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AP Human Geography Edison Urban Definitions

Urban Morphology
The study of the physical form and structure of urban places
Agricultural Village
A relatively small village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture.
Agricultural Surplus
agricultural production in excess which the producer needs for his own sustenance for his family and then sold for consumption by the market
Trade Area
Area where a large trade organization is taken place
Central Place Theory
Theory proposed by Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally distributed
Functional Zonation
The division of a city into different regions, or zones
Central Business District
The downtown heart of a central city, the marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings.
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that has five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
Leadership Class
Group of decision-makers and organizers in early cities who controlled the resources, and often the lives, of others.
Region of great cities (e.g Ur and Babylong) located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; chronologically the first urban hearth, dating to 3500 BCE, and which as founded in the Fertile Crescent.
Nile River Valley
Chronologially the second urban hearth dating back to 3200 BCE.
Indus River Valley
Chronoligcally the third urban hearth dating back to 2200 BCE.
Huang He and Wei
Rivers in present-day China; it was at the confluence of the Huang He and Wei Rivers where chronologically the fourth urban hearth was founded by the Chinese.
Edge Cities
the shifting focus of urbanization in the United States of America, away from the Central Business District toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe
Griffin-Ford Model
Developed by geographers Ernst Griffin and larry Ford, a model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin America culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
McGee Model
Developed by geographer T.G. McGee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among the medium-sized cities of Southeast Asia.
Unplanned slum development on the marigins of cities
discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominately white neighborhoods
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods
The internal physical attributes of a place, including its absolute location, its spatial character and physical setting.
The external location attributes of a place; its relative location or regional position with reference to other nonlocal places.
Urban Sprawl
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
World City
Dominant city in terms of its role in the global political economy. Not the world’s biggest city in terms of population or industrial output, but rather centers of strategic control of the world economy.
Primate City
A country’s largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.

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