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BIO 160 Chapters 11, 12, 14

Biodiversity
broad term used to describe the diversity in genes, species or ecosystems.
When is biodiversity lost?
It is lost when populations are greatly reduced in size, when a species becomes extinct, or when ecosystems are destroyed or greatly modified.
Extinction
death of a species – the elimination of all the individuals of a particular kind.
Complete extinction
occurs when all the individuals of a species are eliminated.
Local extinction
Extinction within an spacific area, not as final as complete extinction, indicates the future of the species is not encouraging.
Most likely to become extinct
Low population density, found in small area, specialized niche, and low reproductive rates.
Least likely to become extinct.
High population density, found over large area, generalized niche, and high reproductive rates.
Genetic diversity
term used to describe the number of different kinds of genes present in a population or species.
Influences in genetic diversity
Mutations, Migrations, Sexual reproduction, Population size, and Selective breeding.
Mutations
are changes in the genetic information of an organism.
Migrations
when individuals of a species from one population to another is also an important way to alter the genetic diversity of a population.
Sexual reproduction
it does not create new genetic information, it tends to generate new individuals mixes during fertilization, generating a unique individual.
Population size
The smaller the population, the less genetic diversity it can contain and the fewer the variations in the genes for specific characteristics.
Selective breeding
Domesticated plants and animals have been modified over many generations by our choosing certain desired characteristics. Undesirable characteristics were eliminated and desirable ones selected for . Can not survive in the wild.
Species diversity
measure of the number of different species present in an area; species should have more diversity to survive.
Factors that affect species diversity
Geological and evolutionary history, Migration, Size of area, and Human activity.
Ecosystem diversity
is a measure of the number of ecosystems present in an area.
Bio and eco services values
Nutrient cycling, Cultural uses, Water regulation and supply, Erosion control, Water treatment, Food and raw materials, Atmosphere and climate service, Recreation, Biological control service, Pollution service, Habitat/refuge, Genetic resources, and Soil formation
What is the value of Biodiversity?
Plant cover stops erosion, medicines are made from plants, plants clean the air…
Value to eco services
$33 trillion
Over exploitation
this occurs when humans harvest organisms faster than the organisms are able to reproduce. Pet trade…
What are some forestry options?
Clear cutting, Patch work clear cutting, Selective harvesting, and Rangeland and grazing.
Clear cutting
all trees in large area removed.
Patch work clear cutting
smaller areas are clear cut among patches of untouched forest.
Selective harvesting
take individual high dollar mature trees without disrupting eco system.
Rangeland and grazing
take away the plant life
Name three ways humans directly alter ecosystems.
We change ecosystems by replacing them with agricultural ecosystems, we alter species mixtures by introducing plants and animals, and we reduce populations by harvesting trees and animals for our use.
Why is the impact of humans greater today than at any time in the past?
The impact of humans is greater today because the population is greater than it has ever been, and our technology is more harmful to the environment.
List three problems associated with forest exploitation.
Problems associated with forest exploitation are exposure of soil to increased erosion, loss of animal habitat and biodiversity, stream-bank, stream siltation, increased water temperature, and a loss of scenery.
What is desertification? What cause it?
Desertification is the process of converting arid and semiarid land to desert because of improper use by humans. It is caused by overgrazing, unsuccessful farming practices, and removal of vegetation for fuelwood.
What is extinction, and why does it occur?
Extinction is the death of a species or the elimination of all the individuals of a particular kind. Natural extinction can occur in areas where there is a low population density, and small habitat area, a specialized niche, and low reproductive rates, Human-accelerated extinctions occur wherever humans become the dominant organism.
Give examples of ecosystem services.
Production of food and raw materials, Soil formation, Recreation, Nutrient cycling and waste treatment, Water services, Climate regulation, Refuges for biodiversity, Disturbance regulation and erosion control, Genetic resources, Atmospheric gas balance, and Pollination and pest control.
List three actions that can be taken to prevent extinction.
Actions that can be taken to prevent extinctions include legislation to protect species that are in danger of becoming extinct, the preservation of the habitat required by the endangered species, and education of the local population about the need to protect endangered species.
Biodiversity is a broad term that describes the diversity of ______ in a region
Species
Species diversity is the
measure of the number of different species in an area.
According to the World Conservation Union, the majority of threatened species are at risk due to
loss of habitat and fragmentation.
Patchwork clear cutting is a less environmentally-friendly method of timber harvesting than clear cutting.
False
Most species that exist or have existed on Earth are now extinct.
True
The value of biodiversity does not include direct economic value.
False
Humans do not significantly modify natural ecosystems.
False
Over the past hundred years, humans have decreased the species extinction rate.
False
The Endangered Species Act
gave the government power to use whatever measures necessary to stop the extinction of species.
Changes in the genetic information of an organism is known as
mutation.
Genetic diversity of a population can be affected by
migration.
sexual reproduction.
population size.
Selective breeding has no affect on genetic diversity.
False
Most large urban centers in the U.S. are located
on water.
Urban sprawl is best defined as
commercial development outside of cities on previously undeveloped land.
Europe has better urban mass transit systems than the U.S.
true
Reliance on the automobile in urban U.S. has caused significant pollution of
air
Waterways have always been important to shaping land use for humans.
true
Loss of farmland can result from unplanned urban growth.
true
Floodplains and wetlands have historically been managed properly by humans.
false
Almost all population growth in the next _____ years will be concentrated in urban areas.
30
Sprawl impacts our quality of life by
increasing commuting times and costs.
Sprawl can impact the environment by causing fragmentation of open space and wildlife habitat.
true
Land-use planning is the construction of an orderly list of priorities for the use of available land.
true
In the U.S., environmental clean-up of Brownfield sites is overseen by the EPA.
true
The Green Revolution, is a term coined for world-wide increases in agricultural production that occurred in
1950-1970.
Common ingredients in chemical fertilizers, often referred to as macronutrients normally include
nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Organophosphates and carbamates were developed to replace chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides because they are
less persistent in the environment
Currently, the use of pesticides is greatest in the more-developed world.
true
In order for food to be classified as Organic Food, the farmer
cannot use genetically modified organisms, chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides.
Agricultural chemical use includes insecticides and herbicides
true
Monoculture requires large areas of land to be planted with the same crop because
harvesting is more efficient.
planting is more efficient. cultivation is more efficient.
Following the rapid advance of modern agriculture in developed countries,
developing countries have increased use of chemical pesticides.
Many companies are starting to recognize the value of environmental __________ to their long-term business success.
conservation
Over the past decade there has been a lack of interest in sustainable agriculture
false
Fertile soils have a balanced mix of minerals, organic matter, micronutrients and macronutrients.
true
Beneficial organisms can be used to control pests.
true
Describe three factors that influence the genetic diversity of a population.
Mutations, Migration, selective breeding, population size, and sexual reproduction
Describe three major causes of he loss of biodiversity.
Habitat loss due to agriculture, urban development, logging, and other activities. over-exploitation of fish, wildlife, and forestry resources. Introduction of exotic species that reduces or eliminate native species. Campaigns against organisms considered to be pests
What are the major causes of biodiversity loss in marine ecosystems?
over-exploitation by fishers, Destructive harvesting practices such as trawls
List Three problems associated with forest exploitation
Problems associated with forest exploitation are exposure of soil to increased erosion, loss of animal habitat and biodiversity, stream-bank, stream siltation, increased water temperature, and a loss of scenery.
What is desertification? what causes it?
Desertification is the process of converting arid and semiarid land to desert because of improper use by humans. it is caused by overgrazing, unsuccessful farming practices, and removal of vegetation for fuel wood.
List Three key components of the convention on biological Diversity (biodiversity treaty)
Develop national strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation
Monitor biological diversity
identify activities, which have adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Identify activities, which have adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
Establish a system of protected areas
Rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosystems and promote the recovery of threatened species.
Develop or maintain necessary legislation for the protection of threatened species and populations.
Integrate consideration of the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources into national decision-making.
List six techniques utilized by wildlife managers
Six techniques used by wildlife managers include game and habitat analysis, population censuses methods, stocking areas with game species, predator control. establishing refuges, and habitat management.
What special problems are associate with waterfowl management?
Special problems associated with waterfowl management include protection of summer nesting areas, prevention of pond and lake drainage, the development of refuges as havens form hunters, and the protection of food and sheltering the overwintering areas.
What is extinction, and why does it occur?
extinction is the death of a species or the elimination of all the individuals of a particular kind. Natural extinction can occur in areas where there is a low population density, a small habitat area, a specialized niche,and low reproductive rates. Humans-accelerated extinctions occur wherever humans become the dominate organisms
List examples of ecosystem services provided by biological resources
Production of food and raw materials
-soil formation recreation
-Nutrient cycling and waste treatment
-water services climate regulation and erosion control
-generic resources atmospheric gas balance
-Pollination and pest control
List three actions that can be taken to prevent extinctions
Actions that can be taken to prevent extinction include legislation to protect species that are in danger of becoming extinct, the preservation of he habitat required by the endangered species, and education of he local population about the need to protect endangered species.
Describe the relationship between habitat needs of a species and the overall survival success of the species
Describe the role of the Red List of Threatened Species in species conservation
List three reasons why land-use planning is necessary
land and neighboring resourses are nonrenewable and humans depend on those resources (such as water and soil) for survival. As well as the an area’s geographical location can pose threats to unplanned development (such as floods, earthquakes ,etc)
Why did urban centers develop near waterways?
they needed a mean of transportation, drinking water, and waste disposal. They are still located on waterways, but the roads and railway systems have also allowed cities to develop off waterways.
List three factors that encouraged people to move from rural farms to cities in the 1800s
People move from rural areas in the 1800s because the need for farm labor decreased and industrial jobs were available in the cities., Additionally, cities offered greater variety in cultural social and artist attractions.
List three factors that encouraged people to leave the cites for suburbs
industrial pollution and urban crowding turned the core of many cities into undesirable living areas. Also, the development of automobiles and improved roadways enabled people to travel more easily form their homes in suburbia to their jobs in the city.
List three physical and three social consequences of suburban sprawl
loss of farm and natural land, increase in air pollution due to he dependence of the automobile of transportation, and increase in energy use. the social consequences of urban sprawl are loss of sense of community, decay of city centers and loss of open space
Describe tract development, ribbon sprawl, and leapfrog development.
the building of similar residence structures in a large space. often these tracts are separated b farmland or open space which is called lead frog development. Ribbon Sprawl is when commercial and industrial buildings line the major highways
What is a Megalopolis?
the development of one large urban area as the result of several cities growing together
Describe how each of the following factors contributed to the development of suburban sprawl: automobiles, home ownerships, tax laws, local zoning ordinances, federal government policies
The automobile gives people a transportation method to more further from their jobs and the encouragement of home ownerships including tax laws and government policies increased demand for single family homes in the suburbs. additionally until recently little attention was placed on planning for rapid growth.
State three consequences of the dominance of the automobile as a means of transport in urban areas.
The dominance of the automobile does have negative consequences including more time spent in traffic, increases funds spent on roads, and loss of green space.
What characteristics of suburbs contribute to a loss of sense of community?
suburbs are mostly designed form the auto transportation therefore do not have sidewalks, bike paths, green space, etc. where one cold meet and talk to neighbors, additional, services centralized and must be reached by car therefore there are no neighbor post offices, shops
what characteristics of suburbs contribute to high infrastructure and high energy costs?
suburbs have high infrastructure and high energy cost because transportation by automobile is not very energy efficient as well as single family large homes require more energy to maintain that multifamily city units.
How does the development of suburbs around a city contribute to loss of open space, and air and water pollution problems?
Unplanned suburban growth does not always take into account the need for parks and open space for recreation. Dependence of the automobile increases non-point air pollution and the impervious surface needed to support auto transportation increases storm water runoff that fills waterways with pollutants.
What land uses are suitable on floodplains?
land uses suitable for floodplains include agriculture, recreation and wildlife refuges.
Describe three values provided by wetlands
wetlands provide a nursery for many commercially important fish and shellfish, they also act as a sponge to filter nutrients from stromwater runoff and they provide safe areas for flood waters and storm surges
Why is an understanding of the geology and resource base of an area important in land-use planning?
to determine the uses of an area that does not cause major damage to property or loss of life
List eight principles that should be involved in good land-use planning
Evaluate unique geologic or biologic features of the land, preserve cultural and historical features conserve open space and environmental features, recognize the cost of altered land use, plan for mixed use, plan for transportation options, mange growth by setting limits, and encourage development in already developed areas.
What role do state and regional panning, purchasing of land, and use restrictions play in implementing land-use plans?
State and national zoning can protect areas that cross local and state borders like waterways and provide limitations on development in sensitive areas. Local governments, environmental groups, etc. can purchase land to protect or use as green space and zoning officials can limit uses of land.
Describe three common land-use issues cities must deal with.
cities must deal with transportation, open and recreation spaces, and inner city decay.
List ten common smart growth principles
preserve open space, encourage development of existing urban areas, se compact building design, create a variety of house choices, foster distinctive neighborhoods, mix land use, create walkable neighborhoods, provide a variety of transportation methods, encourage community collaboration, and make decision fair and cost-effective
List for major federal agencies that manage federal lands and their primary responsibilities
Forest service; management of tree harvesting and recreation al uses, National Park Service; preservation of land, US Fish and Wildlife ; preservation of land, and Bureau of Land Management; leasing to farmers and miners
Give examples of conflict over the use of federally owned property
Conflict often happens over preservation versus recreation on public lands
How does the practice of shifting agriculture provide nutrients for the growth of agricultural products?
Shifting agriculture uses the natural nutrients in the soil
what is abandonment of fields important in a shifting agriculture system?
Shifting or slash and burn agriculture requires farmers to move their gardens and abandon land to allow to fallow or regenerate nutrients.
List conditions that make labor-intensive farming necessary
Better soils and sources of labor are needed practice intensive agriculture
How were the invention of machines and the development of monoculture linked?
Machines work best when a field is the same crop therefore mechanization leads to monoculture.
Why are fertilizers used? what problems are caused by fertilizer
Fertilizers are used in mechanized farming because the lack of crop rotation depletes certain essential soil nutrients. A problem associated with fertilizer use is increased nutrients in waterways which lead to increased aquatic plant growth.
List three advantages and three disadvantages of large-scale mechanized monoculture
Adv: increase production of food, less labor intensive, and reduce price of food
Disav: energy expensive, impacts o ecosystem by pesticides and fertilizers, and loss of genetic diversity.
What are micronutrients? How do they differ from macronutrients?
Macronutrients are needed by plants in large amounts and are in main ingredients in commercial fertilizers whereas micronutrients are needed in trace amounts
list two functions of soil organic matter
Soil organic matter provides nutrient to plants and reduces soil erosion
Describe why pesticides are commonly used in mechanized agriculture.
Pesticides are used to control pests that would otherwise destroy the crop. They are also relatively cheap and easy to spread.
How do persistent and nonpersistent pesticides differ?
Persistent pesticides are stable chemical compounds that long-lasting in the environment. they can be applied once and be effective for a long time, but tend to accumulate in the soil and in nontarget animals. Nonpersistent pesticides decompose to harmless products in a few house or days and do not accumulate in the environment. They are disadvantageous because they require more applications
What is biomagnification? what problems does it cause?
Biomagnification is the phenomenon of acquiring increasing levels of a substance in the bodies of higher trophic-level organisms.
Describe how some populations of pests become resistant to pesticides?
Pest can become resistant to pesticides by natural selection. There are examples of insects that develop the adaption to breakdown pesticide chemicals so they can survive and reproduce ultimately leading to population of pesticide resistant insects.
how do sustainable farming practices differ from conventional mechanized monoculture?
Sustainable farming differences form conventional methods and they strive to conserve water and soil, reduce the use of commercial pesticides and fertilizers, promote biodiversity, and sustain quality of life of farmers and their families
Explain why a complete knowledge of the biology of a pest is important in using integrated pest management
understanding the biology of the pest can lead to nonchemical methods for controlling that pest
Describe three techniques used to control pests that do not involve the use of pesticides
Nonchemical pest control include the use of natural predators or parasites, the development of resistant crops, the use of natural pesticides, the modification of farming practices, and the use of sex attractants
how is a genetically modified organism different from other organisms?
A section of DNA is modified or replaced in genetically modified organism (GMO)
What characteristics have been introduced into insect-resistant and herbicide-resistant genetically modified crops?
Herbicide resistant plants have had DNA inserted that makes them resistance to herbicides and insect resistant plants have DNA inserted that cause insects to die that eat it.
List three reasons many sustainable farms are small family enterprises?
Sustainable farms are often small family farms because the entire family unit can participate in the economic activity and small family farm have more variety of crops that they can sell directly to the consumer.
What does a red-cockaded woodpecker need that it cannot get from a well-managed forest plantation?
old, diseased, living trees for nests
Over the past few hundred years, humans have increased the species extinction rate by as much as
1000 times
Complete extinction occurs when
all individuals of a species are eliminated.
What invasive species is an external parasite of lake trout and decimated populations for more than 20 years?
lamprey
Sport hunting seasons are regulated to the fall so that
surplus animals are taken before the challenges of winter.
What does it mean when an area is designated as wilderness?
Human activity is severely restricted.
Urban sprawl is best defined as
commercial development outside of cities on previously undeveloped land.
Since 1940, the use of mass transit in North America has
declined
An example of a local growth management action would be
to establish growth limits by restricting building permits.
Early towns were usually built
near rivers, lakes, and oceans.
The Green Revolution refers to
the introduction of new plant varieties and farming methods during the 1950’s and 1960’s.
Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with pesticides?
increased soil erosion
Organophosphates and carbamates were developed to replace chlorinated
hydrocarbon pesticides because they are
less persistent in the environment
A genetically modified organism has had one or more
genes altered.
What Percentage of U.S federal recreational lands is designated as wilderness?
10
Organically grown” is a legally defined term which requires that
prohibits the use of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers

organic farms must increase soil fertility.

organic farms be certified.

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