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AP Human Geography Chapter 12-13

Agglomeration
grouping together of many firms from the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources
Barriadas
Squatter settlements found in the periphery of Latin American cities.
Bid-rent theory
the price and demand for real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District increases.
Blockbusting
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that black families will soon move into the neighborhood.
Central Business District (CBD)
The downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
Census Tract
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
cityscapes
urban landscape; similar to a landscape, yet of a city (cityscapes often show the city’s skyline, which is the CBD)
colonial city
City established by colonizing empires as administrative centers. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
commercialization
Marketing a product; The transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
commuter zone
the outer most zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.
counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
decentralization
the social process in which population and industry moves from urban centers to outlying districts
deindustrialization
process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions with cheaper labor, leaving the newly deindustrialized region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment
disamenity sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
early cities
Cities of the ancient world (-3500 to -1200) (We learned about how agriculture and language began in this era……….
entrepot
a port where merchandise can be imported and re-exported without paying import duties
favela
a slum community in a Brazilian city
female-headed household
A household dominated by a woman (We learned about how MCDs have different family structure.)
gateway city
because of their geographic location, they act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas (e.g., NYC, San Francisco, …).
gentrification
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
ghetto
a poor densely populated city district occupied by a minority ethnic group linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
ghettoization
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
global cities
a term for megacities that emphasizes their global impact as centers of economic, political, and social power
globalization
growth to a global or worldwide scale
great cities
a city with a population of more then 1 million
greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
high tech corridors
an area along a limited-access highway that houses offices and other services associated with high-tech industries
hinterland
Surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and it is the dominant urban influence as well.
indigenous city
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
in-filling
new building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development
informal sector
the portion of an economy largely outside government control in which employees work without contracts or benefits; self-employed, low-wage jobs that are virtually unregulated and untaxed
infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
inner city
urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states.
invasion and succession
Process by which new immigrants to a city move to and dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups.
lateral commuting
commuting that occurs between suburban areas rather than towards the central city.
megacities
cities with more than 10 million people
megalopolis
an extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.
conurbation
an aggregation or continuous network of urban communities
metropolitan area
includes a large city and all of its surrounding suburbs and towns
metropolitan statistical area
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
peak land value intersection
The region within a settlement with the greatest land value and commerce. As such, it is usually located in the central business district of a town or city, and has the greatest density of transport links such as roads and rail
postindustrial city
a city in which global finances and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy
primate city
A country’s largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
racial steering
real estate agents advising customers to purchase homes in neighborhoods depending on their race
rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement
redlining
Illegal practice of refusing to make mortgage loans or issue insurance policies in specific areas for reasons other than economic qualifications of applicants
restrictive covenants
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
segregation
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
site/situation
the absolute location of an area/the relative location of an area, its place in the region or world
social structure
the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships
specialization
When a person, country, or region works on making one part of an item
squatter settlement
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
grid (street patterns)
A system of crossing lines to help locate places
dendritic (street patterns)
pattern that resembles a tree
access & control (street patterns)
???
suburbanization
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual). In North America, the process began in the early nineteenth century and became a mass phenomenon by the second half of the twentieth century.
tenement
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
threshold/range
The population required to make provision of services economically feasible//In economic geography and central place theory, the minimum market needed to support the supply of a product or service
underemployment
less than full-time work or work that does not utilize a person’s skills
urban growth rate
Rate of growth of an urban population. Compare degree of urbanization.
urban hearth area
An area where large cities first existed. (Ex. Mesopatamia, Nile River Valley)
urban heat island
a dome of heat over a city created by urban activites and conditions
urban hierarchy
A ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions.
urban morphology
the study of the physical form and structure of urban places
urbanization
growth of cities; he social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
bid-rent theory
W. ALONSO— geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Central Place Theory
W. CHRISTALLER— A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
urban model
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).

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