What was the economic status of women by 1990?
Although women increasingly gained new positions the average female worker still made less tha 70 cents per every male dollar. “Glass Ceilings”limited chances for promotion and childcare expenses fell on women who worked outside of the home.
What was Roe v. Wade?
Supreme court abortion decision that mobilized protestants to join with Anti-abortion catholics, brought religion into partisan politics.
What are Affirmative Action programs?
required that groups that historically had faced discrimination could recieve an equitable share of the nations public spending and educational programs needed to make sure that a representative number of people from different groups had a reasonable chance of acceptance
Who did and did not support new womens movements?
supporters: democrats, cultural and ethic groups
Against: Male leaders
What was the immigration Act of 1965?
least controversial but most imprtant pieces of Johnsons great society legislation ended national orgin quotas, 20,000 for every country, priority to those with close family ties or special skills. refugees
Who is the largest private sector employer in the U.S.?
What was the apollo program?
Space program promising manned mission to the moon by 1970, Neil Armstrong first to walk on the moon, apollo flights continue until 1972
Which Latin American or Caribbean country could win the right to immigrate to the U.S. during the 1980’s?
Why did the SunBelt Grow?
Air conditioning, retirement communities, lower labor costs, absence of string unions, high tech industries, space industry
What was the Sundance Film Festival?
To encourage “offbeat” screen writing and direction
What changed about the study of mass culture from the 50’s to the 90s?
instead of seeing consumers as cultural drones who passively soaked up worthless products it stressed peoples creative interaction w/commercial culture. embraced multiculturalism.
What happened to the labor movement during the 1990s?
more technology jobs, computer revolution leads to downsizing and mergers. Decline in manufacturing jobs. Labor union membership dropped, unions struggled to get into new areas.
What are Neoconservatives?
“NeoCons anticommunist liberals who thought democratic party was abandoning anticommunist foreign policy and catering to social activists, moved rightward and embraced the republicans wrote lively essays and denounced social programs
Who was Cesar Chavez?
Charasmatic leader who emulated nonviolent tactics of MLK, vaulter the United Farm Workers into public attention during 1970s , hunger strikes , boycotts, established ties with liberal democrats.
What was the “Tailhook” incident?
Navy officials covered up sexual harassment at Tailhook convention. Provoked outrage and led many high ranking officials to step down.
During the 1980’s over half of the new jobs paid a yearlyt salary of what?
less than $7,000
What groups are part of the “new Right”?
Older activists, neoconservatives, grass roots protestants
What was the Refugee Act of 1980?
specified that political refugees seeking admission could be admitted if fleeing overt persecution but those seeking to improve economic lot would be denied.
How have mass demonstrations been covered recently?
Seldom covered by media unless sparked violent conflict
What was the O.J. Simpson trial?
Sports star + media personality on trial for two murders, sparked lasting debate about racial identity and law. Found not guilty (misconduct by police officers) blacks generally support decision, whites generally outraged
Welfare payments changed from the 70s to the 90s how?
Fell from 577 per month to 430 per month
From which nation do most Spanish-speaking Americans come from?
What show was a big hit for the Fox Network?
What was business restructuring like in the late 20th century?
companies cut their work force and trim management as they downsized and merge. types of jobs switched to technology.
What characterized the television industry of the 80s and 90s?
competition between national channels, independent stations, and cable
What were some of the business changes that occurred during the 80s and 90s?
Downsizing merges, switch from industrial jobs to desk work. Widening gap between salaries
What were the central cities like at the end of teh 20th century?
80% of Americans lived in Metropolitan areas. Suburbs became urban corridors, sprouted edge cities, malls, low income populations, rising rates of homelessness and crime, declining schools, urban decay until a revival turned things around and cities became safer, mor convenient and culturally vibrant.
Who staged a sit-in at Alcatraz?
people from several tribes. designed to dramatize history of broken treaty promises. “Pan-indian” in nature
Why do political and social critics oppose multiculturalism?
Multiculturalism, they say, debases intelligent life
After 1970 what happened to the average age for women to marry?
higher than anytime since statistics began being collected in th 19th century
During the 70s and 80s where did most immigrants come from?
What was the fastest growing region by the 70s and 80s?
South and West
Who was Anita Hill?
African American Law Professor who accursed Clarence Thomas, a nominee for the supreme court, or sexual harassment
What was the Stonewall Inn?
Bar in greenwhich Village, raided by NYC police, confrontation with bar’s largely homosexual patrons. Patrons resisited arrest
What was La Raza Unida?
Movement founded in 1967, began to win local elections. Mexican activism and conservation of culture.
Which minority group was largest by the 80s and 90s?
What were the fastest growing states between 1940 and 1959?
Nevada, California, Florida, and Arizona
Which region lost political power due to population shifts?
What was the birth rate like after the 1970s?
slowed significantly to only abou 1 % per year
What happened to Urban Crime during the 1990s?
Lowered due to more policing, aging population, and harsher sentencing
What is MALDEF?
Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund. Established in 1968 w/ funds from Ford Foundation. Most visible national group, ready to lobby or litigate on behalf of Mexican Americans
What is racial profiling?
practice that could touch any races. prominent issue. African Americans were detained as suspects more often, raised questions about rights of equal protection and made people doubt the legal system
What is the Human Genome Project?
Deepend scientist’s understanding of genetic engeneering and may pave roads for gene transfer, embryo manipulation, tissue regeneration and cloning
What is characteristic of new Hollywood?
A parthnership between hollywood and television
What became characteristic of workers by the late 20th century?
Union membership declines
What is the immigration reform and control act?
1986 imposed stricter penalties on businesses employing undocumented workers, granted residency to people who could prove that they had been living in the U.S. since 1982
What is multiculturalism?
attention to women, political outsiders, non western writers and artists
Who is Toni Morrison?
African American who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993
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