logo image

Blah

Chapter 1
1.
The six important business objectives of information technology are new products, services, and business models
customer and supplier intimacy
survival
competitive advantage
operational excellence
and ______________________________
Improved decision making.
2. Which of the following choices may lead to competitive advantage:
1. new products, services, and business models
2. charging less for superior products
3. responding to customers in real time?
D)

1, 2, and 3

3. The use of information systems because of necessity describes the business objective of
• Survival.

4. The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the use of information systems to achieve which business objective?
• Survival

5. The four activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are
• input, processing, output, and feedback.

6. Order data for baseball tickets and bar code data are examples of
• Raw input.

7. The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of
• meaningful information.
8. Output
• transfers processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.

9. Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called
• processing.

10. An example of raw data from a national chain of automobile stores would be
• 1 Toyota RAV4 sold March 3, 2008 in Louisville, Kentucky.

11. The field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm is called
• Management information systems.

12. In a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of
• Managerial, professional, and technical employees.

13. Which of the following is not one of the current changes taking place in information systems technology?
• development of videopresence software

14. The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company’s members is called its
• culture.

15. Thomas Friedman’s declaration that the world was now “flat” meant that
• The Internet has reduced the economic advantages of developed countries.

16. Data management technology consists of the
• software governing the organization of data on physical storage media.

17. Organizational culture is best described by which of the following statements?
• It is a set of assumptions and values accepted by most members.

18. Networking and telecommunications technologies, along with computer hardware, software, data management technology, and the people required to run and manage them, constitute an organization’s
• IT infrastructure.

19. An example of a business using information systems to create new products and services is
• Apple Inc.’s iPod.

20. An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is
• Wal-Mart’s RetailLink system.

21. An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is
• the Mandarin Oriental hotel’s customer-preference tracking system.

22. Maintaining the organization’s financial records is a central purpose of which main business function?
• finance and accounting

23. Which of the following is not one of the primary environmental actors that interacts with an organization and its information systems?
• Sales force

24. Which of the following would not be a complementary asset for a solar panel manufacturer?
• centralized hierarchical decision making
25. The temp agency that you own is having serious difficulties placing temps because few of them are familiar with Internet research. Investing in training software to enhance your workers’ skills is an example of using technology to achieve which business objective?
• Survival

26. In a business hierarchy, the level that is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business is
• Operational management.

27. From a business perspective, raw data is transformed systematically during various stages, transforming it into valuable information, in a process called
• the information value chain.

28. A corporation that funds a political action committee, which in turn promotes and funds a political candidate who agrees with the values of that corporation, could be seen as investing in which main category of complementary assets?
• social
29. Apple Computer dominates the online legal music sales industry primarily because of a failure of recording label companies to
• adopt a new business model.
30. An example of an organizational complementary asset is
• using the appropriate business model.

31. An example of a social complementary asset is
• technology and service firms in adjacent markets.

32. Disciplines that contribute to the technical approach to information systems are
• operations research, management science, and computer science.

33. The discipline that focuses on mathematical techniques for optimizing parameters of organizations, such as transportation and inventory control, is
• operations research.

34. Sociologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
• how systems affect individuals, groups, and organizations.

35. Psychologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
• how human decision makers perceive and use formal information.

36. Which of the following are key corporate assets?
• intellectual property, core competencies, and financial and human assets

37. Which of the following roles in a firm would be least affected by using mobile devices to access firm information systems?
• production workers

38. A firm that must invest in new information systems capabilities in order to comply with federal legislation can be said to be investing to achieve which business objective?
• survival

39. Which of the following would not be used as an input for an information system?
• digital dashboard

40. Which field of study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems?
• management information systems

41. The three principle levels within a business organization hierarchy are
• Senior management, middle management, and operational management.

42. Engineers, scientists, or architects, who design new products or services for a firm, work often with which level of a business hierarchy?
• knowledge work
43. Which main business function is responsible for maintaining employee records?
• Human resources

44. Which of the following constitutes an organizational element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter?
• the specification of procedures for identifying packages with sender and recipient information
45. A managerial element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter is
• the decision to use automation.

46. The strength of cloud computing and the growth of the mobile digital platform allow organizations to rely more___________________________________.
• on telework, remote work, and distributed decision making

47. The emergence of the Internet as a full-blown international communications system has drastically____________________________________________.
• reduced the costs of operating and transacting on a global scale

48. _____________________ Processes are accomplished through digital networks spanning the entire organization or linking multiple organizations.
• Core business

49. _____________________refers to business being conducted continuously, 24/7, rather than in narrow “work day” time bands of 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
• Time shifting

50. _____________________means that work takes place in a global work- shop, as well as within national boundaries.
• Space shifting

51. Trimac, a large Canadian trucking firm, uses an assessment of key performance indicators that Trimac has labeled its “dashboard project.” The idea is to create consistent reporting across every level of the organization. Trimac is achieving which strategic business objective?
• Improved decision-making

52. Walmart, the largest retailer on earth, exemplifies the power of information systems coupled with brilliant business practices and supportive management to achieve world-class operational efficiency. Walmart is achieving which strategic business objective?
• Operational excellence

53. ________________consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives. This includes not only computer machines, storage devices, and handheld mobile devices, but also software.
• Information technology

54. ________________ is a service or information space provided on the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format on the Internet.
• World Wide Web

55. The study of information systems is a _________________.
• multidisciplinary field

56. _________________is the term used when businesses look for insights from huge volumes of data from Web traffic, e-mail messages, social media Knowledge, and machines (sensors) that require new data management tools to capture, store, and analyze.
• Big Data

Chapter 2

Identifying customers is a responsibility of the ________ function.
• Sales and marketing
Producing bills of materials is a business process within the ________ function.
• Manufacturing and production
Which of the following is an example of a cross-functional business process?
• Creating a new product

Which type of system would you use to change a production schedule if a key supplier was late in delivering goods?
• TPS
You have been hired by a worldwide non-profit agency to implement a system to handle their donations. The system must be able to handle and record telephone, sms, and Internet donations, provide up-to-the-minute reports, and create highly customizable mailing lists. In addition, event fundraisers need to be able to quickly access a donor’s information and history. Which of the following systems will best meet these needs?
• TPS with MIS capabilities

To monitor the status of internal operations and the firm’s relations with the external environment, managers need ________ systems.
• Transaction processing

Which systems are typically a major source of data for other systems?
• Transaction processing systems

The term “management information systems” designates a specific category of information systems serving
• Middle management functions.

Which type of system would you use to determine the five suppliers with the worst record in delivering goods on time?
• MIS

A relocation control system that reports summaries on the total moving, house hunting, and home financing costs for employees in all company divisions would fall into the category of
• Management information systems.

Non-typical business problems with causes and effects that are rapidly changing are typically handled by which type of information system?
• DSS
________ Systems are especially suited to situations in which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully defined in advance.
• Decision-support

Which type of system would you use to forecast the return on investment if you used new suppliers with better delivery track records?
• DSS
ESS are specifically designed to serve which level of the organization?
• Senior management

Executive support systems are information systems that support the
• Long-range planning activities of senior management.

Which systems often deliver information to senior executives through a portal, which uses a Web interface to present integrated personalized business Knowledge?
• Executive support systems

Which type of system would you use to determine what trends in your supplier’s industry will affect your firm the most in five years?
• ESS

What is the most important function of an enterprise application?
• Enabling business functions and departments to share information

________ are designed to support organization-wide process coordination and integration.
• Enterprise applications

A (n) ________ system collects data from various key business processes and stores the data in a single, comprehensive data repository, usable by other parts of the business.
• enterprise
The four major enterprise applications are
• Enterprise systems, SCMs, CRMs, and KMSs.
Supply chain management, Customer relationship Management, Knowledge Management System

Enterprise systems are also known as ________ systems.
• Enterprise resource planning

An example of a highly structured decision is
• Granting credit to a customer.
TELUS’s use of SharePoint for team sites is an example of using information systems to achieve which business objective?
• Customer and supplier intimacy
Enabling management to make better decisions regarding organizing and scheduling sourcing, production, and distribution is a central feature of
• SCMs. (Supply Chain Management)

________ systems integrate supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and customer logistics processes.
• Supply-chain management

________ systems are designed to help firms manage their relationships with their customers.
• CRM (Customer Relationship Management)

You are planning the launch of your new company, an application service provider that provides an online timesheet and project tracking application. To best communicate with and manage your relationship with your users, you would want to implement a(n)
• CRM.
Which types of systems consolidate the relevant knowledge and experience in the firm to make it available to improve business processes and management decision making?
C) KMS (Knowledge Management System)

You work for a highly successful advertiser that is just about to expand nationally. Of utmost importance will be finding a way to store and disseminate their clients’ continually updated branding guides, which include multiple image files and text documents, to all of the firm’s branches. What system will best serve these needs?
• An extranet with KMS capabilities

You have been hired by Inspiration Inc., to help improve their profit margin. Inspiration Inc. is a business communications consultancy that services many clients in different industries throughout the United States. The end products of the company are customized recommendations for the best use of a client’s existing resources for improving internal communications, typically delivered via documentation in different media. The company

has approximately 100 consultants, all of whom are located in their central headquarters in Chicago. What system do you recommend to improve the company’s business processes and increase their profit margin?
• extranet, to enable quick collaboration over the Internet, minimize the time spent communicating with the client, and minimize the amount of paperwork needed

You manage the IT department at a small startup Internet advertiser. You need to set up
an inexpensive system that allows customers to see real-time statistics such as views and click-throughs about their current banner ads. Which type of system will most efficiently provide a solution?
• Extranet

Which of the following types of system helps coordinate the flow of information between the firm and its suppliers and customers?
• Extranet
E-government refers to the application of ________ to digitally enable government and public sector agencies’ relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
• The Internet and networking technologies
Buying or selling goods over the Internet is called
• E-commerce.
The use of digital technology and the Internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise is called
• e-business.

Which of the following statements about collaboration is not true?
• Successful collaboration can be achieved through technology regardless of the organization’s culture or structure.

Which of the following occupations would not be categorized as an “interaction” job?
• engineer
Which of the following decisions requires knowledge based on collaboration and interaction?
• Should we work with outside vendors on new products and services?

All of the following are direct business benefits of collaboration except for
• Improved compliance with government regulations.

Which of the following types of collaboration tools allows you to communicate with avatars using text messaging?
• Virtual worlds

Which of the following is not one of the reasons for the increased business focus on collaboration and teamwork?
• The need for more efficient work hierarchies

All of the following statements regarding Lotus Notes are true except which one?
• It began as an e-mail and messaging client.

Which of the following is not one of the four main classifications for collaboration tools identified by the space/time matrix?
• remote/collocated

An example of a collaboration tool that supports collocated, asynchronous collaboration is
• A team room.

The principal liaison between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization is a(n)
• Systems analyst.

A ________ is a senior manager who oversees the use of IT in the firm.
• CI(information)O

Which of the following roles falls into the duties of an information systems manager?
• managing data entry staff

The ________ helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.
• CK(knowledge)O
The CP(privacy)O is responsible for
• Ensuring that the company complies with existing data privacy laws.

________________ allows one to harness collective knowledge to generate new ideas and solutions, this describes which important application of social business?
• Crowdsourcing

________________ allows one to publish and rapidly access knowledge

discuss opinions and experiences, this describes which important application of social business?

Blogs and wikis

________________ allows one to share opinions about purchasing or purchase on social platforms, this describes which important application of social business?
• Social commerce
________________ allows one to use social media to interact with customers

derive customer insights, this describes which important application of social business?

Social marketing

________________ are online file-sharing services that allow users to upload files to secure online storage sites from which the files can be shared with others.
• Cyberlocker

________________ is a browser-based collaboration and document management platform, combined with a powerful search engine that is installed on corporate servers.
• Microsoft SharePoint

________________ Department is the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services.
• Information Systems

The ________________________is in charge of information systems security for the firm and is responsible for enforcing the firm’s information security policy.
• chief security officer (CSO)

__________________________ includes the strategy and policies for using information technology within an organization.
• IT governance

Downloading a Kindle e-book from Amazon, buying a computer online at Best Buy, and downloading a music track from iTunes are entirely new business processes based on new _____________________.
• Business models

________________ allows one to coordinate projects and tasks

co-create Knowledge, this describes which important application of social business?

Shared workspaces

Chapter 3:
1. The interaction between information systems and organizations is influenced
• By many factors, including structure, politics, culture, and environment.

2. An organization is a
A) Stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs.
B) Formal, legal entity with internal rules and procedures that must abide by laws.
C) Collection of social elements.
E) A, B, and C

3. According to the ________ definition of organizations, an organization is seen as a means by which primary production factors are transformed into outputs consumed by the environment.
• Microeconomic

4. How does the technical view of organizations fall short of understanding the full impacts of information systems in a firm?
• It sees the inputs and outputs, labor and capital, as being infinitely malleable.

5. All of the following are major features of organizations that impact the use of information systems except for
• Agency costs.

6. Business processes are collections of
• Routines.

7. Which of the following would not be considered a disruptive technology?
• Instant messaging

8. Mintzberg’s classification of organizational structure categorizes the knowledge-based organization where goods and services depend on the expertise and knowledge of professionals as a(n)
• Professional bureaucracy.

9. A large bureaucracy existing in a slowly changing environment that produces standard products and is dominated by centralized management making is classified by Mintzberg as a ________ bureaucracy.
• machine

10. An example of a divisionalized bureaucracy is a
• Fortune 500 firm.

11. The costs incurred when a firm buys on the marketplace what it cannot make itself are referred to as
• Transaction costs.

12. Which of the following statements is not true about information technology’s impacts on business firms?
• It helps firms expand in size.

13. According to agency theory, the firm is viewed as a(n)
• “Nexus of contracts” among self-interested individuals.

14. According to research of organizational resistance, the four components that must be changed in an organization in order to successfully implement a new information system are
• Tasks, technology, people, and structure. TTPS

15. The ________ model is used to describe the interaction of external forces that affect an organization’s strategy and ability to compete.
• Competitive forces
16. Which of the following industries has a low barrier to entry?
• Restaurant

17. Which of the following is not one of the competitive forces?
• External environment
18. A manufacturer of deep-sea oil rigs may be least concerned about this marketplace force.
• New market entrants

19. A substitute product of most concern for a cable TV distributor is
• Satellite TV.

20. Barnes & Noble’s apps for its e-reader, the Nook, is an example of a firm using information systems to
• Strengthen ties to its customers.

21. A firm can exercise greater control over its suppliers by having
• More suppliers.

22. Amazon’s use of the Internet as a platform to sell books more efficiently than traditional bookstores illustrates a use of information services for
• Low-cost leadership.

23. The four major types of competitive strategy are
• **Low-cost leadership

product differentiation
focus on market niche

and customer and supplier intimacy.** LPFC&S

24.

Walmart’s continuous replenishment system allows it to
• Provide an efficient customer response system.25. When a firm provides a specialized product or service for a narrow target market better than competitors, they are using a ________ strategy.
• Market niche

26. ________ is the ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as bulk production.
• Mass customization

27. In environmental scanning, a firm may use information systems to
• Identify external events that may affect it.

28. An information system can enable a company to focus on a market niche through
• Intensive customer data analysis.

29. Which of the following best illustrates the use of information systems to focus on market niche?
• A department store creating specialized products for small groups of customers.

30. As described in the chapter case, the competitive force of ________ resulted in Starbuck’s downturn in 2008, and it employed information systems in a strategy of ________ to combat this force.
• Traditional competitors

product differentiation

31.

The Internet raises the bargaining power of customers by
• Making information available to everyone.32. Which of the following industries has not been disrupted by the Internet?
• Clothing

33. What significant competitive force is challenging the publishing industry?
• substitute products or services
34. The value chain model
• Helps a firm identify points at which information technology can most effectively enhance its competitive position.

35. The primary activities of a firm include
• Inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and service.

36. Which of the following is one of the support activities in a firm’s value chain?
• technology

37. Which of the following activities would you perform to measure and compare your business processes to similar processes of other companies within your industry?
• Benchmarking

38. The most successful solutions or methods for achieving a business objective are called
• Best practices.

39. How are information systems used at the industry level to achieve strategic advantage?
• By building industry-wide, IT-supported consortia and symposia

40. A collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product or service for a market collectively is called a(n)
• Value web.

41. If two organizations pool markets and expertise that result in lower costs and generate profits it is often referred to as creating
• synergies.

42. An example of synergy in business is
• JP Morgan Chase’s mergers with other banks that provided JP Morgan with a network of retail branches in new regions.

43. An information system can enhance core competencies by
• Encouraging the sharing of knowledge across business units.

44. The more any given resource is applied to production, the lower the marginal gain in output, until a point is reached where the additional inputs produce no additional output. This is referred to as
• The law of diminishing returns.

45. Network economics
• sees the cost of adding new members as inconsequential.

46. A virtual company
• Uses the capabilities of other companies without being physically tied to those companies.

47. An example of a keystone firm within a business ecosystem is
• Apple and software application writers in the mobile platform ecosystem.

48. The emergence, for Amazon.com, of new competitors in the sphere of online shopping illustrates what disadvantage posed by the use of information systems to achieve competitive advantage?
• Internet technologies are universal, and therefore usable by all companies.
49. You are consulting for a beverage distributor who is interested in determining the benefits it could achieve from implementing new information systems. What will you advise as the first step?
• Perform a strategic systems analysis.

50. Disruptive technologies are tricky. Firms that invent disruptive technologies as ______________________________________________________________.
• As “first movers” do not always benefit if they lack the resources to exploit the technology or fail to see the opportunity.

51. A/An ________________describes a young, small firm in a fast-changing environment. It has a simple structure and is managed by an entrepreneur serving as its single chief executive officer.
• Entrepreneurial structure

52. Using computer links to external suppliers, the Chrysler Corporation can achieve economies by obtaining more than 70 percent of its parts from the outside. ____________________ make it possible for companies such as Cisco Systems and Dell Inc. to outsource their production to contract manufacturers such as Flextronics instead of making their products themselves.
• Information systems
53. Information systems can reduce the number of levels in an organization by providing managers with in- formation to supervise larger numbers of workers and by giving lower-level employees more decision- making authority. This process describes a process of ______________________.
• Flattening Organizations

54. The availability of Internet and networking technologies have inspired strategies that take advantage of firms’ abilities to create networks or network with each other. Network-based strategies include the use of ___________________________________ ecosystems.
• network economics, a virtual company model, and business

55. Successfully using information systems to achieve a competitive advantage is challenging and requires precise coordination of ________________________.
• Technology, organizations, and management

56. _______________________is another term for these loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers.
• Business ecosystem

57. Research on project implementation failures demonstrates that the most common reason for failure of large projects to reach their objectives is _______________________________.
• Not the failure of the technology, but organizational and political resistance to change.

58. In a ____________________such as a hospital, it is not unusual to find parallel patient record systems operated by the administration, doctors, and other professional staff such as nurses and social workers.
• Professional bureaucracy

Chapter 4
1. Which of the following best describes how new information systems result in legal gray areas?
• They result in new situations that are not covered by old laws.

2. The introduction of new information technology has a
• Ripple effect raising new ethical, social, and political issues.

3. In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to intellectual property fall within the moral dimension of
• Property rights and obligations.

4. In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have regarding the preservation of existing values and institutions fall within the moral dimension of
• Quality of life.

5. All of the following are current key technology trends raising ethical issues except
• Increase in multimedia quality.

6. The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals is called
• Profiling.

7. Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age do the central business activities of ChoicePoint raise?
• information rights and obligations

8. NORA is a
• Data analysis technology that finds hidden connections between data in disparate sources.

9. Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make is referred to as
• Responsibility.
10. The process in law-governed societies in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly is called
• Due process.

11. The feature of social institutions that means mechanisms are in place to determine responsibility for an action is called
• Accountability.

12. Which of the following is not one of the five steps discussed in the chapter as a process for analyzing an ethical issue?
• Assign responsibility.

13. A colleague of yours frequently takes for his own personal use small amounts of office supplies, noting that the loss to the company is minimal. You counter that if everyone were to take the office supplies, the loss would no longer be minimal. Your rationale expresses which historical ethical principle?
• Kant’s Categorical Imperative

14. Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative states that
• If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.

15. A classic ethical dilemma is the hypothetical case of a man stealing from a grocery store in order to feed his starving family. If you used the Utilitarian Principle to evaluate this situation, you might argue that stealing the food is
• Acceptable, because the higher value is the survival of the family.

16. The ethical “no free lunch” rule states that
• Everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.

17. According to the ________, you should take the action that produces the least harm.
• Risk Aversion Principle

18. European privacy protection is ________ than in the United States.
• Much more strict

19. U.S. businesses are allowed to use personal data from EU countries if they
• Develop equivalent privacy protection policies.

20. When a cookie is created during a Web site visit, it is stored
• On the visitor’s computer.

21. Flash cookies are different from ordinary cookies in that they
• Cannot be easily detected or deleted.

22. The Online Privacy Alliance
• Encourages self-regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.

23. A (n) ________ model of informed consent permits the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
• opt-out

24. Which of the following statements about trade secrets is not true?
• Any intellectual product, regardless of its purpose, can be classified as a trade secret.

25. Intellectual property can best be described as
• Intangible property created by individuals or corporations.

26. What legal mechanism protects the owners of intellectual property from having their work copied by others?
• Copyright law

27. “Look and feel” copyright infringement lawsuits are concerned with
• The distinction between an idea and its expression.

28. The strength of patent protection is that it
• Grants a monopoly on underlying concepts and ideas.

29. One of the difficulties of patent protection is
• The years of waiting to receive it.

30. Which of the following adjusts copyright laws to the Internet age by making it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials?
• Digital Millennium Copyright Act

31. In general, it is very difficult to hold software producers liable for their software products when those products are considered to be
• Similar to books.

32. ________ are not held liable for the messages they transmit.
• Regulated common carriers

33. It is not feasible for companies to produce error-free software because
• It is too expensive to create perfect software.

34. The most common source of business system failure is
• Data quality.

35. The “do anything anywhere” computing environment can
• Blur the traditional boundaries between work and family time.

36. The practice of spamming has been growing because
• It is so inexpensive and can reach so many people.

37. Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age does spamming raise?
• Quality of life

38. Re-designing and automating business processes can be seen as a double-edged sword because
• Increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.

39. A tiny software object embedded in a Web page and used by tracking programs to monitor online user behavior is called
• A Web beacon.

40. ________ can be induced by tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads.
• RSI

41. “More organizations depend on computer systems for critical operations”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
• Computing power doubles every 18 months

42. “Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on individuals”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
• Data storage costs rapidly decline

43. “Companies can analyze vast quantities of data gathered on individuals to develop detailed profiles of individual behavior”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
• Data analysis advances

44. “Copying data from one location to another and accessing personal data from remote locations are both much easier”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
• Networking advances

45. ______________________in Canada is one of the principal means of protecting computer software in Canada.
• Copyright law
46. ______________________ grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for between 17 and 20 years.
• A patent

47. ______________________ is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system.
• Computer crime

48. ______________________ is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical.
• Computer abuse

49. Several studies, including at least two by Statistics Canada, have found that _____________________in Canada are less likely to have computers or online Internet access.
• poor and minority groups

50. ________________________ refers to any eyestrain condition related to display screen use in desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, smartphones, and handheld video games.
• Computer vision syndrome (CVS)
51. The newest computer-related malady is _________________________which is stress induced by computer use. Its symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and fatigue.
• Technostress

81) _______________________ extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws

it is a feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.

Liability

Chapter 5
1. Which type of infrastructure services provides voice and video connectivity to employees, customers, and suppliers?
• telecommunications

2. Which of the following is not an IT infrastructure service component?
• Operating system software

3. Place the following eras of IT infrastructure evolution in order, from earliest to most recent: 1. Cloud Computing Era

2. Client/Server
3. Enterprise Era
4. Personal Computer
and 5. Mainframe and Minicomputer.
4, 5, 3, 2,
4. The introduction of the minicomputer
A) Allowed computers to be customized to the specific needs of departments or business units.
B) Enabled decentralized computing.
C) Offered new, powerful machines at lower prices than mainframes.
D) all of the above.5. A client computer networked to a server computer, with processing split between the two types of machines, is called a(n)
• Two-tiered client/server architecture.

6. In a multi-tiered network
• The work of the entire network is balanced over several levels of servers.

7. Interpretations of Moore’s law assert that
• Computing power doubles every 18 months.

8. Which of the following factors provides an understanding of why computing resources today are ever more available than in previous decades?
A) Network economics
B) Law of mass digital storage and Moore’s law
C) Declining communications costs, universal standards, and the Internet
D) all of the above

9. Today’s nanotechnology-produced computer transistors are roughly equivalent in size to
• A virus.

10. Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a network are called
• Technology standards.

11. ________ unleash powerful economies of scale and result in declines in manufactured computer products.
• Technology standards

12. The multitasking, multi-user, operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that operates on a wide variety of computing platforms is
• UNIX.

13. The network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that enabled the widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further stimulated the adoption of personal computers is
• Ethernet.

14. Which of the following is a leading networking hardware provider?
• Cisco

15. Software that manages the resources of the computer is called
• Operating system software.

16. A SAN is a ________ network.
• Storage area
17. As referred to in the text, legacy systems are
• Traditional mainframe-based business information systems.

18. Legacy systems are still used because they
• Are too expensive to redesign.
19. Which of the following is not an example of the emerging mobile computing platforms?
• CRM
20. All of the following are current hardware platform trends except
• UNIX.

21. Connecting geographically remote computers in a single network to create a “virtual supercomputer” is called
• Grid computing.

22. The business case for using grid computing involves all of the following except
• Increased accuracy.

23. Which of the following does grid computing utilize to create enormous supercomputing power?
• networked computers with idle resources

24. The process of presenting a set of computing resources (such as computing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location is called
• Cloud computing.

25. Which type of computing refers to firms purchasing computing power from remote providers and paying only for the computing power they use?
• on-demand

26. An example of autonomic computing is
• Spyware protection software that runs and updates itself automatically.

27. An industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize, tune, and heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction is called
• Autonomic computing.

28. Which type of software is created and updated by a worldwide community of programmers and available for free?
• Open source

29. Which of the following is not one of the current software platform trends?
• Grid computing

30. Linux is
• An example of open-source software.

31. Which of the following statements about Linux is not true?
• It has garnered 80 percent of the server operating system market.

32. Running a Java program on a computer requires
• A Java Virtual Machine to be installed on the computer.

33. A software tool with a graphical user interface for displaying Web pages and for accessing the Web and other Internet resources is called a Web
• Browser.
34. The development of TCP/IP occurred during the ________ era.
• enterprise computing

35. Sets of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using standard Web communication standards and languages are referred to as
• Web services.

36. What is the foundation technology for Web services?
• XML

37. A set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application is called
• SOA.
38. Prewritten, commercially available sets of software programs that eliminate the need for a firm to write its own software programs for certain functions, are referred to as
• Software packages.

39. ________ are created by combining and customizing components from different online software applications.
• Mashups

40. The marketplace for computer hardware
• Has become increasingly concentrated in top firms.

41. The practice of contracting custom software development to an outside firm is commonly referred to as
• Outsourcing.

42. A formal contract between customers and their service providers that outlines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and to the customer is called a(n)
• SLA.

43. SaaS refers to
• Hosting and managing access to software applications delivered over the Internet to clients on a subscription basis.

44. Which of the following refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down?
• scalability

45. Hardware and software acquisition costs account for about ________ percent of TCO.
• 20
46. Which model can be used to analyze the direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations?
• Total cost of ownership

47. Which of the following is the most popular mobile operating system?
• Android

48. How would you determine the market demand for your firm’s IT services?
• Hold focus groups to assess your services.

49. Which of the following is not one of the main six factors to consider when evaluating how much your firm should spend on IT infrastructure?
• your firm’s organizational culture
50. Which of the following is not one of the NIST defined characteristics of cloud computing?
• Non-measured service

51. Which of the following is not one of three variations of Moore’s Law, none of which Moore ever stated?
• Computer size decreases every 18 months

52. Which computing standard is significant because it made it possible for computer machines from different manufacturers to exchange data

later used as the universal language linking input and output devices such as keyboards and mice to computers.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange

53. Which computing standard is significant because it made

an easy-to-use software language that greatly expanded the ability of programmers to write business-related programs and reduced the cost of software.

Common Business Oriented Language

54. Which computing standard is significant because it made a suite of communications protocols and a common addressing scheme that enables millions of computers to connect together in one giant global network (the Internet).
• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol

55. Which computing standard is significant because it made a network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that enabled the widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further stimulated the adoption of personal computers.
• Ethernet

56. ___________________ provides a lightweight operating system for cloud computing using netbooks that are manufactured by Google partners such as Samsung and Acer.
• Chrome OS

57. ___________________ is an open-source operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google.
• Android

58. ___________________ is the operating system for the phenomenally popular Apple iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch, features a multitouch interface, where users employ one or more fingers to manipulate objects on a screen without a mouse or keyboard.
• iOS

59. Microsoft’s ___________________ which runs on tablets as well as PCs, has a user interface optimized for touch, but also permits use of a mouse and keyboard.
• Windows 8

60. “Customers use processing, storage, networking, and other computing resources from cloud service providers to run their information systems” describes which type of cloud service?
• Cloud infrastructure as a service

Chapter 6
1. Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between entities and attributes?
• the entity CUSTOMER with the attribute PURCHASE

2. Which of the following is not one of the main problems with a traditional file environment?
• program-data independence

3. A DBMS reduces data redundancy and inconsistency by
• Minimizing isolated files with repeated data.

4. A characteristic or quality describing an entity is called a(n)
• Attribute.

5. The confusion created by ________ makes it difficult for companies to create customer relationship management, supply chain management, or enterprise systems that integrate data from different sources.
• data redundancy

6. Duplicate data in multiple data files is called data ________.
• redundancy

7. A DBMS makes the
• Physical database available for different logical views.

8. The logical view
• Presents data as they would be perceived by end users.
9. DBMS for midrange computers include all of the following except
• Microsoft Access.

10. The type of logical database model that treats data as if they were stored in two-dimensional tables is the
• Relational DBMS.

11. Oracle Database Lite is a(n)
• DBMS for small handheld computing devices.

12. Microsoft SQL Server is a(n)
• DBMS for midrange computers.

13. In a table for customers, the information about a single customer would reside in a single
• row
14. In a relational database, a record is referred to in technical terms as a(n)
• Tuple.

15. A field identified in a table as holding the unique identifier of the table’s records is called the
• Primary key.

16. A field identified in a record as holding the unique identifier for that record is called the
• Key field.

17. In a relational database, the three basic operations used to develop useful sets of data are
• Select, project, and join.
(SPJ)
18. The select operation
• Creates a subset consisting of all records in the file that meet stated criteria.

19. The join operation
• Combines relational tables to provide the user with more information than is otherwise available.

20. The project operation
• Creates a subset consisting of columns in a table.

21. Big data does not refer to
• Datasets with fewer than a billion records.

22. Which of the following technologies would you use to analyze the social media data collected by a major online retailer?
• Hadoop

23. The data dictionary serves as an important data management tool by
• Creating an inventory of the data elements contained in the database.

24. An automated or manual file that stores information about data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization, and security is the
• data dictionary

25. The specialized language programmers use to add and change data in the database is called
• A data manipulation language.

26. The most prominent data manipulation language today is
• SQL.

27. DBMSs typically include report-generating tools in order to
• Display data in an easier-to-read format.

28. The process of streamlining data to minimize redundancy and awkward many-to-many relationships is called
• Normalization.
29. A schematic of the entire database that describes the relationships in a database is called a(n)
• Entity-relationship diagram.
30. A one-to-one relationship between two entities is symbolized in a diagram by a line that ends with
• Two short marks.
31. Which of the following is not one of the techniques used in Web mining?
• user mining

32. You work for a retail clothing chain whose primary outlets are in shopping malls, and you are conducting an analysis of your customers and their preferences. You wish to find out if there are any particular activities that your customers engage in, or the types of purchases made in the month before or after purchasing select items from your store. To do this, you will want to use data mining software that is capable of
• Identifying sequences.

33. You work for a national car rental agency and want to determine what characteristics are shared among your most loyal customers. To do this, you will want to use data mining software that is capable of
• Classification.

34. A data warehouse is composed of
• historic and current internal data.

35. All of the following are technologies used to analyze and manage big data except
• Cloud computing.

36. A nationwide magazine publisher has hired you to help analyze their social media datasets to determine which of their news publications are seen as the most trustworthy. Which of the following tools would you use to analyze this data?
• sentiment analysis software

37. The tool that enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions is
• OLAP.

38. OLAP is a tool for enabling
• Users to obtain online answers to ad-hoc questions in a rapid amount of time.

39. Data mining is a tool for allowing users to
• Find hidden relationships in data.

40. In terms of data relationships, associations refers to
• Occurrences linked to a single event.
41. ________ Tools are used to analyze large unstructured data sets, such as e-mail, memos, survey responses, etc., to discover patterns and relationships.
• Text mining
42. An alternative to using application server software for interfacing between a Web server and back-end databases is
• CGI.
43. The organization’s rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information is called a(n)
• Information policy.

44. The special organizational function whose responsibilities include physical database design and maintenance, is called
• Database administration.
45. Which common database challenge is illustrated by a person receiving multiple copies of an L.L. Bean catalog, each addressed to a slightly different variation of his or her full name?
• data inconsistency
46. Detecting and correcting data in a database or file that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant is called
• Data scrubbing.

47. You are creating a database to store temperature and wind data from national airport locations. Which of the following fields is the most likely candidate to use as the basis for a primary key in the Airport table?
• Airport code
48. Data cleansing not only corrects errors but also
• Enforces consistency among different sets of data.

49. Which of the following is not a method for performing a data quality audit?
• surveying data definition and query files

50. The most popular type of DBMS today for PCs as well as for larger computers and mainframes is the ____________________________.
• relational DBMS
51. A ________________________ is a database that stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company.
• data warehouse
52. Another way of facilitating big data analysis is to use _______________________, which relies primarily on a computer’s main memory (RAM) for data storage.
• in-memory computing

53. Commercial database vendors have developed specialized high-speed ________________________ using both relational and non-relational technology that are optimized for analyzing large datasets.
• Analytic platforms

54. In__________________, events are linked over time.
• Sequences

55. __________________________ recognizes patterns that describe the group to which an item belongs by examining existing items that have been classified and by inferring a set of rules.
• Classification

56. __________________________ works in a manner similar to classification when no groups have yet been defined.
• Clustering
57. ____________________ uses predictions in a different way. It uses a series of existing values to predict what other values will be.
• Forecasting

58. The discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from the World Wide Web is called ______________________.
• Web mining

59. _________________________ used to describe many of these activities. Promoted by IBM, data governance deals with the policies and processes for managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the data employed in an enterprise, with special emphasis on promoting privacy, security, data quality, and compliance with government regulations.
• data governance

The six important business objectives of information technology are new products, services, and business models; customer and supplier intimacy; survival; competitive advantage; operational excellence; and ______________________________
Improved decision making.
Which of the following choices may lead to competitive advantage
1. new products, services, and business models; 2. charging less for superior products; 3. responding to customers in real time?
D) 1, 2, and 3
The use of information systems because of necessity describes the business objective of
Survival.
The move of retail banking to use ATMs after Citibank unveiled its first ATMs illustrates the use of information systems to achieve which business objective?
Survival
The four activities in an information system that produce the information organizations use to control operations are
input, processing, output, and feedback.
Order data for baseball tickets and bar code data are examples of
Raw input.
The average number of tickets sold daily online is an example of
meaningful information.
Output
transfers processed information to the people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used.
Converting raw data into a more meaningful form is called
processing.
An example of raw data from a national chain of automobile stores would be
1 Toyota RAV4 sold March 3, 2008 in Louisville, Kentucky.
The field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the firm is called
Management information systems.
In a hierarchical organization, the upper levels consist of
Managerial, professional, and technical employees.
Which of the following is not one of the current changes taking place in information systems technology?
development of videopresence software
The fundamental set of assumptions, values, and ways of doing things that has been accepted by most of a company’s members is called its
culture.
Thomas Friedman’s declaration that the world was now “flat” meant that
The Internet has reduced the economic advantages of developed countries.
Data management technology consists of the
software governing the organization of data on physical storage media.
Organizational culture is best described by which of the following statements?
It is a set of assumptions and values accepted by most members.
Networking and telecommunications technologies, along with computer hardware, software, data management technology, and the people required to run and manage them, constitute an organization’s
IT infrastructure.
An example of a business using information systems to create new products and services is
Apple Inc.’s iPod.
An example of a business using information systems to attain operational excellence is
Wal-Mart’s RetailLink system.
An example of a business using information systems for customer and supplier intimacy is
the Mandarin Oriental hotel’s customer-preference tracking system.
Maintaining the organization’s financial records is a central purpose of which main business function?
finance and accounting
Which of the following is not one of the primary environmental actors that interacts with an organization and its information systems?
Sales force
Which of the following would not be a complementary asset for a solar panel manufacturer?
centralized hierarchical decision making
The temp agency that you own is having serious difficulties placing temps because few of them are familiar with Internet research. Investing in training software to enhance your workers’ skills is an example of using technology to achieve which business objective?
Survival
In a business hierarchy, the level that is responsible for monitoring the daily activities of the business is
Operational management.
From a business perspective, raw data is transformed systematically during various stages, transforming it into valuable information, in a process called
the information value chain.
A corporation that funds a political action committee, which in turn promotes and funds a political candidate who agrees with the values of that corporation, could be seen as investing in which main category of complementary assets?
social
Apple Computer dominates the online legal music sales industry primarily because of a failure of recording label companies to
adopt a new business model.
An example of an organizational complementary asset is
using the appropriate business model.
An example of a social complementary asset is
technology and service firms in adjacent markets.
Disciplines that contribute to the technical approach to information systems are
operations research, management science, and computer science.
The discipline that focuses on mathematical techniques for optimizing parameters of organizations, such as transportation and inventory control, is
operations research.
Sociologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
how systems affect individuals, groups, and organizations.
Psychologists study information systems with an eye to understanding
how human decision makers perceive and use formal information.
Which of the following are key corporate assets?
intellectual property, core competencies, and financial and human assets
Which of the following roles in a firm would be least affected by using mobile devices to access firm information systems?
production workers
A firm that must invest in new information systems capabilities in order to comply with federal legislation can be said to be investing to achieve which business objective?
survival
Which of the following would not be used as an input for an information system?
digital dashboard
Which field of study focuses on both a behavioral and technical understanding of information systems?
management information systems
The three principle levels within a business organization hierarchy are
Senior management, middle management, and operational management.
Engineers, scientists, or architects, who design new products or services for a firm, work often with which level of a business hierarchy?
knowledge work
Which main business function is responsible for maintaining employee records?
Human resources
Which of the following constitutes an organizational element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter?
the specification of procedures for identifying packages with sender and recipient information
A managerial element in the UPS tracking system described in the chapter is
the decision to use automation.
The strength of cloud computing and the growth of the mobile digital platform allow organizations to rely more___________________________________.
on telework, remote work, and distributed decision making
The emergence of the Internet as a full-blown international communications system has drastically____________________________________________.
reduced the costs of operating and transacting on a global scale
_____________________ Processes are accomplished through digital networks spanning the entire organization or linking multiple organizations.
Core business
_____________________refers to business being conducted continuously, 24/7, rather than in narrow “work day” time bands of 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Time shifting
_____________________means that work takes place in a global work- shop, as well as within national boundaries.
Space shifting
Trimac, a large Canadian trucking firm, uses an assessment of key performance indicators that Trimac has labeled its “dashboard project.” The idea is to create consistent reporting across every level of the organization. Trimac is achieving which strategic business objective?
Improved decision-making
Walmart, the largest retailer on earth, exemplifies the power of information systems coupled with brilliant business practices and supportive management to achieve world-class operational efficiency. Walmart is achieving which strategic business objective?
Operational excellence
________________consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to use in order to achieve its business objectives. This includes not only computer machines, storage devices, and handheld mobile devices, but also software.
Information technology
________________ is a service or information space provided on the Internet that uses universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information in a page format on the Internet.
World Wide Web
The study of information systems is a _________________.
multidisciplinary field
_________________is the term used when businesses look for insights from huge volumes of data from Web traffic, e-mail messages, social media Knowledge, and machines (sensors) that require new data management tools to capture, store, and analyze.
Big Data
Identifying customers is a responsibility of the ________ function.
Sales and marketing
Producing bills of materials is a business process within the ________ function.
Manufacturing and production
Which of the following is an example of a cross-functional business process?
Creating a new product
Which type of system would you use to change a production schedule if a key supplier was late in delivering goods?
TPS
You have been hired by a worldwide non-profit agency to implement a system to handle their donations. The system must be able to handle and record telephone, sms, and Internet donations, provide up-to-the-minute reports, and create highly customizable mailing lists. In addition, event fundraisers need to be able to quickly access a donor’s information and history. Which of the following systems will best meet these needs?
TPS with MIS capabilities
To monitor the status of internal operations and the firm’s relations with the external environment, managers need ________ systems.
Transaction processing
Which systems are typically a major source of data for other systems?
Transaction processing systems
The term “management information systems” designates a specific category of information systems serving
Middle management functions.
Which type of system would you use to determine the five suppliers with the worst record in delivering goods on time?
MIS
A relocation control system that reports summaries on the total moving, house hunting, and home financing costs for employees in all company divisions would fall into the category of
Management information systems.
Non-typical business problems with causes and effects that are rapidly changing are typically handled by which type of information system?
DSS
________ Systems are especially suited to situations in which the procedure for arriving at a solution may not be fully defined in advance.
Decision-support
Which type of system would you use to forecast the return on investment if you used new suppliers with better delivery track records?
DSS
ESS are specifically designed to serve which level of the organization?
Senior management
Executive support systems are information systems that support the
Long-range planning activities of senior management.
Which systems often deliver information to senior executives through a portal, which uses a Web interface to present integrated personalized business Knowledge?
Executive support systems
Which type of system would you use to determine what trends in your supplier’s industry will affect your firm the most in five years?
ESS
What is the most important function of an enterprise application?
Enabling business functions and departments to share information
________ are designed to support organization-wide process coordination and integration.
Enterprise applications
A (n) ________ system collects data from various key business processes and stores the data in a single, comprehensive data repository, usable by other parts of the business.
enterprise
The four major enterprise applications are
Enterprise systems, SCMs, CRMs, and KMSs.
Supply chain management, Customer relationship Management, Knowledge Management System
Enterprise systems are also known as ________ systems.
Enterprise resource planning
An example of a highly structured decision is
Granting credit to a customer.
TELUS’s use of SharePoint for team sites is an example of using information systems to achieve which business objective?
Customer and supplier intimacy
Enabling management to make better decisions regarding organizing and scheduling sourcing, production, and distribution is a central feature of
SCMs. (Supply Chain Management)
________ systems integrate supplier, manufacturer, distributor, and customer logistics processes.
Supply-chain management
________ systems are designed to help firms manage their relationships with their customers.
CRM (Customer Relationship Management)
You are planning the launch of your new company, an application service provider that provides an online timesheet and project tracking application. To best communicate with and manage your relationship with your users, you would want to implement a(n)
CRM.
Which types of systems consolidate the relevant knowledge and experience in the firm to make it available to improve business processes and management decision making?
C) KMS (Knowledge Management System)
You work for a highly successful advertiser that is just about to expand nationally. Of utmost importance will be finding a way to store and disseminate their clients’ continually updated branding guides, which include multiple image files and text documents, to all of the firm’s branches. What system will best serve these needs?
An extranet with KMS capabilities

You have been hired by Inspiration Inc., to help improve their profit margin. Inspiration Inc. is a business communications consultancy that services many clients in different industries throughout the United States. The end products of the company are customized recommendations for the best use of a client’s existing resources for improving internal communications, typically delivered via documentation in different media. The company

has approximately 100 consultants, all of whom are located in their central headquarters in Chicago. What system do you recommend to improve the company’s business processes and increase their profit margin?

extranet, to enable quick collaboration over the Internet, minimize the time spent communicating with the client, and minimize the amount of paperwork needed
You manage the IT department at a small startup Internet advertiser. You need to set up
an inexpensive system that allows customers to see real-time statistics such as views and click-throughs about their current banner ads. Which type of system will most efficiently provide a solution?
Extranet
Which of the following types of system helps coordinate the flow of information between the firm and its suppliers and customers?
Extranet
E-government refers to the application of ________ to digitally enable government and public sector agencies’ relationships with citizens, businesses, and other arms of government.
The Internet and networking technologies
Buying or selling goods over the Internet is called
E-commerce.
The use of digital technology and the Internet to execute the major business processes in the enterprise is called
e-business.
Which of the following statements about collaboration is not true?
Successful collaboration can be achieved through technology regardless of the organization’s culture or structure.
Which of the following occupations would not be categorized as an “interaction” job?
engineer
Which of the following decisions requires knowledge based on collaboration and interaction?
Should we work with outside vendors on new products and services?
All of the following are direct business benefits of collaboration except for
Improved compliance with government regulations.
Which of the following types of collaboration tools allows you to communicate with avatars using text messaging?
Virtual worlds
Which of the following is not one of the reasons for the increased business focus on collaboration and teamwork?
The need for more efficient work hierarchies
All of the following statements regarding Lotus Notes are true except which one?
It began as an e-mail and messaging client.
Which of the following is not one of the four main classifications for collaboration tools identified by the space/time matrix?
remote/collocated
An example of a collaboration tool that supports collocated, asynchronous collaboration is
A team room.
The principal liaison between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization is a(n)
Systems analyst.
A ________ is a senior manager who oversees the use of IT in the firm.
CI(information)O
Which of the following roles falls into the duties of an information systems manager?
managing data entry staff
The ________ helps design programs and systems to find new sources of knowledge or to make better use of existing knowledge in organizational and management processes.
CK(knowledge)O
The CP(privacy)O is responsible for
Ensuring that the company complies with existing data privacy laws.
________________ allows one to harness collective knowledge to generate new ideas and solutions, this describes which important application of social business?
Crowdsourcing
________________ allows one to publish and rapidly access knowledge; discuss opinions and experiences, this describes which important application of social business?
Blogs and wikis
________________ allows one to share opinions about purchasing or purchase on social platforms, this describes which important application of social business?
Social commerce
________________ allows one to use social media to interact with customers; derive customer insights, this describes which important application of social business?
Social marketing
________________ are online file-sharing services that allow users to upload files to secure online storage sites from which the files can be shared with others.
Cyberlocker
________________ is a browser-based collaboration and document management platform, combined with a powerful search engine that is installed on corporate servers.
Microsoft SharePoint
________________ Department is the formal organizational unit responsible for information technology services.
Information Systems
The ________________________is in charge of information systems security for the firm and is responsible for enforcing the firm’s information security policy.
chief security officer (CSO)
__________________________ includes the strategy and policies for using information technology within an organization.
IT governance
Downloading a Kindle e-book from Amazon, buying a computer online at Best Buy, and downloading a music track from iTunes are entirely new business processes based on new _____________________.
Business models
________________ allows one to coordinate projects and tasks; co-create Knowledge, this describes which important application of social business?
Shared workspaces
The interaction between information systems and organizations is influenced
By many factors, including structure, politics, culture, and environment.
An organization is a
A) Stable, formal social structure that takes resources from the environment and processes them to produce outputs.
B) Formal, legal entity with internal rules and procedures that must abide by laws.
C) Collection of social elements.
E) A, B, and C
According to the ________ definition of organizations, an organization is seen as a means by which primary production factors are transformed into outputs consumed by the environment.
Microeconomic
How does the technical view of organizations fall short of understanding the full impacts of information systems in a firm?
It sees the inputs and outputs, labor and capital, as being infinitely malleable.
All of the following are major features of organizations that impact the use of information systems except for
Agency costs.
Business processes are collections of
Routines.
Which of the following would not be considered a disruptive technology?
Instant messaging
Mintzberg’s classification of organizational structure categorizes the knowledge-based organization where goods and services depend on the expertise and knowledge of professionals as a(n)
Professional bureaucracy.
A large bureaucracy existing in a slowly changing environment that produces standard products and is dominated by centralized management making is classified by Mintzberg as a ________ bureaucracy.
machine
An example of a divisionalized bureaucracy is a
Fortune 500 firm.
The costs incurred when a firm buys on the marketplace what it cannot make itself are referred to as
Transaction costs.
Which of the following statements is not true about information technology’s impacts on business firms?
It helps firms expand in size.
According to agency theory, the firm is viewed as a(n)
“Nexus of contracts” among self-interested individuals.
According to research of organizational resistance, the four components that must be changed in an organization in order to successfully implement a new information system are
Tasks, technology, people, and structure. TTPS
The ________ model is used to describe the interaction of external forces that affect an organization’s strategy and ability to compete.
Competitive forces
Which of the following industries has a low barrier to entry?
Restaurant
Which of the following is not one of the competitive forces?
External environment
A manufacturer of deep-sea oil rigs may be least concerned about this marketplace force.
New market entrants
A substitute product of most concern for a cable TV distributor is
Satellite TV.
Barnes & Noble’s apps for its e-reader, the Nook, is an example of a firm using information systems to
Strengthen ties to its customers.
A firm can exercise greater control over its suppliers by having
More suppliers.
Amazon’s use of the Internet as a platform to sell books more efficiently than traditional bookstores illustrates a use of information services for
Low-cost leadership.
The four major types of competitive strategy are
**Low-cost leadership; product differentiation; focus on market niche; and customer and supplier intimacy.** LPFC&S
Walmart’s continuous replenishment system allows it to
Provide an efficient customer response system.
When a firm provides a specialized product or service for a narrow target market better than competitors, they are using a ________ strategy.
Market niche
________ is the ability to offer individually tailored products or services using the same production resources as bulk production.
Mass customization
In environmental scanning, a firm may use information systems to
Identify external events that may affect it.
An information system can enable a company to focus on a market niche through
Intensive customer data analysis.
Which of the following best illustrates the use of information systems to focus on market niche?
A department store creating specialized products for small groups of customers.
As described in the chapter case, the competitive force of ________ resulted in Starbuck’s downturn in 2008, and it employed information systems in a strategy of ________ to combat this force.
Traditional competitors; product differentiation
The Internet raises the bargaining power of customers by
Making information available to everyone.
Which of the following industries has not been disrupted by the Internet?
Clothing
What significant competitive force is challenging the publishing industry?
substitute products or services
The value chain model
Helps a firm identify points at which information technology can most effectively enhance its competitive position.
The primary activities of a firm include
Inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics, sales and marketing, and service.
Which of the following is one of the support activities in a firm’s value chain?
technology
Which of the following activities would you perform to measure and compare your business processes to similar processes of other companies within your industry?
Benchmarking
The most successful solutions or methods for achieving a business objective are called
Best practices.
How are information systems used at the industry level to achieve strategic advantage?
By building industry-wide, IT-supported consortia and symposia
A collection of independent firms that use information technology to coordinate their value chains to produce a product or service for a market collectively is called a(n)
Value web.
If two organizations pool markets and expertise that result in lower costs and generate profits it is often referred to as creating
synergies.
An example of synergy in business is
JP Morgan Chase’s mergers with other banks that provided JP Morgan with a network of retail branches in new regions.
An information system can enhance core competencies by
Encouraging the sharing of knowledge across business units.
The more any given resource is applied to production, the lower the marginal gain in output, until a point is reached where the additional inputs produce no additional output. This is referred to as
The law of diminishing returns.
Network economics
sees the cost of adding new members as inconsequential.
A virtual company
Uses the capabilities of other companies without being physically tied to those companies.
An example of a keystone firm within a business ecosystem is
Apple and software application writers in the mobile platform ecosystem.
The emergence, for Amazon.com, of new competitors in the sphere of online shopping illustrates what disadvantage posed by the use of information systems to achieve competitive advantage?
Internet technologies are universal, and therefore usable by all companies.
You are consulting for a beverage distributor who is interested in determining the benefits it could achieve from implementing new information systems. What will you advise as the first step?
Perform a strategic systems analysis.
Disruptive technologies are tricky. Firms that invent disruptive technologies as ______________________________________________________________.
As “first movers” do not always benefit if they lack the resources to exploit the technology or fail to see the opportunity.
A/An ________________describes a young, small firm in a fast-changing environment. It has a simple structure and is managed by an entrepreneur serving as its single chief executive officer.
Entrepreneurial structure
Using computer links to external suppliers, the Chrysler Corporation can achieve economies by obtaining more than 70 percent of its parts from the outside. ____________________ make it possible for companies such as Cisco Systems and Dell Inc. to outsource their production to contract manufacturers such as Flextronics instead of making their products themselves.
Information systems
Information systems can reduce the number of levels in an organization by providing managers with in- formation to supervise larger numbers of workers and by giving lower-level employees more decision- making authority. This process describes a process of ______________________.
Flattening Organizations
The availability of Internet and networking technologies have inspired strategies that take advantage of firms’ abilities to create networks or network with each other. Network-based strategies include the use of ___________________________________ ecosystems.
network economics, a virtual company model, and business
Successfully using information systems to achieve a competitive advantage is challenging and requires precise coordination of ________________________.
Technology, organizations, and management
_______________________is another term for these loosely coupled but interdependent networks of suppliers, distributors, outsourcing firms, transportation service firms, and technology manufacturers.
Business ecosystem
Research on project implementation failures demonstrates that the most common reason for failure of large projects to reach their objectives is _______________________________.
Not the failure of the technology, but organizational and political resistance to change.
In a ____________________such as a hospital, it is not unusual to find parallel patient record systems operated by the administration, doctors, and other professional staff such as nurses and social workers.
Professional bureaucracy
Which of the following best describes how new information systems result in legal gray areas?
They result in new situations that are not covered by old laws.
The introduction of new information technology has a
Ripple effect raising new ethical, social, and political issues.
In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to intellectual property fall within the moral dimension of
Property rights and obligations.
In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have regarding the preservation of existing values and institutions fall within the moral dimension of
Quality of life.
All of the following are current key technology trends raising ethical issues except
Increase in multimedia quality.
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals is called
Profiling.
Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age do the central business activities of ChoicePoint raise?
information rights and obligations
NORA is a
Data analysis technology that finds hidden connections between data in disparate sources.
Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make is referred to as
Responsibility.
The process in law-governed societies in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly is called
Due process.
The feature of social institutions that means mechanisms are in place to determine responsibility for an action is called
Accountability.
Which of the following is not one of the five steps discussed in the chapter as a process for analyzing an ethical issue?
Assign responsibility.
A colleague of yours frequently takes for his own personal use small amounts of office supplies, noting that the loss to the company is minimal. You counter that if everyone were to take the office supplies, the loss would no longer be minimal. Your rationale expresses which historical ethical principle?
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative states that
If an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.
A classic ethical dilemma is the hypothetical case of a man stealing from a grocery store in order to feed his starving family. If you used the Utilitarian Principle to evaluate this situation, you might argue that stealing the food is
Acceptable, because the higher value is the survival of the family.
The ethical “no free lunch” rule states that
Everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.
According to the ________, you should take the action that produces the least harm.
Risk Aversion Principle
European privacy protection is ________ than in the United States.
Much more strict
U.S. businesses are allowed to use personal data from EU countries if they
Develop equivalent privacy protection policies.
When a cookie is created during a Web site visit, it is stored
On the visitor’s computer.
Flash cookies are different from ordinary cookies in that they
Cannot be easily detected or deleted.
The Online Privacy Alliance
Encourages self-regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.
A (n) ________ model of informed consent permits the collection of personal information until the consumer specifically requests that the data not be collected.
opt-out
Which of the following statements about trade secrets is not true?
Any intellectual product, regardless of its purpose, can be classified as a trade secret.
Intellectual property can best be described as
Intangible property created by individuals or corporations.
What legal mechanism protects the owners of intellectual property from having their work copied by others?
Copyright law
“Look and feel” copyright infringement lawsuits are concerned with
The distinction between an idea and its expression.
The strength of patent protection is that it
Grants a monopoly on underlying concepts and ideas.
One of the difficulties of patent protection is
The years of waiting to receive it.
Which of the following adjusts copyright laws to the Internet age by making it illegal to circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials?
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
In general, it is very difficult to hold software producers liable for their software products when those products are considered to be
Similar to books.
________ are not held liable for the messages they transmit.
Regulated common carriers
It is not feasible for companies to produce error-free software because
It is too expensive to create perfect software.
The most common source of business system failure is
Data quality.
The “do anything anywhere” computing environment can
Blur the traditional boundaries between work and family time.
The practice of spamming has been growing because
It is so inexpensive and can reach so many people.
Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age does spamming raise?
Quality of life
Re-designing and automating business processes can be seen as a double-edged sword because
Increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.
A tiny software object embedded in a Web page and used by tracking programs to monitor online user behavior is called
A Web beacon.
________ can be induced by tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads.
RSI
“More organizations depend on computer systems for critical operations”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
Computing power doubles every 18 months
“Organizations can easily maintain detailed databases on individuals”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
Data storage costs rapidly decline
“Companies can analyze vast quantities of data gathered on individuals to develop detailed profiles of individual behavior”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
Data analysis advances
“Copying data from one location to another and accessing personal data from remote locations are both much easier”, this impact is the result of what computing trend?
Networking advances
______________________in Canada is one of the principal means of protecting computer software in Canada.
Copyright law
______________________ grants the owner an exclusive monopoly on the ideas behind an invention for between 17 and 20 years.
A patent
______________________ is the commission of illegal acts through the use of a computer or against a computer system.
Computer crime
______________________ is the commission of acts involving a computer that may not be illegal but that are considered unethical.
Computer abuse
Several studies, including at least two by Statistics Canada, have found that _____________________in Canada are less likely to have computers or online Internet access.
poor and minority groups
________________________ refers to any eyestrain condition related to display screen use in desktop computers, laptops, e-readers, smartphones, and handheld video games.
Computer vision syndrome (CVS)
The newest computer-related malady is _________________________which is stress induced by computer use. Its symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and fatigue.

Technostress

81) _______________________ extends the concept of responsibility further to the area of laws; it is a feature of political systems in which a body of laws is in place that permits individuals to recover the damages done to them by other actors, systems, or organizations.
• Liability

Which type of infrastructure services provides voice and video connectivity to employees, customers, and suppliers?
telecommunications
Which of the following is not an IT infrastructure service component?
Operating system software
Place the following eras of IT infrastructure evolution in order, from earliest to most recent
1. Cloud Computing Era; 2. Client/Server; 3. Enterprise Era; 4. Personal Computer; and 5. Mainframe and Minicomputer.
4, 5, 3, 2,
The introduction of the minicomputer
A) Allowed computers to be customized to the specific needs of departments or business units.
B) Enabled decentralized computing.
C) Offered new, powerful machines at lower prices than mainframes.
D) all of the above.
A client computer networked to a server computer, with processing split between the two types of machines, is called a(n)
Two-tiered client/server architecture.
In a multi-tiered network
The work of the entire network is balanced over several levels of servers.
Interpretations of Moore’s law assert that
Computing power doubles every 18 months.
Which of the following factors provides an understanding of why computing resources today are ever more available than in previous decades?
A) Network economics
B) Law of mass digital storage and Moore’s law
C) Declining communications costs, universal standards, and the Internet
D) all of the above
Today’s nanotechnology-produced computer transistors are roughly equivalent in size to
A virus.
Specifications that establish the compatibility of products and the ability to communicate in a network are called
Technology standards.
________ unleash powerful economies of scale and result in declines in manufactured computer products.
Technology standards
The multitasking, multi-user, operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that operates on a wide variety of computing platforms is
UNIX.
The network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that enabled the widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further stimulated the adoption of personal computers is
Ethernet.
Which of the following is a leading networking hardware provider?
Cisco
Software that manages the resources of the computer is called
Operating system software.
A SAN is a ________ network.
Storage area
As referred to in the text, legacy systems are
Traditional mainframe-based business information systems.
Legacy systems are still used because they
Are too expensive to redesign.
Which of the following is not an example of the emerging mobile computing platforms?
CRM
All of the following are current hardware platform trends except
UNIX.
Connecting geographically remote computers in a single network to create a “virtual supercomputer” is called
Grid computing.
The business case for using grid computing involves all of the following except
Increased accuracy.
Which of the following does grid computing utilize to create enormous supercomputing power?
networked computers with idle resources
The process of presenting a set of computing resources (such as computing power or data storage) so that they can all be accessed in ways that are not restricted by physical configuration or geographic location is called
Cloud computing.
Which type of computing refers to firms purchasing computing power from remote providers and paying only for the computing power they use?
on-demand
An example of autonomic computing is
Spyware protection software that runs and updates itself automatically.
An industry-wide effort to develop systems that can configure, optimize, tune, and heal themselves when broken, and protect themselves from outside intruders and self-destruction is called
Autonomic computing.
Which type of software is created and updated by a worldwide community of programmers and available for free?
Open source
Which of the following is not one of the current software platform trends?
Grid computing
Linux is
An example of open-source software.
Which of the following statements about Linux is not true?
It has garnered 80 percent of the server operating system market.
Running a Java program on a computer requires
A Java Virtual Machine to be installed on the computer.
A software tool with a graphical user interface for displaying Web pages and for accessing the Web and other Internet resources is called a Web
Browser.
The development of TCP/IP occurred during the ________ era.
enterprise computing
Sets of loosely coupled software components that exchange information with each other using standard Web communication standards and languages are referred to as
Web services.
What is the foundation technology for Web services?
XML
A set of self-contained services that communicate with each other to create a working software application is called
SOA.
Prewritten, commercially available sets of software programs that eliminate the need for a firm to write its own software programs for certain functions, are referred to as
Software packages.
________ are created by combining and customizing components from different online software applications.
Mashups
The marketplace for computer hardware
Has become increasingly concentrated in top firms.
The practice of contracting custom software development to an outside firm is commonly referred to as
Outsourcing.
A formal contract between customers and their service providers that outlines the specific responsibilities of the service provider and to the customer is called a(n)
SLA.
SaaS refers to
Hosting and managing access to software applications delivered over the Internet to clients on a subscription basis.
Which of the following refers to the ability of a computer, product, or system to expand to serve a larger number of users without breaking down?
scalability
Hardware and software acquisition costs account for about ________ percent of TCO.
20
Which model can be used to analyze the direct and indirect costs to help firms determine the actual cost of specific technology implementations?
Total cost of ownership
Which of the following is the most popular mobile operating system?
Android
How would you determine the market demand for your firm’s IT services?
Hold focus groups to assess your services.
Which of the following is not one of the main six factors to consider when evaluating how much your firm should spend on IT infrastructure?
your firm’s organizational culture
Which of the following is not one of the NIST defined characteristics of cloud computing?
Non-measured service
Which of the following is not one of three variations of Moore’s Law, none of which Moore ever stated?
Computer size decreases every 18 months
Which computing standard is significant because it made it possible for computer machines from different manufacturers to exchange data; later used as the universal language linking input and output devices such as keyboards and mice to computers.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange
Which computing standard is significant because it made; an easy-to-use software language that greatly expanded the ability of programmers to write business-related programs and reduced the cost of software.
Common Business Oriented Language
Which computing standard is significant because it made a suite of communications protocols and a common addressing scheme that enables millions of computers to connect together in one giant global network (the Internet).
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
Which computing standard is significant because it made a network standard for connecting desktop computers into local area networks that enabled the widespread adoption of client/server computing and local area networks and further stimulated the adoption of personal computers.
Ethernet
___________________ provides a lightweight operating system for cloud computing using netbooks that are manufactured by Google partners such as Samsung and Acer.
Chrome OS
___________________ is an open-source operating system for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers, developed by the Open Handset Alliance led by Google.
Android
___________________ is the operating system for the phenomenally popular Apple iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch, features a multitouch interface, where users employ one or more fingers to manipulate objects on a screen without a mouse or keyboard.
iOS
Microsoft’s ___________________ which runs on tablets as well as PCs, has a user interface optimized for touch, but also permits use of a mouse and keyboard.
Windows 8
“Customers use processing, storage, networking, and other computing resources from cloud service providers to run their information systems” describes which type of cloud service?
Cloud infrastructure as a service
Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between entities and attributes?
the entity CUSTOMER with the attribute PURCHASE
Which of the following is not one of the main problems with a traditional file environment?
program-data independence
A DBMS reduces data redundancy and inconsistency by
Minimizing isolated files with repeated data.
A characteristic or quality describing an entity is called a(n)
Attribute.
The confusion created by ________ makes it difficult for companies to create customer relationship management, supply chain management, or enterprise systems that integrate data from different sources.
data redundancy
Duplicate data in multiple data files is called data ________.
redundancy
A DBMS makes the
Physical database available for different logical views.
The logical view
Presents data as they would be perceived by end users.
DBMS for midrange computers include all of the following except
Microsoft Access.
The type of logical database model that treats data as if they were stored in two-dimensional tables is the
Relational DBMS.
Oracle Database Lite is a(n)
DBMS for small handheld computing devices.
Microsoft SQL Server is a(n)
DBMS for midrange computers.
In a table for customers, the information about a single customer would reside in a single
row
In a relational database, a record is referred to in technical terms as a(n)
Tuple.
A field identified in a table as holding the unique identifier of the table’s records is called the
Primary key.
A field identified in a record as holding the unique identifier for that record is called the
Key field.
In a relational database, the three basic operations used to develop useful sets of data are
Select, project, and join.
(SPJ)
The select operation
Creates a subset consisting of all records in the file that meet stated criteria.
The join operation
Combines relational tables to provide the user with more information than is otherwise available.
The project operation
Creates a subset consisting of columns in a table.
Big data does not refer to
Datasets with fewer than a billion records.
Which of the following technologies would you use to analyze the social media data collected by a major online retailer?
Hadoop
The data dictionary serves as an important data management tool by
Creating an inventory of the data elements contained in the database.
An automated or manual file that stores information about data elements and data characteristics such as usage, physical representation, ownership, authorization, and security is the
data dictionary
The specialized language programmers use to add and change data in the database is called
A data manipulation language.
The most prominent data manipulation language today is
SQL.
DBMSs typically include report-generating tools in order to
Display data in an easier-to-read format.
The process of streamlining data to minimize redundancy and awkward many-to-many relationships is called
Normalization.
A schematic of the entire database that describes the relationships in a database is called a(n)
Entity-relationship diagram.
A one-to-one relationship between two entities is symbolized in a diagram by a line that ends with
Two short marks.
Which of the following is not one of the techniques used in Web mining?
user mining
You work for a retail clothing chain whose primary outlets are in shopping malls, and you are conducting an analysis of your customers and their preferences. You wish to find out if there are any particular activities that your customers engage in, or the types of purchases made in the month before or after purchasing select items from your store. To do this, you will want to use data mining software that is capable of
Identifying sequences.
You work for a national car rental agency and want to determine what characteristics are shared among your most loyal customers. To do this, you will want to use data mining software that is capable of
Classification.
A data warehouse is composed of
historic and current internal data.
All of the following are technologies used to analyze and manage big data except
Cloud computing.
A nationwide magazine publisher has hired you to help analyze their social media datasets to determine which of their news publications are seen as the most trustworthy. Which of the following tools would you use to analyze this data?
sentiment analysis software
The tool that enables users to view the same data in different ways using multiple dimensions is
OLAP.
OLAP is a tool for enabling
Users to obtain online answers to ad-hoc questions in a rapid amount of time.
Data mining is a tool for allowing users to
Find hidden relationships in data.
In terms of data relationships, associations refers to
Occurrences linked to a single event.
________ Tools are used to analyze large unstructured data sets, such as e-mail, memos, survey responses, etc., to discover patterns and relationships.
Text mining
An alternative to using application server software for interfacing between a Web server and back-end databases is
CGI.
The organization’s rules for sharing, disseminating, acquiring, standardizing, classifying, and inventorying information is called a(n)
Information policy.
The special organizational function whose responsibilities include physical database design and maintenance, is called
Database administration.
Which common database challenge is illustrated by a person receiving multiple copies of an L.L. Bean catalog, each addressed to a slightly different variation of his or her full name?
data inconsistency
Detecting and correcting data in a database or file that are incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, or redundant is called
Data scrubbing.
You are creating a database to store temperature and wind data from national airport locations. Which of the following fields is the most likely candidate to use as the basis for a primary key in the Airport table?
Airport code
Data cleansing not only corrects errors but also
Enforces consistency among different sets of data.
Which of the following is not a method for performing a data quality audit?
surveying data definition and query files
The most popular type of DBMS today for PCs as well as for larger computers and mainframes is the ____________________________.
relational DBMS
A ________________________ is a database that stores current and historical data of potential interest to decision makers throughout the company.
data warehouse
Another way of facilitating big data analysis is to use _______________________, which relies primarily on a computer’s main memory (RAM) for data storage.
in-memory computing
Commercial database vendors have developed specialized high-speed ________________________ using both relational and non-relational technology that are optimized for analyzing large datasets.
Analytic platforms
In__________________, events are linked over time.
Sequences
__________________________ recognizes patterns that describe the group to which an item belongs by examining existing items that have been classified and by inferring a set of rules.
Classification
__________________________ works in a manner similar to classification when no groups have yet been defined.
Clustering
____________________ uses predictions in a different way. It uses a series of existing values to predict what other values will be.
Forecasting
The discovery and analysis of useful patterns and information from the World Wide Web is called ______________________.
Web mining
_________________________ used to describe many of these activities. Promoted by IBM, data governance deals with the policies and processes for managing the availability, usability, integrity, and security of the data employed in an enterprise, with special emphasis on promoting privacy, security, data quality, and compliance with government regulations.
data governance

Need essay sample on "Blah"? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $ 13.90/page

Can’t wait to take that assignment burden offyour shoulders?

Let us know what it is and we will show you how it can be done!
×
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, please register

Already on Businessays? Login here

No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample register now and get a free access to all papers, carefully proofread and edited by our experts.
Sign in / Sign up
No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own
Not quite the topic you need?
We would be happy to write it
Join and witness the magic
Service Open At All Times
|
Complete Buyer Protection
|
Plagiarism-Free Writing

Emily from Businessays

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out https://goo.gl/chNgQy

We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy