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APUSH Ch. 17

in the late nineteenth century industry in the united states
saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth
cyrus field, jp morgan, john d rockefeller, andrew carnegie, samuel morse
John D. Rockefeller began to develop an oil empire by taking control of competing oil companies in Ohio
prior to the civil war the steel industry in the united states
saw little development, barely developed at all
the process of making steel developed by henry bessemer
included blowing air through molten iron, involved adding ingredients to molten iron, was also developed by an American, William Kelly, included both blowing air through and adding ingredients to molten iron
the open hearth process of making steel, abram hewitt
made the production of large dimension pieces possible
in the united states the steel industry first emerged in
Pennsylvania and Ohio
important centers for steel production
Pittsburgh Chicago Birmingham Detroit

NOT Atlanta

in the late nineteenth century the needs of the american steel industry directly contributed to the further development of
NOT the automobile industry

steam engine technology, freighters on the Great Lakes, the Pennsylvania Railroad, the oil industry

the first significant oil production in the united states
occurred in Pennsylvania
in the 1870s the internal combustion engine
developed in Europe
in 1917 automobile production in the united states
saw five million cars on American roads
orville and wilbur wrights first successful airplane flight in 1903
took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
in 1900 the emergence of research laboratories in american corporations
led to a diversification of research interests
in the early twentieth century a principal goal of taylorism
organize industrial production into many simple tasks
a key to henry fords success in mass production of automobiles
the use of interchangeable parts
in 1929 the base price of a ford model t
$290
the american railroad industry in the late nineteenth century
included the nation’s largest businesses, relied partially on government subsidies for its growth, was among the first to adopt new corporate form of organization, became a national symbol of concentrated economic power

did NOT see Congress outlaw railroad combinations

during the late nineteenth century the growth of large corporations was helped
by sales of company stock to the public, by “limited liability” laws, by the realization that great ventures could not be financed by any single person.
what men are significantly associated with steel industry
Henry Bessemer Andrew Carnegie J. Pierpont Morgan Henry Clay Frick

NOT James J. Hill

vertical integration
Carnegie Steel & Standard Oil
horizontal integration
Carnegie Steel & Standard Oil
to john d rockefeller the great curse of business in the late nineteenth century
cutthroat competition
in the american business community at the end of the nineteenth century
one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing
in the late nineteenth century most american business millionaires
began their careers from positions of wealth and privilege
the social theory of social darwinism
promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth
in the late nineteenth century social darwinists argued
people who failed economically in the United States did so because they had poor individual character
in the late nineteenth century the first and most important promoter of social darwinism
Herbert Spencer
according to the ideas expressed by andrew carnegie in his gospel of wealth
the rich had great responsibilities to society
in his books horatio alger
emphasized the value of personal character in business
the late nineteenth century sociologist lester frank ward
believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society
in the late nineteenth century daniel de leon
founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States
in the late nineteenth century the social writer henry george argued
a single land tax to replace all other taxes
edward bellamys 1888 book looking backward
imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust
in the late nineteenth century due to the growth of industrial capitalism american workers
saw a rise in their standard of living, experienced a loss in their control over their own work, were forced to contend with arduous and dangerous working conditions
during the 1870s and 1880s immigrants to the united states
came from Great Britain and northern Europe
until its repeal in 1885 the labor contract law
put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen
by 1900 the average yearly income of american workers
NOT about $600, did NOT allow most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of living, did NOT remain generally unaffected by economic boom-and-bust cycles
in 1900 in regards to the work conditions in american factories
laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week
during the late nineteenth century child labor in the united states
increased significantly
the molly maguires
were a militiant labor union in the coal industry
the great railroad strike of 1877
was launched in response to a wage cut
the knights of labor
began as a secret fraternal organization
at its height in 1886 the knights of labor
was led by Terence V. Powderly
the american federation of labor
Samuel Gompers was the leader
the hay market square riot of 1886
resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists
during the late nineteenth century century anarchists in the united states
were relatively peaceful, were linked with violence and terrorism in the public mind, became tied to the labor movement in the public mind
in what industry, the homestead act of 1892
steel
events, the homestead strike of 1892
Henry Frick shut down the plant in an attempt to destroy the Amalgamated union, the entire Pennsylvania National Guard was ordered to protect strikebreakers, hundred of guards hired by Homestead were defeated in a deadly battle with strikers, one radical made a failed attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick

Amalgamated trade union did NOT win the strike

the pullman strike of 1894 began when george pullman, owner of the company
cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy
the pullman strike of 1894
saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike
eugene debs
played a leading role in Pullman strike
in the late nineteenth century reasons organized labor failed to make great gains
tensions between ethnic and racial groups which divided the work force, labor unions which faced powerful and wealthy corporations, geographical mobility which served to dilute institutional ties and class consciousness, major labor organizations which represented only a small percentage of the industrial work force.

NOT state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers which did not exist

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