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ATI DIABETES MANAGEMENT

Alpha glucosidase inhibitor
type of oral antidiabetic agent that delays the absorption of carbohydrates in the intestines
beta cell
cell in the pancreas that secretes insulin
Casual Plasma Glucose
glucose concentration in the blood of a specimen taken at any time of day regardless of the time since the person’s last meal. aka random blood glucose
Diabetes insipidus
disorder of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that causes excessive thirst and excretion of large volumes of dilute urine
insulin
hormone secreted by the beta cells inside of the islet of langerhans that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
insulin resistance
impairment of the expected response to insulin
clinically defined as a requirement of 200 or more units of insulin per day
islets of Langerhans
tiny, irregular structures distributed throughout the pancreas and compromising its endocrine portion
ketoacidosis
accumulation of ketones (acids formed from the breakdown of free fatty acids in the absence of insulin) in the blood, associated with uncontrollable diabetes and resulting in metabolic acidosis
metabolic syndrome
group of abnormalities (including high levels of glucose and triglycerides) associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease
microalbuminuria
early sign of renal disease involving the presence of albumin in the urine in amounts greater than expected but too low to be detected by dipstick testing
nephropathy
long term complications of diabetes that involves damage to the cells of the kidneys and eventually leads to end stage renal disease
neuropathy
any of numerous disturbances of pathologic changes in the peripheral nervous system, most often affecting sensation, and often a long term complication of diabetes
non-sulfonylurea secretagogue
type of oral antidiabetic that stimulates the insulin release
aka glinide
pancreas
large gland that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon
polydipsia
excessive thirst and fluid intake
polyphagia
excessive hunger
polyuria
excretion of abnormally large amounts of urine
post prandial
after a meal
sulfonylurea
type of oral antidiabetic agent that stimulates insulin release
thiazolidinedione
type of oral antidiabetic agent that reduces insulin release
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
disorder involving the complete destruction of the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas and resulting in a lifelong need for daily insulin replacement therapy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
disorder involving insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion and resulting in the need for therapy that includes diet, exercise, oral medications, and possibly injection medications
A nurse is documenting the plan of care for a patient who has type one diabetes mellitus that has remained unstable despite conventional insulin therapy. The provider has explained to the new patient that they new plan will incorporate the use of a long acting insulin preparation. The nurse should anticipate seeing a prescription for the addition of which insulin preparation?
insulin glargine (lantus)
A nurse is reviewing the results of routine lab tests performed as part of a 50 year old woman’s annual physical exam. the nurse notes a blood glucose level of 120mg/dL. The nurse should interpret this as an abnormal result for a
fasting blood glucose measurement
A nurse is teaching a patient with type 1 who is beginning a complex regimen of glycemic control about the properties and actions of the various types of insulin. the nurse should explain that the type of insulin that has an onset of 60-120 minutes and peaks in 6-14 hours and has a duration of 16-24 hours is what
Neutrol protamine hagedorn (NPH) insulin
A nurse is reviewing self-administration of insulin using a pre filled pen administration system with a patient who started using the pen system the previous week. The patient asks what he can do to reduce injection pain. What should the nurse suggest?
Keep the pen at room temp for a few minutes
A nurse instructing a patient about using an insulin pump should explain that the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis increases with the use of a pump because
the tubing could become occluded
A nurse is teaching a patient newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus how to check blood glucose levels. Which of the following is the appropriate instruction for transferring the patients blood to the reagent portion of the test strip or monitor in most situations?
Hold the test strip next to the blood on the pt’s fingertip?
A nurse is teaching a pt with newly diagnosed with type two diabetes about the biguanide she has been prescribed which is metformin (Glucophage). The nurses should explain that this type of medication acts by..
Reducing hepatic glucose production
A nurse is caring for a pt with type 1 who reports feeling anxious and having palpatations. The glucometer reads 50mg/dL. the nurse should give the pt what?
6 oz of apple juice

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