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AP Human Geography Unit 7

barridas / barrios / favelas
illegal housing settlements, usually made up of temporary shelters that surround large cities
bid-rent theory / peak land value
the amount of land different land users are prepared to pay for locations at various distances from the city center
blockbustering
the rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging ethnic minorities to move to previously white neighborhoods
CBD – Central Business District
the downtown heart of a central city, marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce and the clustering of the tallest buildings
census tract
small districs used by the US Census Bureau to survey the population
cityscapes
an urban landscape
colonial city
a city founded by colonialism or an indigenous city whose structure was deeply influenced by western culture
commercialization
the transformation of an area of a city into an area attractive to residents and tourists alike in terms of economic activity
commuter zone
the outermost zone of the concentric zone model that represents people who choose to live in residential surburbia and take a daily commute into the CBD to work
counter-urbanization
a demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas
decentralization
the tendency of people or businesses and industry to locate outside the central city
disamenity sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs and drug lords.
economic base
the manufacturing and service activities preformed by the basic sector; functions of a city preformed to satisfy demands external to the cirty itself, earning income to support the urban population
-basic sector
those products or services of an urban economy that are exported outside of the city itself, earning income for the community
-nonbasic sector
those economic activites of an urban unit that supply the resident population with goods and services and that have no “export” implication
edge city
distinct sizable nodal concentration of retail and office space of lower that central city densities and situated on the outer fringes of older metropolitan areas
emerging cities
a city currently without much population but is increasing in size at a fast rate
entrepot
a trading center, or simply a trading warehouse where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying for import duties, often at a profit
ethnic neighborhoods
a neighborhood, typically situated in larger metropolitan cities and constructed by or comprised of local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs
female-headed household
a household dominated by a woman
gateway city
a city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation
gender
the social difference between men andwomen rather than the anatomical differences that are related to sex
gentrification
trend of mid to high-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architechture and also replacing the low-income population
ghettoization
process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated center of poverty, as rich whites move out to the suburbs
global cities
centers of economic, culture and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce
great cities
cities with populations over one million
greenbelt
a ring of land maintained as parks, agricultural, or other types of open space that limit the sprawl of an urban area
high tech corridors
areas along or near major transportation arteries that are devoted to the research, development, and sale of high-technology products
hinterland
the sphere of economic influence of a town or city
indigenous city
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a place
in-filling
building on empty parcels of land within a checkerboard pattern of development
informal sector
economic activities that take place beyond official record, not subject to formalized systems of regulations or remuneration
infrastructure
the underlying framework of services and amenities needed to facilitate productive activity
inner city
the central area of a major city; in the US it often applied to the poorer parts of the city center where people are less educated and wealthy where there is more crime
invasion and succession
process by which new immigrants to a city move to dominate or take over areas or neighborhoods occupied by older immigrant groups
lateral commuting
traveling from one suburb to another and going from home to work
megacities
cities with more than 10 million people
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
conurbantion
an agglomeration of towns or cities into an unbroken urban environment
metropolitan statistical area
area with a city of 50 thousand or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city
micropolitan statistical area
an urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiplier effect
the direct, indirect, and induced consequences of change in an activity; in urban geography, the expected addiction of nonbasic workers and dependents to a city’s local employment and population that accompanies new basic sector employment
planned community
a city, town, or community that was designed from scratch, and grew up more or less following the plan
postindustrial city
a city exhibiting the characteristics of a postindustrial society
postmodern urban landscape
the material character of a postmodern urban area
primate city
a city of large size and dominant power within a country; a country’s larges city, ranking atop the urban hierarchy, most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital city as well
racial steering
the practice in which real estate brokers guide prospective home buyers towards or away from certain neighborhoods based on their race
rank-size rule
in a modern urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy
redlining
a practice by banks and mortgage companies of demarcating areas considered to be high risk for housing loans
restrictive covenants
a statement written into a property deed that restrics the use of land in some way
segregation
the separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
site
the physical position in relation to the surroundings
situation
the position determined by non-physical attributes in relation to its surroundings
squatter settlement
residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants
street patterns
the way in which streets are designed
grid- streets are arranged in a grid-like fashion
dendritic- characterized by fewer streets organized based on the amount of traffic each is intended to carry
access- provides access to a subdivision, housing project, or highway
suburb
a subsidiary urban area surrounding and connected to the central city. many are exclusively residential; others have their own commercial centers or shopping malls.
suburbanization
movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
tenement
a building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
threshold
in the central place theory, the size of the population required to make provision of services economically feasible
range
in central-place theory, the average maximum distance people will travel to purchase a good or service
underemployment
a situation in which people work less than full time even though they would prefer to work more hours
urban growth rate
the rate of growth of an urban population
urban hearth area
a region in which the world’s first cities evolved
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic function
under morphology
the form and structure of cities, including street patterns and the size and shape of buildings
urban realm
the spatial componenets of the modern metroplis, where each realm is a separate economic, social, and polititical entity that is linked together to form the larger metropolitian framework
urbanized population
the proportion of a country’s population living in cities
world city
one of the largest cities in the world, generally with a ppulation of over 10 million
zone in transition
an area of mixed commercial and residential land uses surrounding the CBD
zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc

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