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AP Human Geography-Services

Basic Industries
Definition: Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.

Example: Agriculture, ranching, fishing, forestry, mining, and petroleum

Application: Very few basic industries, but all essential to our economy.

Business Services
Definition: Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses, including professional, financial, and transportation services

Example:Banks, trains, public buses.

Application: These are essential to our economy because they allow all services to operate.

Central Business District
Definition: The commercial and often geographic heart of a city

Example: Abuja – Nigeria, Hong Kong, London – UK

Application: CBD’s are the “DOWNTOWN” of places. they contain many shops, stores and businesses and make the skyline distinctive.

Economic Base
Definition: A community’s collection of basic industries.

Example: Primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors.

Application: this is everything in the economy.

Hinterland
Definition: The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place’s goods and services.

Example: Westchester–>NYC

Application: Hinterlands are still a part of the cities markets.

Non-basic Industries
Definition: Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.

Example: Gym, Tan, Laundry,

Application: Non basic industries

Primate City
Definition: The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.

Example: NYC, Paris, London, Mexico City, Bangkok
Application: Most powerful city in country

Range
Definition: The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service

Example: 5 min to Convenience store

Application: Helps people to determine the central place for a service.

Rank-size Rule
Definition: A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the 11th largest settlement is in the population of the largest settlement.

Example: Used in America

Application: Largest ___ , Second largest 1/2 of the largest, Third Largest is 1/3 of the largest, Fourth largest is 1/4 of the largest, etc

Threshold
Definition: The minimum number of people needed to support the service

Example: only a certain percentage of actually people using service.

Application: The threshold is a necessary thing to be computed before starting a service.

Urbanization
Definition: An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.

Example: People move into Hong Kong

Application: Cities are the more powerful parts of countries.

Basic/Public Services
Definition: Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses

Example: Firemen, police, waterworks, electrical grid matenance

Application: Allows economy to run smoothly. The basic things needed to make a city run

Commuter Zone
Definition: the furthest zone of the Concentric Zone Model that represents people who choose to live in residential suburbia and take a daily commute in the CBD to work.

Example: Every one who lives up here and works in Maryland

Application: ^^^

Density Gradient
Definition: The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.

Example: Model

Application:Very Important because Density Gradient affects urban areas.

Edge Cities
Definition: A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.

Example: Westchester

Application:Very Important because Edge City affects urban areas.

Filtering
Definition: A process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner to having many residents.

Example: Forclosure

Application: Very Important because Filtering affects urban areas.

Gentrification
Definition: A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.

Example: Wicker Park – Chicago, SoHo – Manhattan

Application:Very Important because Gentrification affects urban areas.

Greenbelt
Definition: A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.

Example: Plants and such on the border

Application: Stops big cities from growing out of control

Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)
Definition: In the United States, a central city of 10000 or more population, and adjacent jurisdictions with a high degree of social and economic integration.

Example: Tokyo, Mexico City, New York City

Application:Very Important because Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) affects urban areas.

Multiple Nuclei Model
Definition: Harris and Ullman. A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.

Example: Universities are built near well educated residents

Peripheral Model
Definition: Chauncey Harris. A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.

Example: Buffalo – NY, Cleveland – OH, Detroit – MI

Public Housing
Definition: Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families’ incomes.

Example: “The projects”

Application: Make housing cheap to try to get people on their feet but with it comes the development of ganges and stuff like that

Redlining
Definition: A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.

Example: Done by banks

Application: Very Important because Redlining doent give people a chance to make batter for themselves

Sector Model
Definition: Homer Hoyt. A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).

Example: I don’t know

Smart Growth
Definition: When people build vertically not horizontally <--> to make good use of space

Example: NYC, Dubai

Application: Makes good use of land

Sprawl
Definition: Hazardous growth or extension outward.

Example: Europe, LA, New York, DC

Application: Very Important because if sprawl continues there will be no more land

Squatter settlement
Definition: An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.

Example: Brazil, Indonesia, India

Urban Renewal
Definition: Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.

Example: NYC

Zoning Ordinancee
Definition: A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.

Example: I don’t know

World City
Definition: A major city that has influence around the world

Examples: London,England, and Tokyo,Japan.

Urban Realm model
Definition: A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).

Examples: DC – Fairfax. Baltimore- Towson

Restrictive Covenants
Definition: Land deeds containing clauses against selling lad to people of certain ethnicities

Example: Racist covenants

Gateway City
Definition: Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.

Example: DC

Megacities
Definition: A metropolitan area with a total population of more than 10 million people

Examples: Tokyo, Mexico, city

Megalopolis
Definition: Several, metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.

Example: Chipitt

Favela
Definition: The brazilian equivalent of a shanty-town, which are generally found on the edge of the city
Ethic Neighborhood
Definition: A neighborhood in which the people who live in there and share physical, mental, and cultural traits
Forward Capital
Definition: A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state.

Example: Brasília

Subsaharan African City Model
Harm De Blij.
-Outer Circle- do more labor. Poorest people.
-CBD broken into 3 parts.
-Wealthiest are in the middle.
-Traditional- open market
-Colonial- Colonies wouldn’t shop there. Created everything for themselves. ruled by europeans.
Market- Africans built little houses so native americans couldn’t go in until 10. unless they are working
Latin American City Model
Griffin-Ford
Combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving CBD with a commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD, and the areas of worse housing occurs in the Disamenity sectors.
Concentric Zone Model
E.W Burgess
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Bid- rent theory
Definition: geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.

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