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AP Human Geography- Unit 6, Part 2

Hoyt’s Sector Model
Focuses on residential patterns explaining where the wealthy in a city choose to live. He argued that the city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city’s outer edge, creating zones which are shaped like pieces of a pie.
Edge City
A term introduced by American Journalist Joel Garreau in order to describe the shifting focus of urbanization in the US away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe. These cities are characterized by extensive amounts of office and retail space, few residential areas, and modern buildings.
Urban Realm
The spatial componenets of the modern metroplis, where each realm is a separate economic, social, and polititical entity that is linked together to form the larger metropolitian framework
Harris and Ulman’s Multiple Nuclei Model
Recognizes that the CBD is losing its dominant position as the single nucleus of the urban area. Several urban regions have their own nucleus.
Urban Realm Model
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
Exurb
Small communities lying beyond the suburbs of a city
Counterurbanization
Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.
Griffin-Ford Latin American City Model
Combines elements of Latin American Culture and globalization by combining radial sectors and concentric zones. Includes a thriving CBD with a commercial spine. The quality of houses decreases as one moves outward away from the CBD, and the areas of worse housing occurs in the Disamenity sectors.
Disamenity Sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
Favelas
Poor slums in the disamenity sectors of many Latin American cities.
Periferico
A peripheral area beyond the ring highway that contains squatter settlements. Included in the Griffin-Ford Model updated by Larry Ford.
McGhee Model
Developed by geographer T.G. McGhee, a model showing similar land-use patterns among medium sized cities of Southeast Asia. Its focal point is the old colonial port zone. The model also does not find any CBD in asia, but rather he found elements of the CBD present as separate clusters surrounding the port zone.
Urban Sprawl
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
Shantytowns
Unplanned slum developments on the margins of cities, dominated by crude dwellings and shelters made mostly of scrap wood, iron, and even pieces of cardboard.
Zoning Ordinances
Legal restrictions on land use that determine what types of building and economic activities are allowed to take place in certain areas. In the US, areas are mostly commonly divided into separate zones of residential, retail, or industrial use.
Restrictive covenants
A statement written into a property deed that restricts the use of the land in some way; often used to prohibit certain groups of people from buying property
Ghettoization
A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
Uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Cumulative Causation
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
Blockbusting
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of property.
Racial Steering
Realtors steer nonwhites to non white neighborhoods.
Redlining
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. Today, it is officially illegal.
Gentrification
The rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned housing of low-income inner-city residents.
Suburbanization
The process of population movement from within towns and cities to the rural-urban fringe.
Greenbelt
A ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
Master planned communities
A new town, planned community or planned city is a city, town, or community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed in a previously undeveloped area.
Gated communities
restricted neighborhoods or subdivisions, often literally fenced in, where entry is limited to residents and their guests
Economic base
the wealth produced in or near a community that provides employment and income to the local population
Non-basic sector
Those economic activities of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no “export” implication
Ethnic culture region
An area occupied by people of similar ethnic background who share traits of ethnicity, such as language and migration history

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