Asian Perspective of HRM
Budhwar and Debrah (2008) explained that due to globalization emerging economies like Singapore, India, China, Thailand, Hong Kong and many more are more often implementing HRM systems. However political and legal factors highly affect environmental and labor standards due to which organizational HRM policies are being affected. The evolution of international business and gaining advantage among international competitors has brought crucial changes. Experts believe that a new hybrid system is rising in these emerging economies comprising of both Asian perspective and western rational aspect of HRM.
According to Degraff (2010) the recent economic turmoil has enforced organizations re-think in regards to organizational as well as HRM strategies. Different HR associations have given more emphasis of three factors: • Knowledge sharing: The concept of continuous learning is highly promoted and team work approach has remained an important concern. • Networking: Previously it requires consistent assistance however due to technological advancement the operations are taking place without any facilitation. More importantly business employers are more and more relying on networks.
It has transformed into a block of similar values, interests and professional experience. Conferences are also considered as important ways to knowledge. Organizations are organizing advanced human resource management programs and leadership development programs to achieve long-term gains. • Certification: Experts believe that one need to follow 3Es i. e. education, examination and experience in order to succeed in certification programs. It provides an individual an edge and comprehensive knowledge about strategic implications of HRM. HRM leading to innovation:
W Burnett LLC (2008) instigated that the power of context plays an important role in human resource management. Context entails an important perspective of employee’s behaviors and their responses. A paradigm shift in General Motors: It was in 1982 when one of the manufacturing plants of GM continuously faced with low quality, low productivity, increased absenteeism, violence, drug abuse and many more. The company just closed the plant and laid-off the entire workforce. Just after two years it gave highest quality, highest productivity and won an award and it was the best among all other plants of GM.
However there were the same previously laid-off employees working, same unions and even same product and machines. It was all about decentralization, empowerment, team work approach, team leaders, and group leaders and there was no more hierarchy of structures. The management just brought change in the context and it changed the relationships, behaviors and the results were highly effective and fruitful. It was found that the paternalistic attitude results into decrease in productivity, job satisfaction, and self-esteem and add to anger and health issues. Therefore one must take risk in order to bring innovation.
HR functional units plays primary role in transforming the organizing and practicing leadership role. It must be mentioned that in order to bring change in context one must have patience and determination. HR managers have the ability to control different things. In order to describe job titles they use specific language like associates, group members, comrades, partners, sponsors and many more. Moreover they can control policies like emphasizing on performance management instead of power relationships, focusing on measureable goals in order to evaluate job performance.
The research emphasizes on three different types of innovations: • Discovery • Experimentation • Synthesis However synthesis is given more importance in an organizational field where several employees have a better ability to utilize existing knowledge and come up with new knowledge. Several employees are better than others in identifying problem from different perspective and developing solutions which best meet the requirements. There exist certain traits among innovative problem solvers. Such perspective matters a lot to HRM.
Super synthesizers are faced with difficulties to survive in the organizations where emotional intelligence is given more preference. Experts believe that the defined set of job activities results into underutilized resources. In reality managers always try to lay-off such employees who always come up with crazy ideas and who cannot communicate or work in team properly. Unfortunately the best are fired when they are needed. Nevertheless there exist HR functional unit who commits itself with managing talent throughout the business processes and business operations.
However HR personnel require specific skills in order to identify such innovators. The ability of HEM to identify best problem-solvers results into long-term opportunities. These innovators tackle specific problem with the help of extensive business goals. Even super synthesizers lack the interpersonal and networking skills however there provided solutions results into measurable return on investment. In order to further enhance and develop valuable assets within the organization the HR functional unit performs, track, monitors and reports potential value on the long-term basis.
Kalgaonkar (2009) stated that a company must out-innovate its competitors in order to succeed in the business. However there exist several other abilities like quality improvement and reducing prices of products but these can be replicated. Hence organization is left with the major capability of innovation which results into competitive advantage. In order to foster innovation HR employees contributes a lot. Unluckily organizations just look at innovation from a single lens i. e. a single dimension.
Usually higher management provides those tasks related to standardization and operational excellence and they are kept far away from innovation team. Even no feedback is gathered related to the realm. A paradigm shift was brought by Toyota and Cisco who highlighted the importance of change and develops new paradigms and specific scopes and visions so that employees can effectively adopt those changes. MNCs and global corporations are more and more emphasizing on three major changes: • Individual change: There prevails resistance, fear and criticism. Several times permission is not granted and sometimes ideas are stolen.
HR emphasizes on transparent and fair climate. It encourages an environment where colleagues can collaborate with each other and exchange values and ideas. Xerox, Proctor and Gamble and Google came up with the concept of innovative projects. • Organizational change: Many businesses fail to re-design the structure of the organizations even though they have developed new strategies. HR personnel emphasizes on the importance of collaboration, team work and cross-functional approach. • Cultural change: On one side it is said that mistake teaches and employees learn from them.
On the other side organization follows rigid policies and structure where mistakes are not allowed and results into severe consequences. Most of the performance management systems, compensation and rewards philosophies and different measurement and evaluation criteria’s more often depress innovation. They create global talent and processes. In such organizations innovations take place during good times and even during bad times. The strategies are changed in accordance with recession and boom periods. Galavan (2008) acknowledged that there exist diverse segments of consumers.
Moreover investors no more look for financial assessments and more emphasis is given to intangibles. There prevails diversity among employees in regards to demographics, culture and orientation. It was stated that most of the recent trends specifically related to change management cannot be handled by an individual employee or even in some cases by the entire organization. The dynamic questions relating to managing employees, developing products and even going for positioning effects the HR functional unit. Today, HR managers are involved in formulating strategies in compete globally.