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APUSH Big business, Big labor, Big Cities

Robber Barons
business; corrupt system; businessmen who were viewed as having used questionable practices to amass their wealth
Cornelius Vanderbilt
“Commodore”; transportation industry (railroads); his son William was in steamboat business
Jay Gould
railroad industry; vilified as a robber baron; involved with Tammany Hall (Boss Tweed)
Andrew Carnegie
“On Wealth” book; thought anglo-saxon race is superior; thought inequality was inevitable and good; wrote “Gospel of Wealth” in 1901; thought the wealthy are “trustees” for “poor brethren”; involved in U.S. Steel Industry
John D. Rockefeller
governor of NY; Standard Oil Company; Horizontal integration as business method (a strategy used by a business or corporation that seeks to sell a type of product in numerous markets)
Sherman Anti-trust Act
1890; no trusts or monopolies; in “restraint of trade”; “rule of reason” loophole so government can regulate prices
U.S. versus E.C. Knight
1895; “Sugar Trust Case”; U.S. Supreme Court held that Manufacturing is not considered an area that can be regulated by Congress pursuant to the commerce clause; limited government’s power to control monopolies;
Social Darwinism
capitalist thinking; Herbert Spencer (British economist); Laissez-faire; “survival of the fittest” applied to humans and business; William Graham Sumner
Gospel of Wealth
religion; God’s approval that wealth isn’t bad; Christian duty to accumulate wealth; should not help the poor; Russell H. Conwell (founded Temple University); article written by Andrew Carnegie
Thomas A. Edison
“Wizard of Menlo Park”; electricity; light bulb
Horatio Alger
American Dream; writer; Protestant “work ethic”; work hard means good life; self made man
Railroad Strike of 1877
railroad workers striked v/c of unfair work conditions; spread and turned into national issue; violent
Boss Tweed
“Tweed ring” in NYC; political machine; jailed for corruption
Thomas Nast
took down Boss Tweed with political cartoons
Social Gospel
Carnegie; help poor; inequality is good and inevitable
Gilded Age
Grant’s corrupt president; shallow glittery life; characterized social and political life; coined by Mark Twain; politicians avoided fundamental issues
Yellow-dog contract
employees agree not to join a labor union
Open shop
employment place where one is not required to join or support a union
Closed shop
union security agreement; employer hires members of union; employees must remain members of union to stay employed
Knights of Labor
Terrence V. Powderly; workers labor union; 8 hr workday; workers’ cooperatives; worker-owned factories; abolition of child and prison labor; increased circulation of greenbacks; equal pay for men and women; safety codes in workplace; prohibition of foreign labor contract; abolition of National Bank
Haymarket Riot 1886
Haymarket Square, Chicago; peaceful striking workers; someone threw bomb; police fired and people died
American Federation of Labor; skilled laborers; represented workers in matters of national legislation; maintained national strike fund; evangelized cause of unionism; closed shops; prevented disputes among craft unions; mediated disputes between management and labor
Samuel Gompers
founded AFL; joined Anti-Imperialist League; against immigration
Homestead Strike 1892
Iron and steel workers strike; Carnegie sends in Pinkertons and Scabs; strikers oppose; governor sends in help and stops strike
Pullman Strike 1894
unsuccessful b/c government injunctions; mail delivered by Pullman Cars; Government (Grover Cleveland) stops strike; Pullman, Illinois; a “company town”; because of wage reductions; led by Eugene Debs, who got arrested
In re Debs
U.S. Supreme Court decision; government had right to regulate interstate commerce and ensure operations of Postal Service
Henry George
single tax on land; wrote “Progress and Poverty”; inequality of industrial economy
Jacob Riis
“How the Other Half Lives” 1890; muckraker; photographer; tenement/slum living
Edward Bellamy
“Looking Backward”; Utopian novel; socialist; influential writer
Settlement Movement
1890s middle-class reformers; settlement houses to help immigrant families adapt to U.S.; give college-educated women meaningful work
Jane Addams
Hull House in Chicago 1889; women’s suffrage;rights movement
Carrie Nation
Carrie Amelia Moore Nation; member of the temperance movement
Louis Sullivan
American architect; father of modern skyscraper; form follows function
Chicago School of Architecture
Louis Sullivan was a critic
William Lloyd Wright
American architect; pupil of Sullivan; “Prairie House” school of architecture”; function follows form; Guggenheim Museum
“Melting Pot” theory
cultural assimilation (immigrants)
Emma Lazarus
American Jewish Poet; wrote “The New Colossus”; forerunner of Zionist movement
Pendleton Act 1885
Civil Service Reform; government jobs given based on merit; created U.S. Civil Service Commission; Chester A. Arthur administration
Bland-Allison Act 1878
Congress required U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as U.S. dollars; Congress overturned Haye’s veto
Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890
U.S. Treasury must buy $4.5 million ounces of silver per month; government deposited most of the silver into the U.S. Treasury rather than circulation
Panic of 1893
Railroad business crashes; economic depression; railroad overbuilding; shaky financing which led to bank failures
Coxey’s Army 1894
Protest march of unemployed workers led by Jacob Coxey; “Army of the Commonweal in Christ”
William Jennings Bryan
1896, 1900 and 1908 democratic candidate; “The Great Commoner”; for silver; revivalist style of oratory; the “Farmer’s Friend”; his platform included tariff reductions, free silver, income tax, stricter control of trusts
Mark Hanna
1896 republican political manager William McKinley; “The Front Porch Campaign” for William McKinley; gold and silver
working-class activism; People’s Party
“Cross of Gold”
Speech given by William Jennings Bryan; advocate bi-metalism
Silver bugs
supporters of the silver standard
Gold bugs
People who support gold standard; popularized in 1896 election; McKinley supporters
movements promoting political and social reforms through government actions or sometimes revolutions
Lincoln Steffens
California journalist; wrote articles exposing connections between respectable businessmen and corrupt politicians; “The Shame of Cities”
Ida Tarbell
Teacher turned journalist; revealed ruthlessness in John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
Upton Sinclair
wrote “The Jungle”; exposed the horrors of Chicago’s meatpacking industry; a muckraker
Florence Kelley
crusade against child labor; member of first generation of college women in U.S.; Hull House resident; argued for child labor laws
Margaret Sanger
nurse; one founder of American Birth Control movement; wrote “The Woman Rebel” and “Family Limitation”; 1921 founded the American Birth Control League which became Planned Parenthood Foundation in 1942
Lewis Hine
muckraker who used photography
Alice Paul
Quaker from New Jersey; leader of group that broke from NAWSA called National Women’s Party (NWP) in 1916; picketed and chained themselves to fences; militant tactics
Carrie Chapman Catt
efficient administrator and organizer;devised strategy that eventually gave women the vote; joined Iowa Woman Suffrage Association; 1915 became president of National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA); state campaigns
John Dewey
Pragmatist; established philosophical foundation for reform; said schools should be child oriented, not subject oriented; movable chairs; education reform movement; schools should be instruments for social reform; wrote “The School and Society”
Frederick Winslow Taylor
1880s became chief engineer at Midvale Steel Company; 4 principles of scientific management: centralized planning, systematic analysis of each job; detailed instructions and close supervision of each worker; incentive wage system to encourage workers to work harder and faster
Eugene Debs
co-founded the IWW (Industrial Workers of the World); international labor union; candidate for Socialist Party for president of U.S.; became socialist after reading the works of Karl Marx in prison from the Pullman Strike of 1894; Socialist Party Platform
Socialist Party Platform
government ownership of railroads and utilities; guaranteed income tax; no tariffs; 8 hour work days; better housing; government inspection of factories; women’s suffrage
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn
labor rights movement leader; activist; feminist; leader in IWW; founding member of American Civil Liberties Union; advocate of women’s rights, women’s suffrage, and birth control

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