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BCCA Chapter 6A Internet Technology

How did the Internet get started?
Or
Who created the Internet?
1. 1957 Soviet Union launch of Sputnik (first man made satellite)
2. United States started Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) to improve our scientific and technical infrastructure by allowing scientists to communicate and share computer resources
3. ARPA became ARPAnet when it connected UCLA, UCSB, University of Utah mainframe computers
4. 1985 National Science Foundation (NSF) link LANs and ARPAnet became internet (little “i”)
5. As network grew, in became known as Internet
How big is the Internet today?
500 million nodes
2 billion users
HUGE
How is the Internet structured?
NOT owned or operated by any single corporation or government
Grew over time
Internet backbone
The major communications links that form the core for the Internet
How does the backbone tie the Internet together?
Or
How does the Internet work?
1. Backbone links and routers are maintained by network service providers (NSP)
2. NSP are tied together by network access points (NAP)
3. NSP supply Internet connections to Internet Service Provider (ISP)
4. ISP offer Internet to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs
network service providers (NSPs)
Companies that maintain a series of nationwide Internet links
network access points (NAPs)
Internet nodes that link together different network service providers so that data can be transferred from one service provider to the other.
Internet service provider (ISP)
A company that provides Internet access to businesses, organizations, and individuals.
What kinds of network devices are part of an ISP?
1. Routers
2. Communication equipment
3. Email servers
4. Web servers
5. Other network devices that handle the physical aspects of transmitting and receiving data between their subscribers and the Internet
How does my computer fit into the structure of the Internet?
To communicate with an ISP, use a modem.
Connect to the Internet as a standalone device or part of a LAN.
Data travels to IPS, then to an NSP, and over Internet backbone.
modem
A device that modulates and demodulates a signal, typically used to send data from a computer to the Internet over telephone, cable television, or satellite networks.
What protocols are used by the Internet?
TCP
IP
UDP
HTTP
FTP
POP
SMTP
VoIP
IRC
BitTorrent
How significant is TCP/IP?
TCP/IP is the primary protocol suite responsible for message transmission on the Internet
Protocol standard for the Internet that is public, free, extensible, and easy to implement
TCP is responsible for establishing a data connection between two hosts and breaking data into packets
IP is responsible for addressing packets so that they can be routed to their destinations
protocol suite
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
The protocol within TCP/IP that is responsible for establishing a data connection between two hosts and breaking data into packets
IP (Internet Protocol)
One of the main protocols of TCP/IP
Responsible for addressing packets so that they can be routed to their destinations
Does the Internet use a special addressing scheme?
1. IP addresses originated on the Internet as part of the TCP/IP protocol
2. IP addresses uniquely identify computers on the Internet and LANs
3. IP addresses are sometimes referred to as TCP/IP addresses or Internet addresses
How do IP addresses work on the Internet?
1. Every device on the Internet has an assigned IP address
2. Numbers correspond to network classes
3. Internet routers use the first octet to get a general idea on where to send packet
4. Rest of IP address is used to drill down to exact destination
network class
The octets in an IP address correspond to a __________.
routeable
A (n) __________ IP address is one which can be accessed by packets on the Internet.
BitTorrent
__________ is a file sharing protocol that distributes the role of the fire server across a collection of dispersed computers.
router
One important security precaution when connecting your computer to public networks is to install a (n) __________.
Do I need a permanent IP address?
1. Computers on the Internet that act as servers use static IP addresses.
2. ISPs, Web sites, Web hosting services, and e-mail servers require static IP addresses.
static IP address
A permanently assigned and unique IP address, used by hosts or servers
dynamic IP address
A temporarily assigned IP address usually provided by an ISP
Why doesn’t everyone have a static IP address?
from the end of section A:
True
204.127.129.1 is an example of an IPv4address. True or False?
from the end of section A:
asymmetric
Most ISPs offer __________ Internet connections, meaning the downstream speed is faster than the upstream speed.
from the end of section A:
False
If you ping Google from your computer and get a result of 46 ms, you have a relatively slow Internet connection. True or False?
from the end of section A:
Domain
A (n) __________ name server maintains a database of IP addresses that correspond to addresses such as www.nike.com.
from the end of section A:
IP
TCP/__________ is the primary protocol suite used on the Internet.
Mobile Internet access
Any service that allows subscribers to access the Internet while on the go.
Portable Internet access
Any type of Internet service, such as portable satellite, that can be moved from one place to another.
Fixed Internet access
Any Internet access service designed to be used from a fixed, non-portable location (dial-up, ISDN, DSL, cable Internet service).
What are my connection options?
Fixed Internet access
Portable Internet access
Mobile Internet access
symmetric Internet connection
Any connection to the Internet in which the upstream speed is the same as the downstream speed.
asymmetric Internet connection
Any connection to the Internet in which the upstream speed differs from the downstream speed.
downstream speed
The rate at which transmitted data flows from a host or server to a local computer
upstream speed
The rate at which data is transmitted from your home computer to the Internet.
What factors affect connection speed?
1. How you connect: telephone, cable, satellite, or wireless link
2. Actual speed can differ from maximum speed because links can have interference
3. Upstream speed can differ from downstream speed
How fast is a typical internet connection?
1. Connection speed refers to the amount of data that travels between a subscriber’s computer and an ISP within a given time period
2. Measured in Kbps (kilobits per second)
3. Slow dial-up maximum speed is 56 Kbps
4. High speed (broadband) maximum speed is 10,0000 Kbps (10 Mbps)
Traceroute
A network utility that records a packet’s path, the number of hops, and the time it takes for the packet to make each hop. Records a packet’s path AND speed.
Ping (Packet Internet Groper)
A command on a TCP/IP network that sends a test packet to a specified IP address and waits for a reply.
Reports speed for the round-trip of the packet, and whether packets were lost.
Can I measure speed and latency?
1. Ping utility for speed testing:
a. sends a signal and waits for a reply
b. Ping reports displays the time for the round-trip message
c. Use Ping to make sure you have adequate speed for things to run smoothly
2. Traceroute utility for speed and packet path to analyze the latency of your data.
Latency
The elapsed time it takes for a packet of data to arrive at its destination.
How fast is the Internet?
Data arrives in less than a second after it is sent
Latency generally averages less than 100 ms in North America, but increases (slows down) for overseas transmission
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
A global organization that coordinates the management of the Internet’s domain name system, IP addresses, and protocol parameters.
How do I get a domain name?
1. Find an available name
2. Fill out a registration form through ICANN
3. Pay an annual fee (between $10 and $50)
Do I need my own domain name?
1. Yes:
a. If you operate your own Web server
b. If you establish a Web site using a server provided by a Web site hosting service
2. No if you only browse, email, or chat
DNS cache poisoning
An exploit in which the DNS database is changed in such a way that a URL no longer connects to the correct Web site.
ARPRANET
The Internet began with a project called __________.
The Domain Name System (DNS) seems technical; why worry about it?
1. 13 domain name server systems that convert human-readable domain names into IP addresses
2. Keeps track of every domain and every static IP address worldwide
3. Until domain names are added, new sites can only be access by entering numeric IP addressees
Domain Name System
Every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address that has been entered into the __________.
Why don’t I notice a pause when I enter a domain name?
Domain names are “cached” at your ISP so you don’t have to wait for an IP address from a domain name server
domain name server
A computer that hosts the domain name system database.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A large database of unique IP address that correspond with domain names.
How are domain names related to IP addresses?
Domain names correspond to a unique IP address entered into the DNS.
1. You enter the address
2. Your ISP routes your entry to a domain name server
3. Domain name server returns the correspond IP address
4. IP address (website) is displayed for you
top-level domain
A major domain category into which groups of computers on the Internet are divided, such as com, edu, gov, int, mil, net, and org.
domain name
Short for “fully qualified domain name”
An identifying name by which host computers on the Internet are familiarly known (for example: Amazon.com)
always-on connection
A permanent connection
• Convenient because you don’t have to wait for a connection before browsing or emailing
• Security risk because long period of connection to the same IP address make hacking possible
How did the Internet become so popular?
Software developers created new user-friendly Internet access tools
Internet accounts became available to anyone (for a monthly fee)
How does a dynamic IP address relate to an always-on connection?
Most high-speed Internet connections use always-on
1. Your ISP’s DHCP server assigns a temporary IP address as long as your MODEM is connected
2. When the MODEM is shut down session ends, the IP address goes back into a pool for the next subscriber to use
How do I get a dynamic IP address?
For dial up connections:
1. Your ISP’s DHCP server assigns a temporary IP address as long as you are connected
2. When the session ends, the IP address goes back into a pool for the next subscriber to use
ICANN
Technical management of the Internet’s Domain Name System is coordinated by __________.

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