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APUSH chapter 24 Vocab

Henry Ford
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Wright Brothers
Orville Wright credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit.
Kitty Hawk, NC
place where the first airplane flight took place
Frederick W. Taylor
The original “efficiency expert” who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911, preached the gospel of efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.
“Taylorism”
scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a revolution in American education of social science.
Scientific management
a management theory using efficiency experts to examine each work operations and find ways to minimize the time needed to complete it
Thomas Alva Edison
This scientist received more than 1,300 patents for a range of items including the automatic telegraph machine, the phonograph, improvements to the light bulb, a modernized telephone and motion picture equipment.
“the wizard of Menlo Park”
The nickname given to Thomas Edison by a newspaper reporter
Alexander Graham Bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the “Robber barons”
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric.
Horizontal integration
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level, Type of monopoly where a company buys out all of its competition. Ex. Rockefeller
Vertical integration
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
J.D. Rockefeller
American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company ; first billionaire
Pool
any communal combination of funds
Trust
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Cornelius Vanderbilt
a railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Horatio Alger
United States author of inspirational adventure stories for boys, Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote “rags to riches” books praising the values of hard work
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
“Invisible Hand”
a phrase coined by Adam Smith to describe the process that turns self-directed gain into social and economic benefits for all
Herbert Spenser
English philosopher and sociologist who applied the theory of natural selection to human societies (1820-1903)
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
“Gospel of Wealth”
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Lester Ward
sociologist who wrote Dynamic Sociology in 1883 and other books , in which he argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished, and he believed that an active government engaged in positive planning, which was societies best hope.
Dynamic Sociology
A two volume, 1200 page publication by Lester Ward. He hoped to restore the central importance of experimentation and the scientific method to the field of sociology
Henry George
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
Edward Bellamy
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
National Labor Union
1866 – established by William Sylvis – wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor – attempt to unite all laborers
Molly Maguires
An active, militant Irish organization of farmers based in the Pennsylvania anthracite coal fields who are believed responsible for much violence
Pinkerton Agency
Private security force that specialized in antiunion activities; businesses’ tool to break apart strikes
Scabs
Stirkebreakers hired by employers as replacement workers when unions went on strike
Yellow-dog contracts
A written contract between employers and employees in which the employees sign an agreement that they will not join a union while working for the company.
Blacklisting
A blacklist is a list or register of people who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, or mobility
Open shop
A company with a labor agreement under which union membership cannot be required as a condition of employment.
Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
Great RR Strike 1877
Unionized RR workers organized numerous strikes to protest wage cuts. Violence spread all over the US, state militia had to break some of them up, and strikebreakers were taken in to replace workers. Pittsburgh saw the worst unrest, and Hayes had to send in federal troops to quell the riots (1st use of army to stop labor unrest).
Injunction
(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
Terence Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
American Federation of Labor
Federation of craft labor unions lead by Samuel Gompers that arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor
Samuel Gompers
United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
Haymarket Riot
100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when “scab” labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Pullman Strike
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the “company town”, Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Eugene V. Debs
leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.

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