district, and land value decreases with distance from the CBD.
Latin American cities have what common characteristic in the model developed by Dr. Larry Ford?
A spine of high-class housing extending from the city center
Range and threshold are important to commercial establishments because
the range determines the maximum distance that people are willingto travel to buy or enjoy something, while the threshold is the minimum number of customers needed for the business to survive.
A business such as a high-end department store with a high threshold would most likely be located where in the urban framework?
Central business district
Homer Hoyt’s sector model is based on what fundamental principle?
Development is centered around transportation routes.
What is the illegal process by which real estate agents encourage the sale of homes because people of certain races have moved into a neighborhood?
What is the most noticeable geographic trend in the last thirty years with respect to the world’s twenty most populated cities?
Most of the twenty cities are now located in less developed countries.
The area in the urban setting with the highest land value, usually located within the central business district, is called what?
Peak land value intersection
What world-class city is the best example of an entrepôt?
The first cities arose in
hearths of early agriculture.
Some prominent Native American cities later became
colonial cities.
The Industrial Revolution
spawned vast manufacturing centers.
__________ is an important gateway city.
Honolulu, Hawaii
During the Middle Ages, __________ dramatically slowed the growth of urban areas.
Classic __________ cities have narrow, winding streets, open-air markets, many dead-ends, and courtyards surrounded by high walls.
Architects and planners from the __________ strove to introduce beauty and impose order on chaotic industrial cities.
City Beautiful movement
Modernist architecture
stressed efficiency and geometrical order.
Asian, African, and South American cities
contain many structural relics from colonialism.
Medieval European cities usually does not contain characteristics
wide streets to accommodate large military troops.
Many Latin American cities conform more or less to the
the sector model.
In cities like Baltimore, inner-city revitalization has transformed __________ into gentrified urban neighborhoods.
What city exemplifies an urban geography defined by railroads?
What best describes edge cities?
They are located along freeways on the outskirts of major cities.
According to the central place theory,
large cities serve as economic hubs.
The coastal southern California and northern Baja, Mexico region can be described as a
What was NOT one of the main elements contributing to a city’s legibility according to Kevin Lynch?
Action space consists of
the space in which individual daily activity occurs.
Individual spatial behavior on a daily basis
generally involves more shorter trips than longer trips, can be described as that individual’s action space, and can be limited by transportation possibilities.
The least accessible locations within a city tend to be occupied by which land use?
The urbanization process is resulting in what region having the largest cities of the world?
Asia and Africa
What is not a characteristic of women’s urban social space :
women tend to find employment in occupations that are more geographically concentrated than men’s occupations.
What statement concerning the multiplier effect is correct?
The size of the effect is determined by the city’s basic/nonbasic ratio.
What are common features of cities in the developing world except:
few of the large cities have modem centers of commerce.
Central places are so named because they:
serve as nodal points for the distribution of goods and services to surrounding nonurban areas.
In the typical North American city, population densities are highest:
just outside the central core of the city.
According to the rank-size rule, the third-ranked settlement will be what ratio to the size of the first-ranked settlement?
What is not considered a major reason for the increase in America’s homeless population?
increases in soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters run by nonprofit groups
What statement concerning zoning is not correct?
It is designed to segregate different populations from each other.
Urbanization emerges out of rural settlement patterns when:
trade develops between two or more settlements.
In what world region would a primate city hierarchy most likely be found?
What is not classified as a major urban region?
Eastern Europe
In a city with a basic/nonbasic ratio of 1:2.5, an increase of 10,000 basic sector jobs would generate how many new total employees in the city?
The urban differences among European countries are based upon:
the length of time the country has been a nation.
According to urban hierarchy theory, in any country one should receive:
few megalopolises.
At the beginning of this century only 13 metropolitan areas exceeded 1 million in population. By 1990, that figure exceeded:
What statement best describes the site of a city?
Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers.
What urban structures, which is the largest in areal extent?
metropolitan area
A country whose urban system approximates rank-size ordering is:
United States.
The characteristic that most distinguishes metropolises in developing countries from those in Western nations is the:
transportation networks.
The greatest proportion of black segregation in the United States is found in the metropolitan areas of the:
Midwest and Northeast.
A good indicator of social status is:
number of persons per room per housing unit.
“A city which is compact, with relatively high buildings and population densities, and a sharp break between urban and rural land uses on the periphery” describes the:
East European city.
The “traditional bazaar city” is characteristic of cities in what world region?
South Asia
The process of settlement formation, expansion, and change is called
Three categories sociologist Louis Wirth used to differentiate between urban and rural areas include
high density, social heterogeneity, and large size.
The most practical definition for an urban area is
the central city and its surrounding suburbs.
The United States Census Bureau establishes Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs)
to determine the geographical extent of influence for an urban area.
An urban settlement that has incorporated into an independent self-governing unit is a
What advantage does a city gain by legally incorporating?
Authority to tax, Responsibility to provide essential services, and Ability to hold elections.
The physical qualities of the original location for a city is referred to as the
site characteristics.
What is not typical site and/or situational characteristics for the establishment of a settlement
the middle of a plain.
In ancient Southwest Asia cities politically acted as
Historically, urbanization reached its zenith during
the Greco-Roman era.
Street patterns of Medieval European cities resembled
a chaotic haphazard layout.
This city was built purely as an administrative and/or commercial center by European powers…
New Delhi, Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City), and Hong Kong.
Industries during the 1800s located close to Central Business Districts (CBDs) because
they needed to locate close to transportation lines.
Auto-centered cities emerged during the post World War II era is
Southwestern United States.
During the Industrial Revolution, what factor contributed the most to rapid urbanization?
The city was an economic pull.
What factor is responsible for explosive urban growth in the developing periphery?
Lack of opportunity in rural areas, Difficulty of providing for one’s family, and Real and/or perceived economic opportunity in cities.
According to Brian Berry, people who are a part of a “daily urban system”, supported by functional regions connected to urban hubs by commuter links, have access to a plethora of services in
more developed countries and the United States.
Choose the proper hierarchy of city types in the United States.
World city, specialized producer service center, command and control center, dependent center.
Choose the proper hierarchy of cities on the West Coast of the United States.
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa Barbara.
What is the population of the fourth largest city in a country where the rank-size rule applies if the largest city is one million in population?
A primate city is
when the largest city in a country is twice the size of the next largest city.
What concerns are there for a developing country if the rank-size rule does not apply?
Services will not be evenly distributed through out the country, Smaller cities find it difficult to compete for services with the primate city, and People in rural areas and small cities feel compelled to migrate to the primate city for jobs.
As of 2013, the three most important cities in the world are
New York, London, and Tokyo.
The two continents that have the most linkages between their world cities are
North America and Europe.
The continent with the least number of world cities is
How has the composition of the world’s top ten most populated cities changed since 1950?
Least Developed Countries (LDCs) cities make up a larger percentage of the top ten.
What factor(s) have contributed to the rapid urbanization in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) since 1950?
Cities provide opportunity for displaced rural residents and Explosive population growth has made it difficult for subsistence farmers to support their families.
What is not a major challenges confronting mega cities in Least Developed Countries (LDCs)
lack of recreation facilities for inner city youth.
Challenges for mega cities in More Developed Countries (MDCs) include
infrastructure maintenance, crime, and pollution.
The most urbanized region in the developing world is
South America.
In the United States overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) eventually lead to conurbanaization or
a megalopolis.
What is not major world megalopolises
New Delehi to Mumbai.
Favelas are to Brazil as ________ are to Mexico.
Squatter settlements in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) cities are usually located
on the outskirts of the urban area.
From 1400-1700 many European powers established ___________ , which served as an entrance to or exit from a conquered area
a gateway city
What geometric pattern is associated with Christaller’s Central Place Theory?
What assumption(s) are in Christaller’s Central Place Theory?
Uniform soil fertility, Population and purchasing power would be evenly distributed, and Uniform transportation system in all directions.
Large cities are economic hubs with radiating connections for commerce according to
Central Place Theory.
The minimum number of people needed to support a business is called the
The maximum distance a person is willing to travel to frequent a service is called the
Rank the following services from low to high order.
Soft drink, bakery, shoe store, auto dealership.
The economic base of many cities in Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois is
industry and manufacturing.
The economic base of many cities in the Rocky Mountain West includes
mining and recreation and tourism.
The economic expansion or contraction due to the introduction or loss of a major employer in a particular location is called the
the multiplier effect.
Cites significantly increased their population size in Europe and North America during the
Industrial Revolution.
Geographically, cities expanded outwards prior to the automobile by growing
along transportation lines.
What urban model best explains the spatial impact of automobiles and the construction of interstate highways on metropolitan areas in the United States?
Peripheral Model.
What happened to inner city neighborhoods when many industries shifted geographic location to the suburbs after World War II?
The housing stock deteriorated, Unemployment rates increased for inner city residents, and Business services declined for inner city residents.
How have industrially-based cities in the Northeastern United States attempted to combat the loss of jobs from the relocation of industries to suburbs and to Least Developed Countries (LDCs)?
Develop health, research, and personal service sectors.
Rapid growth of cities in the Sunbelt of the United States took place after World War II because of
widespread automobile ownership, environmental pull of warm winters, and non-unionized labor was an economic pull for businesses.
In what region of the United States have many cities been able to move up the urban hierarchy by increasing higher order goods and services due to explosive population growth?
Sun Belt.
Various cities in North America have not used what strategy to revitalize their central business districts
by building business parks.
When inner city neighborhood property values decline, owners of large older homes often subdivide the home into multiple units. This process is known as
Blockbusting in the 1950s often contributed to
“white flight.”
A bank would be engaging in ___________ if they would not grant mortgages to customers in certain neighborhoods or zip-codes.
Young single recent college graduates who move into distressed inner city neighborhoods and refurbish their new residences would be an example of
Who is most likely to move into revitalized urban downtown area neighborhoods?
Young urban professionals (yuppies), Recent college graduates., and Double income no kids households (dinks).
One would expect to find a population pyramid with few senior citizens and people in the 25-29 age cohort in
commuter’s zone, bedroom communities, and dormitory towns.
This age cohort is well represented in upscale wealthy suburban communities.
15-19, 40-44, and 49-50.
The economic base of many cities changed in the post-industrial era from
industrial to consumer services, industrial to public services, and industrial to health services.
Due to the changing nature of a city’s economic base in North America, what activities and land uses have declined in and around the Central Business District (CBD)?
Residential, Major department stores, and Warehousing.
Bayside in Miami, Faneuil Hall in Boston, Riverwalk in San Antonio, and Pike Street Market in Seattle, all serve as
festival market places.
Many cities in North America have designed and set aside areas where outdoor concerts, street performers, ethnic events, farmers markets, and cart vendors come together and act as a positive focal point economically and socially for urban life. This recent trend is often referred to as
a festival market place.
Urban models attempt to explain
why particular patterns exist in urban areas, why people are not randomly distributed throughout an urban area, and where people with particular characteristics live.
A city grows outward from a central location in a series of rings in the
Concentric Zone Model.
According to the Burgess model, the housing stock is most deteriorated and a sizable percent of residents are immigrants in the
zone of transition.
According to the Burgess Model of Urban Development, the outer most ring is the
the commuter zone.
In Hoyt’s Sector Model lower income neighborhoods are usually located
adjacent to the industrial and transportation corridor.
What did Hoyt’s research uncover regarding the highest social class district in a city?
High-class residential areas don’t change much over time.
Large cities develop many nodes around what different types of people and activities cluster. This describes the
Multiple Nuclei Model.
In Chauncy Harris and Edward Ulman’s Multiple Nuclei Model which of the following are nodes of activities?
Hospital centers, Airport and transportation centers, and Central business district.
The major distinction between the multi nuclei and the peripheral model is that
the peripheral model highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation, the peripheral model adds a beltway that circumnavigates the urban area, and the peripheral model incorporates edge cites.
The major advantage of the peripheral model over other urban models is the fact that it
highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation.
The elite residential section in the Latin American Model is located
on either side of the main boulevard that leads to the Central Business District (CBD).
What type of land use dominates on the periphery of the Latin American Model?
Squatter settlements.
Grid street patterns are most typical for cities in
North America.
Inside the wall of Medieval European cities street patterns is best described as
chaotic with few streets meeting at right angles.
The land use pattern of auto-dominated cities is best characterized by
Even though land use in North American Central Business Districts (CBDs) is characterized by skyscrapers and high-density uses, a sizable percentage of land is still devoted to
What geographic advantages do mass transit systems such as subways and light rail have over automobiles?
They use less land area in congested urban areas.
What factor(s) contributed to the proliferation of suburbs in America during the post World War II era?
Federal government programs, Low-interest GI mortgage loans, and Demographic shifts.
When comparing urban models for North American and European cities, what is the difference between where high-class residential neighborhoods area located?
In European cities they are located near the Central Business District (CBD) and Both have high-class residential areas adjacent to the main boulevard leading into the CBD.
Visually, the main difference between cities in North America and Europe is that there
is a prevalence of skyscrapers in North American cities and are fewer skyscrapers in European cities.
Geographically, cities in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and Europe both have
the poor living along the outskirts of the city.
Mixed land use with high-density housing options located near light rail and subway stops is referred to as
transit-orientated development.
Annexation is
the process of a city legally adding more land.
Chicago incorporated land beyond its city limits to build O’Hare International Airport in the 1960s. This is an excellent example of
flagpole annexation.
Political geography can make it more difficult for metropolitan governments to solve regionally based problems because
competing municipalities often have conflicting interests, political boundaries make it difficult for regional governments to exercise authority, and each city has its own unique government.
What problems do metro area municipalities find it difficult to solve without regional governmental agencies?
Traffic congestion, Solid waste disposal, and Affordable housing.
Government solutions that help solve regional metropolitan issues include
establishing cooperative agencies , such as a council of governments, consolidations where governments share services, and altering political boundaries so city and county boundaries coincide
The “city beautiful movement” of the late 19th century was a response to
excessive pollution during the industrial era, citizens’ need for urban green spaces, and communities’ need to have clean air.
The identification of blighted urban neighborhoods and the subsequent removal of residents and demolition of deteriorated buildings with the construction of new buildings, highways, and other large construction projects is commonly known as
urban renewal.
Urban growth boundaries are most commonly associated with the movement known as
smart growth.
The basic tenants of new urbanism doesn’t include what
wide streets with cul-de-sacs.
New urbanism is based upon land use trends from
street-car suburbs of the 1920s.
Inner city neighborhoods doesn’t face what challenge
a lack of social and economic diversity.
Inner city challenges fall into three basic categories, which are
economic, social, and physical.
In the last twenty years the most successful strategy to revitalize central business districts and inner city neighborhoods has been to
construct more residences downtown.
Suburban developments suffer from
a lack of diversity and social isolation.
Since the United States has become a suburban country, what part of suburbia is now experiencing many of the challenges faced by poor urban neighborhoods?
Inner ring suburbs of the 1950s.
Unrestricted low-density development of residential and commercial activities over a large expanse of land is
What is not negative environmental consequences of suburban sprawl
increased green belts.
According to the classic bid-rent curve, what happens to the value of land as one gets closer to the Central Business District (CBD)?
Land gets more expensive.
Potentially, how could gentrification of city neighborhoods alter the density gradient of an urban area?
The density gradient might return to a pattern similar to the 1950s.
Since the 1950s, most North American metropolitan areas have
continued to expand farther out from the Central Business District (CBD), experienced increased population density in the inner ring of suburbs, and experienced a significant change in the density gradient.
Edge cites typically develop in major metropolitan areas
at the intersection of interstate highways.
What doesn’t describe edge cites
they make it easier for traffic planners to design mass transit systems.
The recent trend of metropolitan residents moving to rural areas and small towns is referred to as
Since London, England is a primate city, planners attempted to slow down the growth of greater London by
creating a greenbelt around the city.
Housing developers primarily purchase land for new projects that is not adjacent to the continuously built up urban area, because
the land is less expensive.
Urban and/or suburban gated-communities
reduce crime, increase property values, and create a space of safety.
According to the bid-rent curve, land decreases in value as one gets farther from the CBD. What accounts for major spikes in land values along the bid-rent curve?
Intersections of major roads far from the Central Business District (CBD) can dramatically increase land values.
The strongest pull factor for the creative class is
Social Area Analysis analyzes demographic characteristics at the
census tract or block level.
The three largest metropolitan areas in Canada in descending order are
Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.
The largest French speaking metropolitan area in Canada is
The gravity model when applied to urbanization reveals that
the two largest cities in a country will have the most interaction between them.
From an environmental perspective, new urbanism helps to
reduce automobile trips, reduce air pollution, and save open space.
Urban sprawl is responsible for
loss of biodiversity, loss of open space, and increasing vehicle miles driven.
What urban planning methods reduce environmental impacts?
New urbanism, Transit oriented development, and In-fill of brown fields.
The transition of a low-income neighborhood to a wealthier neighborhood over time is an example of
In many major metropolitan areas dying or abandoned shopping malls can often be found
in the first ring of suburbs built in the 1950s and 1960s.
A clustering of tall office buildings, shopping malls, and apartment complexes at the intersection of major interstate highways is called
edge cities.
In hopes of slowing down the growth of the London metropolitan area, government officials created
a greenbelt.
What is not elements of Transit Oriented Development (T.O.D.)
increasing surface parking spaces.
The area of the city where retail and office activities historically were clustered was the
central business district.
European CBDs are similar to those in North America because they both contain
retail and office activities.
Retail activities which tend to concentrate in the CBD include those which have
service for office workers.
The CBD attracts offices primarily because of its
high accessibility.
Land values are high in the CBD primarily because of
competition for limited space.
As a result of high land costs, the American CBD is characterized by
construction of skyscrapers.
The Central Business District is
attractive to consumer and business services for its accessibility and less important for retail because of changing shopping habits.
What activity tends to locate on the street-level floor of a skyscraper in a typical North American CBD?
A land use typically excluded from a North American CBD is
An example of the “vertical geography” of a CBD is
a barber shop on the bottom floor of a building, an accounting firm occupying the middle floor, and a group of condos on the top floor.
The zone in transition in U.S. cities typically contains which of the following?
warehouses, gentrified buildings, and public housing
According to the concentric zone model, a city develops in a series of
Chicago is a good location in which to develop urban models because it is located
on a flat prairie.
According to the sector model, the best housing is located in
a corridor from downtown to the edge of the city.
According to the multiple nuclei model, an airport is likely to attract nearby
Social area analysis attempts to explain
the distribution of different types of people in an urban area.
The multiple nuclei theory best explains why different neighborhoods of a city attract people of different
ethnic origin.
All three models of urban structure
help explain where different types of people live in an urban area, help explain why people live where they do in cities, and depend on the use of data, like that of the US Census.
Higher income people tend to not live near the center of the city in what region?
North America
A key piece of information that marketing geographers use to create segments is
multiple nuclei maps, obtained through the use of social area analysis and socio-economic data from the census.
Ramshackle houses on the periphery of cities in less developed countries are known as
squatter settlements.
Compared to the United States, poor families in European cities are more likely to be
clustered in suburbs.
The wide boulevards built in cities in less developed countries were most likely built during what era?
When the models of urban structure developed in Chicago are applied to Rio de Janeiro, one conclusion is that
the poorest people are located in different areas.
The process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment, is
Housing deterioration can occur when
the rent a landlord collects becomes less than the needed maintenance costs and banks engage in redlining to ensure money isn’t lent in a particular area.
A process by which banks designate an area within which they refuse to lend money for improvements is
Public housing is
low-income government-owned housing.
Gentrification doesn’t
stagnates the change in a city’s ethnic patterns, allows lower income families to remain in their homes through public subsidies, and occurs because lower income families are no longer attracted to deteriorated housing.
A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class is
According to U.S. law, when a family is forced by a city to relocate
moving expenses and rent increases are paid by the government.
The underclass is characterized in part by high rates of
drug addiction.
U.S. inner cities face fiscal problems because
low-income people are concentrated there.
In U.S. cities, the underclass is
clustered in inner-city neighborhoods.
Compared to whites, African Americans in U.S. cities are more likely to be
clustered in inner-city neighborhoods.
To deal with the financial problems in some areas of the cities, American city governments
reduce services.
A recent change in the density gradient has been
a reduction in the differences in densities found within an urban area.
Compared to the United Kingdom, the amount of sprawl in the United States is
Because so few people live in the CBD, urban areas are characterized by a high degree of
The process of legally adding land area to a city in the United States is
The city plus its surrounding built-up suburbs is the
urbanized area.
In the United States, which of the following definitions of a city covers the largest land area?
metropolitan statistical area
Metropolitan Statistical Areas
have populations of at least 50,000.
Megalopolis refers to
adjacent, overlapping Metropolitan Statistical Areas.
Sprawl is the
development of new housing sites not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
British cities are surrounded by open space known as
Public transportation is better suited for commuting to the CBD primarily because
each traveler takes up less space.
A council of government
can include consolidations of city and county government and federations and is used for planning that various local governments cannot logically do.
The purpose of busing in many U.S. suburbs is to
promote racially integrated schools.
The corridor that stretches from Boston to Washington DC, called Megalopolis
was named by geographer Jean Gottmann.
A legal form of segregation in U.S. cities is achieved through
People are attracted to suburbs in part because suburbs are characterized by
private land surrounding the house.
The largest percentage of the U.S. population lives in
The density gradient
usually shows a diminishing number of houses per unit of land as the distance from the city center increases, shows a gap in center cities due to the changing pattern of where people live in recent years, and now shows a reduction in the extremes of density between inner and outer areas found within cities.
The largest number of trips are made for
Public transportation
declined from 23 billion trips per year in 1940 to 10 billion in 2006.
The U.S. government has encouraged the use of cars in part by
building interstate highways.
Compared to the private automobile, public transportation offers more
energy efficiency.
The major exception to the decline in public transit is (the)
rapid transit.
Public transit is more extensive in Western European cities than in the United States primarily because
European governments subsidize public transit.
In recent years, urban residents are more likely to shop in
suburban malls.
The attractions of shopping malls include all but which of the following?
walking distance from homes
Factories have moved to suburban locations in part because of
access to main highways.
Some employees of suburban businesses may suffer hardships because they do not
own automobiles.
Land is more intensively used in the center of the city than elsewhere.
In general, higher status families in the US are more likely to live farther away from a city center while lower status people tend to live closer to the city center.
Relatively wealthy individuals live in the center of most cities in the world outside of North America.
Cities in less developed countries have eliminated most signs of European colonial rule.
One should be careful when attempting to apply the three models of urban structure outside of the United States because those in other countries may have different reasons for selecting neighborhoods.
Public housing comprises a large percentage of housing in Britain but only a small percentage in the United States.
Public housing accounts for approximately 10% of all dwellings in the United States, whereas in the United Kingdom it is as high as 14%.
The future health of urban areas depends on relieving traffic congestion by increasing road capacity and increasing the demand for people to visit, work and live in urban areas.
The density gradient in American and European cities is becoming flatter.
Housing in suburbs is typically built for people in a single social class, often excluding others through cost, size, or location of the housing.
While public transportation ridership has declined in the United States, a number of cities have invested in new public transportation systems.
Suburban sprawl has resulted in the loss of most of the prime agricultural land in the United States.
The supply of land for new housing is more severely restricted outside European cities than U.S. cities.
A central city and its contiguous built-up suburbs is called a metropolitan statistical area.
The basic building block for MSAs is the county, because of the ease of obtaining data.
Most urban residents in the United States live in central cities rather than suburbs.
If a country follows the rank-size rule, if the largest city has 1,000,000 inhabitants, how many people live in the fifth largest city?
If a country’s largest city has 1,000,000 inhabitants and the second largest city has 200,000 inhabitants, the country follows what distribution?
primate city
Why is the absence of a rank-size distribution significant in a country like Romania?
Consumers do not all have access to goods and services.
In a country with a primate city
the largest city is more than twice as large than the second largest city and goods and services may not be evenly distributed throughout the country.
The hierarchical organization of settlements by size is known as the
rank-size rule.
A primate city is
at least twice as large as the next smaller city.
A central place is a
market center.
What is a basic economic activity?
steel mill
A firm that sells its products primarily to consumers outside its settlement is a
basic industry.
Attracting a new basic industry is important to a community, primarily because it
stimulates new nonbasic industries.
One of the most important basic activities in the southern Great Lakes region is
manufacturing of durable goods.
World cities are defined by
the number and type of business services found there.
LDCs specialize in what two types of business services?
offshore financial and back office
Defining cities based on business services found in each gives the ordered hierarchy of
world cities, command and control centers, specialized producer-service centers, and dependent centers.
Two major benefits many LDCs offer in the financial services sector are
tax breaks and privacy.
What factors determine where back office services will locate in LDCs?
low wage rates and workers who can speak English
A ________ is an example of a settlement that specializes in public services.
state capital
What technical development has allowed back office services to relocate to LDCs?
Richard Florida’s research identified a relationship between the distribution of
talent and diversity.
Settlements hold nearly all the Earth’s population but cover only about 1 percent of its surface.
Between 1972 and 2009 growth in employment in the United States has come from the Primary and Secondary sectors, while the tertiary sector has declined.
Rapid urbanization continues today in the more developed countries.
Urban population world wide exceeded rural settlement population for the first time in 2008.
People who live in rural settlements are more likely to engage in secondary sector economic activities.
The population of the world is roughly split in half between urban and rural settlements.
Linear settlement patterns were brought to North America by the French.
The colonial New England rural settlement pattern was clustered.
Cities grew rapidly in Europe immediately after the collapse of the Roman Empire.
None of the world’s ten most populous urban areas is located in Europe.
Most inhabitants of developing countries live in urban areas.
According to Louis Wirth, cities differ from rural areas in being larger, more dense, and more socially homogeneous.
When determining the market threshold, there is no need to determine what is being sold.
The frequency of periodic markets varies by culture.
Copenhagen and London are primate cities even though they are located in more developed countries.
According to the rank-size rule, if the largest city in a country contains 1,000,000 inhabitants, the fifth largest city should contain 200,000 inhabitants.
The threshold of a service is the maximum distance that most of the customers are willing to travel.
Business services are more likely to cluster in specialized business-service centers than in world cities or regional command and control centers.
Transportation and communication improvements have served to reduce the need for the clustering of services in world cities.
A community’s economic structure is comprised of its basic industries.
According to the gravity model, which two places are most likely to have a high level of interaction?
Two cities, one with a large population and the other with a medium population, that are very close in distance, like Seattle and Tacoma, Washington
What best describes the site of Manhattan?
An island bordered by the Hudson and East Rivers
What best describes the site of Mexico City?
A highland valley and dry lakebed located on a high plateau in southern central Mexico
The German geographer who developed Central Place Theory was
The notable geographer(s) who developed the multiple nuclei model of urban development was
Harris and Ullman.

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