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BIO 2 FINAL STUDY GUIDE

Which of the following answer choices includes the other answer choices?
human
Tissues are composed of _____.
similar cells
Organs that come into contact with the environment are lined with which one of the following types of tissue?
epithelial
Which of the following are connective tissues?
adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood
A major function of _____ tissue is energy storage.
adipose
Neurons are specialized cells characteristic of _____.
nervous tissue
Which of these is an organ?
skin
Which of the following levels of structure encompasses all the others?
organism
______ are a group of cells with a common structure and function.
tissues
_______ are usually composed of several types of tissues that together perform a specific task.
organs
_______ are groups of several organs that work together to perform the functions of the body.
organ systems
Compact, complex animals have specialized internal ____________ that provide a large surface area.
exchange surfaces,
A population is _________.
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area.
A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than are individuals with other characteristics is called _____.
natural selection
Evidence from molecular biology supports the theory of evolution by showing that __________.
Closely related organisms have more similar DNA and proteins.
Which of the following is the study of the geographic distribution of species on Earth?
biogeography
“Differential success in reproduction” is just another way of saying _____.
natural selection
Which one of the following statements most closely agrees with the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, as put forth by Darwin?
Organisms better adapted to their immediate environment are most likely to survive and reproduce.
Which of the following is a requirement for natural selection?
variation in individuals
The human immune system cannot effectively suppress the HIV virus on its own. What key feature of HIV makes it so hard to beat?
The HIV virus has an extremely high rate of mutation.
As proposed by Darwin, what sorts of traits are favored by natural selection?
Heritable traits that help individuals survive and reproduce more successfully than others in the same population.
Natural selection is best described as _____.
A filtering process that fine-tunes the traits of populations by sorting among existing, randomly produced variations
HIV has become an important source of mortality for humans. If AIDS persists as a major factor for humans for many generations in the future, natural selection theory predicts that _______.
Any heritable traits that help humans survive and reproduce in the presence of AIDS should become more frequent over time.
Which one of the following was an assumption of Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection?
Populations produce more offspring than their environment can support.
The smallest unit that can evolve is a _____.
population
The population of American bison used to number in the millions of animals. Hunting and other problems greatly decreased the number of bison to about 1,000 animals. But today, the numbers are recovering to estimates of more than 200,000 animals. This crash in the population of bison and recent recovery is a good example of _____.
the bottleneck effect
Imagine that a new population of humans is established on a new planet from ten randomly selected people in your biology class. Over thousands of years, the descendants of those ten people reproduce and prosper, but do not reflect well the diversity of humans on Earth. This change in the diversity of people on the new planet is an example of _____.
the founder effect
Natural selection can be defined as ______.
A process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals with other traits.
Natural selection ______.
results in evolutionary adaptation
A process in which organisms with certain inherited characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than individuals with other characteristics is called _____.
natural selection
Which of the following is a true statement?
Species with nucleotide sequences that match closely share a common ancestor.
Homology is evidence of ______.
common ancestry
Which of the following are homologous?
The forelimb of a dog and the forelimb of a cat.
The similarity of the embryos of fish, frogs, birds, and humans is evidence of ______.
common ancestry
Natural selection results in ______.
A population that is adapted to its current environment.
According to the Hardy-Weinberg formula, the frequencies of alleles in a population will remain constant if _____ is the only process that affects the gene pool.
sexual reproduction
In recessive lethal diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease, carriers have one copy of the normal allele and one copy of the allele for the disease. Carriers are represented in the Hardy-Weinberg formula by __________.
2pq
The total collections of alleles in a population at any one time make up that population’s ______.
gene pool
The smallest biological unit that can evolve is the ______.
population
In the Hardy-Weinberg formula, what does 2pq represent?
frequency of heterozygotes
Which of the following events could NOT be caused by a population bottleneck?
Increased population size
The founder effect differs from a population bottleneck in that the founder effect ______.
Involves the isolation of a small colony of individuals from a larger population.
Gene flow is accomplished by ______.
Migration
What does evolutionary fitness measure?
relative reproductive success
Which of the following is an example of directional selection?
There is an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria.
Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?
stabilizing selection
Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?
Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.
The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides.
This is an example of ______.

*graph about roaches*

natural selection
Biological species consist of groups of ______.
populations
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.
a prezygotic barrier
Which of the following reproductive barriers actually prevents individuals of different species from mating with each other?
behavioral isolation
Which of the following is an example of a post-zygotic reproductive barrier?
Two fruit flies of different species produce sterile offspring.
According to the punctuated equilibrium model of evolution __________.
The tempo of evolution comprises abrupt episodes of speciation among long periods of equilibrium.
Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?
A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. The two subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.
Plate tectonics has been responsible for instances of all of the following except
Sympatric speciation.
Macroevolution includes __________.
increase in the number of species over time
The oldest fossils have been dated to be approximately _____ years old.
3.5 billion
Speciation requires ______.
genetic isolation
The science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms is called ______.
taxonomy
The fauna and flora of Australia are very different from those of the rest of the world. Why might this be true?
Australia has been isolated for about 50 million years.
The Cretaceous extinctions were followed by the __________.
Rapid diversification of mammals and birds.
Which one of the following is the correct presentation of a species name?
Homo erectus (italicized)
What type of reproductive isolating mechanism is described by a situation in which female fireflies only mate with males who emit light in a particular pattern?
behavioral isolation
Which of the following is a binomial?
Nitzschia jouseae (italicized)
Put the following in order, beginning with the most general: class, family, genus, kingdom, order, phylum, and species.
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
The naming and classifying of organisms is called _____.
taxonomy
Goldfish and guppies are in the same class. Therefore, they must also be members of the same _____.
phylum
Which of the following taxonomic levels is most inclusive?
class
The process that leads to the multiplication of species is called _____.
macroevolution
The wing of a penguin is ______ the wing of a butterfly.
analogous to
Two animals are considered members of different species if they __________.
cannot interbreed
Which of these is an example of temporal isolation?
One species is nocturnal, and the other species is diurnal (active during the day).
Which one of the following is an example of a postzygotic barrier?
the production of sterile hybrids
An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?
How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?
Which of these would be considered a biotic component of your environment?
your friend
Which of these is a population?
all of the people living in your state
The sum of all Earth’s ecosystems is called the _____.
biosphere
The specific place in which an organism lives is its _____.
habitat
What is the ultimate source of energy for nearly all surface terrestrial and shallow water ecosystems?
Sunlight
In hot desert environments, beetles will often orient themselves so they are facing the sun. This reduces direct solar radiation so the animals do not overheat.

This is an example of __________.

a behavioral response
Photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and algae, depend on the availability of two important inorganic nutrients, _____ and _____.
nitrogen …phosphorus
Which of the following is an example of a biome that is transitional between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems?
wetland
Which of the following are key factors for

determining the biome of a specific region?

from the oceans to land
The photic zone is the shallow water near shore and

the upper layer of water away from shore where

__________.

light is available for photosynthesis
Estuaries are considered examples of _____.
marine biomes
The dominant greenhouse gas is _____.
carbon dioxide
The rising average global temperature is having the

greatest effect on the __________

northernmost regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and the Antarctic Peninsula
_______ is the science that studies the interactions

between organisms and their environments.

Ecology
An organism’s environment consists of __________.
abiotic and biotic factors
Which of the following is a population?
all of the redwood trees that live in a particular forest
The most inclusive level of organization in nature is

the _____.

biosphere
Which of the following is abiotic?
a rock
If you study how two species of finches compete for

food, you are trying to answer a question about

_______.

community ecology
What level of ecology is concerned with the

adaptations of individuals?

organismal
What level of ecology is concerned with groups of individuals of the same species?
population
What level of ecology is concerned with groups of

individuals of different species?

community
Which of these is a community?
all of the organisms living in your home
What level of ecology is concerned with both the

biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?

ecosystem
On land, plants depend on the availability of two

important inorganic nutrients, which they obtain

from the soil: _____ and _____.

nitrogen …phosphorus
Which of the following is an example of an

evolutionary adaptation?

A portion of a forest burns in a forest fire. As a species of beetles starts to recolonize the area, the lighter-colored individuals in the population are much more visible against the burned bark compared to darker individuals. These lighter individuals are eaten by bird predators at a high rate. After two generations, most of the beetles are darker in color.
Which of the following organisms are not ultimately

dependent on sunlight for energy?

species that live in hydrothermal vent habitats
A student decides to take up jogging to improve her aerobic capacity. During the first few weeks of exercise, she is only able to jog for about one and a half miles before tiring. However, after three months, she is able to jog four miles with ease. This physiological change is an example of __________.
Acclimation
Aquatic organisms ______.
may experience problems with water balance
Which nutrients often limit the distribution and

abundance of photosynthetic organisms?

nitrogen and phosphorus
Which of the following is a behavioral response to

environmental variability?

migrating to a different location
In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the

region where photosynthesis can occur?

photic zone
Wetlands ______
are important in improving water quality
What are estuaries?
a transition area between a river and the ocean
Which of these biomes is one of the most biologically

productive of all biomes?

Estuaries
What name is given to the region where sea meets

land?

intertidal zone
In what part of the ocean are phytoplankton found?
pelagic realm
What name is given to the open ocean?
pelagic realm
What name is given to the seafloor?
benthic realm
Which of the following can moderate climate by

absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing

heat when the air is cold?

Oceans
Water moves from land to the atmosphere through

_____.

transpiration and evaporation
What fraction of Earth’s surface has been altered by

human use?

75%
With regard to the environment as a whole, when is

the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?

when it is raining, or is about to rain
The definition of your carbon footprint is

__________.

the amount of greenhouse gas emitted as a result of your actions
Which of the following would be a positive benefit of

global warming for a particular species?

Bark beetles are able to reproduce twice a year rather than once because of global warming.
Temperature increases due to global warming have been greatest _____.
close to the poles
The effect of deforestation has been to ______.
increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
In the oceans, global warming has ______.
made the water more acidic
Which of the following is not a result of global

warming?

Decreasing sea levels.
Which of the following is true when it comes to

groundwater management in California?

California is behind all other Western states.
Which of the following is considered a permanent

crop?

almonds
Which of the following is true in California during

times of drought?

There is an increased dependence on groundwater.
If current laws work as predicted, when will California

reach water sustainability?

2040s
Because of ocean acidification, the price of which of

the following foods is most likely to increase?

shellfish
How are oyster larvae affected by ocean

acidification?

Oyster larvae cannot grow shells in acidified ocean waters.
An organism is multicellular, ingests food, and

undergoes a metamorphosis stage during its lifetime.

What type of organism is it?

animal
Animals probably evolved from colonial protists.

How do animals differ from these protist

ancestors?

Animals have cells that are more specialized.
Which of the following is radially symmetrical?
a doughnut
How are animals different from fungi?
Animals obtain food by ingestion, and fungi obtain food by absorption.
Which of the following statements is true?
The majority of the world’s animals are invertebrates.
Unlike other animals, sponges __________.
lack true tissues
Sponges feed by __________.
filtering small particles from water.
Which of the following are found in members of

the phylum Cnidaria?

stinging cells, radial symmetry
Flatworms are the simplest animals with

__________.

bilateral symmetry
Annelids __________.
are segmented worms
The _____ include the largest number of

species.

arthropods
Which one of the following is thought to be most

closely related to humans?

sea stars
Which of the following is an invertebrate?
a sponge
Members of the phylum Mollusca __________.
are soft-bodied and usually covered by a shell
Sea stars and sand dollars belong to a group of

spiny marine animals called _____.

echinoderms
An animal has segments, bilateral symmetry,

pharyngeal slits, a post-anal tail, and a

notochord. It must be a member of the phylum

__________.

Chordata
A _____ is a chordate but not a vertebrate.
lancelet
A distinguishing feature of vertebrates is the

presence of _____.

a backbone
The first vertebrates to colonize land were _____.
amphibians
The development that freed vertebrates from

water for reproduction and allowed them to

radiate into diverse terrestrial environments was

the _____.

amniotic egg
The changes to the cuttlefish’s skin are

related to _______.

camouflage
Camouflage contributes to the cuttlefish’s

survival by enabling it to _______.

hide from predators
Cuttlefish placed in a sandy environment with

white rocks will camouflage their skin in a

pattern called _______.

disruptive camoflauge
In the presence of a black-and-white striped background, a cuttlefish was observed to _______.
move its arm to match the orientation of the stripes
All mammals __________.
have mammary glands
The kangaroo is an example of a(n) _______ mammal.
marsupial
Which of the following is considered to be a reptile?
bird
Organisms in the order Primates are distinguished by

characteristics adapted for what?

living in trees
Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as

________.

anthropoids
Humans are closely related to _______.
chimpanzees
To get an accurate estimate of the density of a particular species, an ecologist might __________.
use indirect indicators, such as the number of bird nests or rodent burrows
A population is defined as __________.
a group of individuals of a single species that occupies the same general area
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?
elephants
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?
grasses
Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.
adults
Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span?
robins
What is expected to happen to most of the ash from the Station fire?
It is expected to wash into streams and rivers.
What effect do ash particles have on a stream?
They increase alkalinity.
After a large fire, the burned area is referred to as what?
Burn scar
Which of the following is a definition of the ecological footprint?
the estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a population consumes
Human population growth __________.
is currently exponential
A non-native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and causes environmental or economic damage is called a(n) _____.
invasive species
The single greatest current cause of population decline is __________.
habitat destruction
Which one of the following would most likely be an example of an abiotic factor that limits population growth?
daily temperature extremes
A newly mated queen ant establishes a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which type of equation is likely to best describe its population growth?
logistic
No population can grow indefinitely. The ultimate size of any population is limited by __________.
the carrying capacity of its environment
A population of mice has grown so rapidly that there are 2,400 individuals in an ecosystem that will support about 1,800 mice. The mouse population is most likely to __________.
undergo a dramatic decline in size, possibly to a stable level at or below 1,800 individuals
When birth rate equals death rate, __________.
the size of a population remains constant
A population will always grow exponentially __________.
if there are no limiting factors
A set of traits that affects an organism’s schedule of reproduction and survival is called its _____.
life history
Chimpanzees have a relatively low birth rate. They take good care of their young, and most chimps live a long life. The chimp survivorship curve would look like __________.
a relatively flat line that drops steeply at the end
An example of population density is __________.
the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-milliliter solution within a glass flask
To figure out the human population density of your community, you would need to know the number of people living there and __________.
the size of the area in which they live
Humans are _______.
Homo sapiens (italicized)
______ are the mammalian group that lay eggs.
Monotremes
Features unique to mammals include ______.
the presence of hair
A characteristic that is shared by snakes and birds is ______.
the amniotic egg
A feature that freed reptiles from dependence on water for reproduction is ______.
the amniotic egg
What does the term tetrapod mean?
having four feet
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?
They all have a notochord sometime during the life cycle.
Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a(n) ______.
skull and backbone
What are the two key features of members of the class Mammalia?
hair and mammary glands
Most members of which class of chordates exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations?
Amphibia
A diagnostic feature specific to cartilaginous fishes is __________.
a skeleton of cartilage
What is unique about agnathans, represented today by lampreys?
They are jawless vertebrates.
Which phylum includes animals that have the following characteristics: a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; a notochord; pharyngeal gill slits; and a post-anal tail?
Chordata
Nearly all ______ are aquatic.
crustaceans
______ are the most diverse group of arthropods.
Insects
The arthropod skeleton is composed of ______.
chitin
A characteristic of arthropods that has allowed for their great success is the presence of ______.
specialized segments
A(n) ______ is an example of a mollusc that does not have a shell.
octopus
______ are characterized by stinging cells used for defense and for capturing prey.
Cnidarians
How do sponges differ from all other animals?
Sponges lack true tissues.
Sea stars and sand dollars belong to a group of spiny marine animals called _____.
echinoderms
While on a biological expedition, you discover a new species with the following characteristics: has an exoskeleton, exhibits bilateral symmetry, and has jointed appendages. What phylum does this newly discovered organism belong to?
Arthropoda
Cnidarians have __________.
tentacles with stinging cells
Which of these exhibits radial symmetry?
Ferris wheel
What distinguishes animals from other eukaryotes?
They ingest food.
One body plan, called bilateral symmetry, represents a major branch point in animal evolution and can be described as __________.
a body plan with only one way to split it into two equal halves—right down the midline
Which of these human features evolved most recently?
enlarged brain
_____ arose very early in hominid evolution; __________ evolved more recently.
Upright posture … large brain
Ecologists represent life table data graphically in a _____.
survivorship curve
Which of these is a characteristic of Type I survivorship?
most individuals survive to older age intervals
Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ______.
few offspring and good parental care
Which of these best describes Type II survivorship?
survivorship is constant over the lifespan
Which of these best describes Type III survivorship?
survivorship is high for the few individuals that survive to a certain age
Opportunistic species typically ______.
have a large number of offspring
Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______.
have long lives
The definition of a density-dependent factor is __________.
a population-limiting factor whose effects intensify as the population increases in density
In an ideal, unlimited environment, a population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.
exponential
If a population’s growth rate decreases as the population size approaches carrying capacity, the population’s growth follows a(n) ______ model.
logistic
______ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support.
Carrying capacity
In a population that is following a logistic growth pattern, what shape does the population’s growth curve most closely resemble?
S
Competition among individuals of the same species is ______ competition.
intraspecific
According to the logistic growth model, what happens to a population when the size of the population reaches carrying capacity?
The growth rate is zero.
Which of these factors operates in a density-dependent manner?
food supply
Over time, the populations of most species ______.
fluctuate
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of ______.
a density-independent factor
The single greatest current cause of population decline of threatened or endangered species is __________.
habitat destruction
A non-native species that has spread far beyond the original point of introduction and causes environmental or economic damage is called a(n) _____.
invasive species
A combination of biological, chemical, and cultural methods for sustainable control of agricultural pests is called _____.
integrated pest management
The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that ______.
are in danger of extinction
The red-cockaded woodpecker, an endangered species, is dependent upon ______ for maintenance of its source habitat.
fire
Non-native species can have important effects on biological communities by ______.
doing all of the above
Examples of invasive species include ______.
cheatgrass and Burmese pythons
You arrive back in the United States after having visited a foreign country located on another continent. The customs agent stops the person in front of you and confiscates the fruit basket this person is bringing home. Being the knowledgeable person you are, you calmly explain to your enraged fellow traveler that the reason for the detainment is that the fruit basket may be ______.
carrying a non-native species that could damage North American ecosystems
The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is called _____.
biological control
Integrated pest management ______.
advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops
What is an ecological footprint?
the estimate of the amount of land required to provide the raw materials an individual or a population consumes
The ecological footprint of the United States ______.
shows that Americans consume a disproportionate amount of food and fuel
A study of the human ecological footprint shows that ______.
we have already overshot the planet’s capacity to sustain us
An example of an “ecosystem service” that is vital to people is __________.
water purification
Biodiversity includes genetic diversity, species diversity, and _____.
ecosystem diversity
One of the major contributors to extinction of species today is __________.
habitat destruction
Which of the following factors is most likely to lead to decreased biodiversity?
the introduction of invasive species
All the organisms in a particular area make up a(n) _____.
community
According to the principle of interspecific competition, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
ecological niche
An organism’s “trophic level” refers to __________.
what it eats
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The shrew occupies the trophic level(s) of __________.
secondary and tertiary consumers
Which of the following describes the number of different species in the community?
species richness
Which of the following is an example of primary succession?
colonization of a newly formed volcanic island
What type of population interaction benefits neither population?
competition
Flounder look like the sea floor. This is an example of _____.
cryptic coloration
A tick has what type of relationship with a dog?
parasitic
A lichen is actually composed of two organisms: a fungus and an alga. They depend on each other for survival. The most specific term that describes their relationship is _____.
mutualism
Why does biological magnification occur?
Although the amount of organic material decreases with increasing trophic level, the amount of toxin remains the same.
Herbivores are _____.
primary consumers
Which of the following is a producer?
poison ivy
During ecological succession, the species composition of a plant community __________.
changes gradually because each species responds differently to changes in environmental factors
Which of the following best illustrates ecological succession?
Grass grows on a sand dune, then shrubs, and then trees.
The energy for nearly every organism in almost every ecosystem ultimately comes from _____.
the sun
Biogeochemical cycles are crucial to ecosystem function because __________.
nutrients and other life-sustaining molecules are in limited supply and must be continually recycled
The biggest difference between the flow of energy and the flow of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem is that __________.
nutrients are recycled, but energy is not
Which of the following is a component of the carbon cycle?
return of CO2 to the atmosphere by animal and plant respiration
The study and protection of biological diversity is a field called __________.
conservation biology
Regions with high concentrations of species, especially species that are endangered or threatened, are referred to as _____.
biodiversity hot spots
An assemblage of interacting ecosystems makes up a _____.
landscape
Maintaining biodiversity on Earth is important because __________.
changes that underlie a loss of biodiversity may also threaten the human population
Earth’s present rate of species loss may be as much as _____ times higher than at any time in the past 100,000 years.
100
Natural ecosystem services provide value to the global economy by filtering pollutants from water, preventing erosion, pollinating crop plants, controlling agricultural pests, reducing the impact of floods, and many other ways that are not always obvious. The average estimated annual value of such services is _______
about equal to the twice the global national product
Habitat destruction, and thus habitat fragmentation, is the major cause of declining biodiversity; the second major cause is _____.
invasive species
The present rate of species loss ______.
is as much as 100 times higher than at any time in the last 100,000 years
The single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ______.
habitat destruction and fragmentation
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.
producers
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.
detritivore
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.
secondary consumer
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.
primary consumer
A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.
tertiary consumer
All the organisms in a particular area make up a(n) _____.
community
According to the principle of interspecific competition, two species cannot continue to occupy the same _____.
ecological niche
In terms of + (this member of a species pair benefits from the interaction), – (this member of a species pair is harmed by the interaction), and 0 (this member of a species pair is unaffected by the interaction), predation can be described as a _____ relationship.
+/-
Consider this segment of a food web: Snails and grasshoppers eat pepper plants; spiders eat grasshoppers; shrews eat snails and spiders; owls eat shrews. The shrew occupies the trophic level(s) of __________.
secondary and tertiary consumers
Why do toxins accumulate at such high levels in carnivores?
The biomass at any given trophic level is accumulated from a much larger toxin-containing biomass ingested from the level below.
Which of the following describes the number of different species in the community?
species richness
Which of the following is an example of primary succession?
colonization of a newly formed volcanic island
An example of a mutualism, or +/+ relationship, is ______.
the relationship between corals and unicellular algae
Populations of two coexisting species are both tertiary consumers in a community. What relationship may exist between these two organisms?
competition
Organisms that consume producers are ______.
primary consumers
In the food chain grass ? antelope ? human lion, the antelope is
both an herbivore and a primary consumer.
In the food chain grass ? antelope ? human lion, the human is a(n) ______.
secondary consumer
Small fishes that eat zooplankton are
secondary consumers
Herbivory is an example of a _____ interaction.
+/-
In order to assess the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the number of different species present as well as ______.
the relative abundance of the different species
In the ecosystem shown above, a toxin that accumulates in body tissues would have the largest effect on ______.
fish that eat shrimp and other invertebrates
The energy flow through the trophic levels of an ecosystem is represented as a pyramid because __________.
only about 10% of the energy at each trophic level is available at the next level
An ecosystem is unlikely to be limited by the supply of _____ because it is obtained from the air.
carbon
What is one way in which energy flow differs from chemical cycling?
Energy flow is unidirectional; chemical elements can be recycled.
Which of the following impacts the nitrogen cycle?
use of large amounts of inorganic fertilizers
Biomass is the total amount of ______ an ecosystem.
living organic material in
The rate at which an ecosystem’s producers convert solar energy to chemical energy stored in biomass is called ______.
primary productivity
Which type of ecosystem has low production but nonetheless contributes a large proportion of Earth’s total net primary production?
open ocean
Why are most food chains limited to three to five trophic levels?
There is insufficient energy to support more trophic levels.
Besides the atmosphere, abiotic reservoirs of carbon dioxide include
fossil fuels and dissolved carbon compounds in the oceans.
The atmosphere is approximately 80% ______ gas.
N2
The major abiotic reservoir for phosphorus is ______.
rock
With regard to nutrient pollution in aquatic ecosystems, when is the worst time to apply fertilizer to your lawn?
when it is raining, or is about to rain
The term we use to explain our human desire to affiliate with other life in its many forms is _____.
biophilia
The primary goal of conservation biology is to ______.
counter the loss of biodiversity
Species found in only one place on Earth are called ______ species.
endemic
Small areas that have a large number of endangered and threatened species are referred to as ______.
biodiversity hot spots
Sustainable development ______.
involves all of the above
E. O. Wilson coined the term ______ for our innate appreciation of wild environments and living organisms.
biophilia
The immune system is the body’s system __________.
that defends against infectious disease
The first line of defense against infection is __________.
the skin and mucous membranes
Which of the following cells would be a part of the innate second line of defense?
macrophages
The process by which a white blood cell engulfs and destroys a bacterium is called _____.
phagocytosis
What line of defense against infection first comes into play once a pathogen has breached the body’s surface?
inflammatory response
Which one of the following is part of the inflammatory response?
dilation of blood vessels
Functions of the lymphatic system include __________.
return of fluid to the circulatory system and fighting infections
Circulating throughout the bloodstream are ______ that engulf foreign cells, foreign molecules, and debris from dead cells.
phagocytic cells
The two main functions of the _____ are to return tissue fluid to the circulatory system and to fight infection.
lymphatic system
A substance that causes an immune response is called a(n) _____.
antigen
T and B cells are types of _____.
lymphocytes
A protein produced in the body, which recognizes another molecule as “foreign” to the body, is a(n) _____.
antibody
The body produces antibodies complementary to foreign antigens. The process by which the body comes up with the correct antibodies to a given disease is most like __________.
going to a shoe store and trying on shoes until you find a pair that fits
A vaccine may contain __________.
inactivated disease-causing microbes
When you are immune to a disease, __________.
certain lymphocytes are able to make the proper antibodies quickly
The immune system is initially capable of mounting responses to particular microorganisms because __________.
the body contains an enormous diversity of white blood cells, each with a specific kind of antigen receptor
The idea behind vaccination is to induce _____ without the vaccinated individual needing to get sick.
the primary immune response
A type of cell that makes immunizations effective is the _____.
memory B cell
IN terms of molecular classes, antibodies are ________.
proteins
After binding to antigens, B cells differentiate into short-lived cells that secrete ________.
antibodies
The role of the cytotoxic T cells is to attack ________.
cancer cells and infected body cells.
When searching for a donor for an organ transplant, doctors try to match the ________ of the donor and recipient as closely as possible.
self proteins
IN a series of immune system experiments, the B and T cells of baby mice were inactivated. Which of the following would you predict as a likely result?
The mice were more susceptible to disease.
AIDS is caused by a(n)_______.
virus
Where would you be most likely to find a high percentage of drug-resistant HIV?
where HIV infection and antiviral drug use are both common
When the immune system turns against the body’s own cells, _____ can result.
autoimmune disease
Which of the following cell types does HIV preferentially infect?
helper T cells
The largest obstacle to eradicating the AIDS virus involves __________.
its ability to frequently mutate and generate new strains of the virus
_______ circulate through the bloodstream and engulf foreign cells, foreign molecules, and debris from dead cells.
Phagocytic cells
Which of the following is a protein produced by virus-infected body cells, which helps uninfected cells resist viral infection?
interferon
Natural killer (NK) cells __________.
do not attack microorganisms directly; instead, they destroy virus-infected body cells or cancer cells
Which of the following is a chemical molecule that causes blood vessels to dilate and leak fluid into a wound, causing it to swell?
histamine
The two main functions of the _____ are to return tissue fluid to the circulatory system and to fight infection.
lymphatic system
Which of the following is one of the body’s first lines of defense against infection?
obstacles such as skin and mucous membranes
Which of the following kinds of protein circulates in the blood and coats the surfaces of microbes to make them more susceptible to engulfment by phagocytic cells?
complement
The major result of the inflammatory response is to ______.
disinfect and clean damaged tissues
A role of the lymphatic system is to ______.
return tissue fluid to the circulatory system
An antigen is __________.
a foreign molecule that evokes an immune response
After binding to antigens, B cells differentiate into short-lived cells that secrete _____.
antibodies
How do memory cells differ from effector cells?
Memory cells live longer.
The biggest difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity is __________.
how they respond to and dispose of invaders
The role of cytotoxic T cells is to attack __________.
cancer cells and infected body cells
Helper T cells are part of __________.
a cell-mediated immune response
Which of the following cell types are specifically responsible for humoral immunity?
B cells
Which of the following cell types are specifically responsible for cell-mediated immunity?
T cells
Antibodies ______.
assist in destroying particular antigens
A primary immune response is the ______.
immune response elicited by the first exposure of lymphocytes to a particular antigen
When a B or T cell is primed by an interaction with its particular antigen, the cell ______.
grows, divides, and differentiates further
The secondary response in humoral immunity occurs when memory cells bind to ______.
antigens
Which of the following substances does a cytotoxic T cell secrete to destroy a target cell?
perforin
B cells:
Develop within-
responsible for-
protect against-
bone marrow
humoral immunity
free-floating antigens
T cells:
develop within-
responsible for-
protect against-
thymus
cell-mediated immunity
infected body cells
Antigens that cause allergies are called _____.
allergens
When the immune system turns against the body’s own cells, _____ can result.
autoimmune disease
Tissues are typed before an organ transplant to make sure that the _____ of donor and recipient match as closely as possible.
self proteins
Which of the following compounds do mast cells produce?
histamine

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