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APUSH Chapter 8 terms

Business Cycle
Business cycles are the periodic expansions and contractions of production and employment that occur in a market economy. Business cycles first occurred in America in 1819 with just $45 million in circulation. Economic.
Letters from an American Farmer
The Letters from an American Farmer was an essay written by Hector St. Jean de Crèvecœur. This French-born essayist wrote that European society was composed of “great lords who posses everything, and a herd of people who have nothing.” America, on the other hand, had “no aristocratically families, no courts, no kings, no bishops.” Cultural.
Commonwealth System
The Commonwealth System was a broad system of state mercantilism. This system included legislative support for road and canal companies and grants of limited liability to help businesses start up. Economic.
Republican Motherhood
The Republican Motherhood was a concept that urged Americans to dismiss the public roles for women, such as voting and holding office, but to give the the bigger responsibility of caring to the future generation. Cultural.
Parson Mason Weems
Parson Mason Weems wrote a textbook called “The Life of George Washington”. This textbook praised honesty and hard work. It also condemned laziness, drinking, and gambling. Cultural.
Noah Webster
Noah Webster believed eduction should develop the American intellect. His “Dissertation on the English Language” helped define words according to America usage. DICTIONARY DUDE WOO! Cultural.
Washington Irving
Washington Irving was an elite-minded Federalist who wrote essays and histories, including Rip Van Winkle and the Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Both of Irving’s writings sold well in America and around the world. Irving moved to Europe as he was impatient with the slow American literary development. Cultural.
Blue-Back Speller
The Blue-Back Speller was a compact textbook that Webster published. This textbook gave Americans the start of a common vocabulary and grammar. Webster wanted to spell words like they sounded instead of the traditional English spelling, but his idea was not very popular. Cultural.
The manumission act was an act allowing individual owners to free their slaves. Within a decade, planters had released 10,000 slaves. Cultural.
Missouri Crisis
The Missouri Crisis all started when Missouri applied for admission into the Union in 1819. However, Missouri’s constitution allowed slavery. Congressmen of New York proposed a ban on slaves and gradual emancipation of the slaves. Missouri denied this ban and, as a result, were denied admission to the Union. Political.
Second Great Awakening
The Second Great Awakening was a series of revivals that made the United States a Christian society. The revivals were much broader than the First Great Awakening, and the Methodists and Baptists grew to be the largest denominations. Cultural.
Primogeniture was a system of inheritance. Under this system possession and ownership of land and property was inherited by the eldest son from the father. After the Revolution, however, most states began requiring equal distribution. Cultural.
Republic of Letters
The Republic of Letters was a series of letters sent overseas and in America between communities of scholars. These scholars wrote letters to one another to discuss intellectual ideas across great distances. Cultural.
Sentimentalism was a way of thinking that originated in Europe as part of the Romantic movement. This philosophy celebrated the importance of a “feeling”. Sentimentalism encouraged young Americans to marry more for love and less for what their parents wished. Cultural.
Companionate Marriages
Companionate marriages were marriages designed to give wives “true equality, both of rank and fortune” with their husbands. However, in reality, husbands were still dominate and hardly ever practiced equality. Companionate marriages were more republican than arranged marriages. Cultural.
Erie Canal
The Erie Canal was America’s first big canal. This canal was known as the “Burned-Over District” due to the intensity of the revival. Cultural.
First Bank of the United States
The First Bank of the United States was chartered by federalists in Congress. This bank issued notes and made commercial loans. Jeffersonian Republicans, however, opposed the bank because they saw it as ‘unconstitutional’. Economic.
Anthony Benezel
Anthony Benezel was a Quaker philanthropist who funded a school for African Americans in Philadelphia. Benezel defied popular opinion when he declared that African Americans were “as capable of improvement as White People”. Cultural.
American Colonization Society
The American Colonization Society was an attempt to satisfy both people who wanted to free African slaves and the slave owners who wanted to expel Africans from America. The American Colonization was established in 1817 by influential Americans who were worried about the impact of slavery and race on society founded the American Colonization Society. Cultural.
Established Church
The Established Church was the official church of the Union. At first, only Pennsylvania and Rhode Island had been opposed to it having an official church, but, later, James Madison and George Mason declared that there should be free exercise of religion. Political.
Lyman Beecher
Lyman Beecher was a dominant Congregtionalist clergyman in the early 19th century. Beecher believed people did have national tendancy to sin, however, he did not believe in predestination. Cultural.
Burned Over District
The “Burned Over District” was an area of New York along the Erie Canal. This area was continuously “aflame” with reformations. As fervor broke out over the region, groups such as the Mormons, Shakers, and Millerites found support among the residents. Near the Erie Canal the reforms were so strong that it was known as the “Burned-Over District”. Cultural.
Mother Anne Lee
Mother Anne Lee was a very religious British woman who organized the Shakers in Britain. Later, Anne Lee migrated to America and founded the Shaker community there. This attracted numerous recruits. Cultural.
Emma Willard
Emma Willard was the first American female advocate of higher education for women. Willard opened the Middlebury Female Seminary. She also founded schools in New York for girls. Cultural.

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