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Brief characterization of company

This essay describes Steven Luke’s three dimensional model of power in American Association Ltd. It founded the industrial and mining centre of Magic City of the South called Middlesboro. This company is boosted by about twenty million dollars belonging to British capital and under the energetic leadership of Alexander Arthur (Scotsman). This enterprise was characterized as Anglo-American enterprise that took over approximately eighty thousand acres of coal and land rich in mineral. Steven Luke’s Three Dimensional Model of Power

Power is defined as a determinant of an entity’s capability to command the environment across itself, together with the behavior of additional entities. Steven Luke explained that the word authority can be often linked to power; and social structure perceives it as a legitimate factor. Power can be viewed as a part of wickedness or unjust, while exercising, power is acknowledged as a common factor to human as social beings (Martin 2005). It is not necessary that power is defined only under force or the threat linked to the force (coercion).

Some Authors regard power as influence, while some create differentiation among power and influence. In 1974, Luke provided a three dimensional model of power, which was formulated when he was called for

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a talk in Paris. The work of Steven Luke on Power presented a radical view and forms a part of seminal work. In three dimensional model of power, Luke has outlined two dimensions that were theorized in the twentieth century. Later, he added a third critical dimension to power that derived great insights from the study of Gramsci and Althusser. Relevance:

One – dimensional aspect of the Steven Luke’s three Dimensional model of power states the liberal perspective of power. Luke argues that this dimension draws great attention on the aspect of behavior for formulating the decisions on those aspects over which there are chances of conflict on the subjective interests and also involves the participation from politics. Pluralism can be easily associated with the dimension of power and it assumes that there is the existence of heterogeneous society, which comprises of the people linked with different groups with contradictory and contending interests (Petersen 2005).

Conflict is thus also identified as a part of expected result along with a compulsory instrument which assists in the determination of people who are in power i. e. the winner. Here, power reflects a potential sense with the aid of possession and the ability to implement. Thus, it is relevant in (Lukes 2005): ? Formal institutions ? And it is measured, based on the results derived from a decision

Two-dimensional aspect of the Luke’s decision suggests that the mobilization of pre-conception like set of major values, impressions, rituals and institutional processes can function methodically and consistently for the benefit of some persons and groups on the cost of others. This view of Luke permits the consideration to the means through which decisions are precluded from being taken, based on the prospective issues. Thus, the two-dimensional aspect of power provides major changes over one-dimensional aspect of it. Two dimensional aspects of power are relevant in making (Mosse 2007): ? First, Appropriate decision & setting agenda

? Second, Institutions & informal influences ? Third in identifying degree of informal authority Prominent techniques that are used in the structure of two-dimensional power include: Influence, Inducement, Sentiment, Authority and Coercion. Another significance of third model is that it helps in effective classification of power description prided in the old institutional theory. This can be further explained on two bases, first is the introduction of innovative ideas regarding the interactions that occurs external to the range of the observable behavior, which infers that power is exercised in a covert manner.

Second, the old institution was dragged in the conspiracy of individual organizations, which was determined by coalitions and groups. Thus, two-dimensional perspective of Luke’s typology is helpful in describing the expressed and implicit attributes of power (Theories of Power). Luke’s three-dimensional topology of power includes the expressions of model 1 & 2. Its relevance lies in the fact that it figures preferences through standards, norms and ideologies. This dimension of power states that almost all the social interactions comprises of power as behind all the language, action and thoughts function.

It gives due consideration to the values and thoughts that position all the social and political movement, for instance, religious ideals. This dimension also concentrates on the aspect of economic gain (Knights & Willmott 1999). In 1960s, Luke inked the first dimension of power with pluralist theory of American political science. He proposed that an over-stress on the first dimension of power extended pluralists to an excessively self-satisfied view in America. The most striking aspect of three-dimensional view of Luke includes its collection of breadth and firmness.

The third mechanism associated with the of power looks for recognizing the means through which power shapes, or influences the conceptions related to the necessities and possibilities of challenge under the conflict situation. Hence, Luke’s not only made out three distinct analytically exercises of power but also explored the means of drawing its most elusive expressions (Gaventa 1985). Example Similar to the primitive company, the History of Central Appalachia has evolved within the influence of colonization by a prevalent world power.

It comes under the isolated, agrarian society that has sparked great interest in having economic potential and it was found as dependant entity that brings modern standard. Productivity and economic pursuits have become the major concern for people and their culture. By the end of 19th century, the economic potential aspect and coal resources were greatly recognized in Appalachian Mountains. With these developments, mining center was developed and was considered as the Magic City of the South and late established under American Association Ltd. (London).

Huge dollars were invested into the area but due to the existence of monopoly power, less benefit was earned by the people. This Anglo-American enterprise threatened the acres of land that was rich in mineral. For establishing the power, company followed with the concept of land acquisition. Not only this, it was also the part of establishing. Loss of land by the company would bring alterations in the lifestyle from group of farmer to coal miners who are dependent on the company. As a result of this, conflict aroused. Land of people was taken almost without resistance to a new order and also the land was sold to company at a lower price.

Value associated with the land of mountaineer went unknowing to the people at the same time when association was fully aware of the extremely rich mineral soil and did every thing to take the advantage of land. On applying the Luke’s first dimension of power, the company can be compared to the A whose power is determined by increased ratio of successes over the defeat of B. From this, it is clear that the company reflected noticeable power and influence over the people of Appalachian. The lack of challenge on the part of mountaineer i. e. B reflects a manifestation of consensus to conquest their land.

As little grievances were observed, it can be interpreted that the matter was not of adequate significance to the people and thus, they did not systematize to place forward some alternatives. On the other hand, association was characterized by the presence of initiative to suggest the issues and hence, add to the technique of decision making whereas the citizens of the region were indifferent to the issues that were going on (Hales 1993). The successes of the company in process of decision making improved their authority, legalizing them as highly suitable to the rule.

On applying the concept of second dimension of power of Luke, the non- confrontation to the takeover of land can not be considered as apathy from the perspective of common people but with the result of unperceivable forces and secret conflict worked to safeguard their expression related to the incredulity and challenge (Casey 2004). The second dimension thus distinguishes accommodation of elite group happening within a structure which was claimed to be open by pluralists. It is thus considered as a structure where inequalities are shaped and preserved by permitting the prevailing class in determining the agenda related to the decision-making.

In this case, manipulation and assurance acted as a power that do not comprise of the apparent conflict. People followed the power of authority as they either regard or assume its legitimacy. Last but not the least, the Luke’s third dimension of power conceives the possibility that is linked with the latent conflict and disagreement. In this case, the wants and beliefs of the people are designed unknowingly so as to build an agreement that can be contrary to their concerns (Avery 2007). Conclusion

Thus, the Luke’s three dimensional model develops a better conceptual regarding the power, which perfectly and sometimes openly notify the institutional theory. It is indicated that elderly institutionalism functions from a model of power that can be beneficially researched in terms of Luke’s two-dimensional model of power.

References Avery, P 2007, ‘Lukes’s three-dimensional model of power redux: is it still compelling’, Social Theory and Practice, viewed 11 April 2009

<http://www. articlearchives.com/government/elections-politics-politics/1498859-1. html> Casey, T 2004, ‘Power within and without the organization: The issues in perspective’, Asian Journal of Public Administration Gaventa, J 1985, Power and powerlessness, University of Illinois Press Hales, C 1993, Managing through organisation: the management process, forms of organisation, and the work of managers, Published by Taylor & Francis Knights, D & Willmott, H 1999, Management lives: power and identity in work organizations, Published by SAGE

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