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BUAD309 Ch. 13

Power is a function of ________.
A) goal congruency
B) realization
C) inheritance
D) dependence
E) altruism
D) dependence
Which of the following statements is true regarding power?
A) A is said to have power over B if B controls something that A desires.
B) The greater A’s dependence on B, the greater A’s power in the relationship.
C) If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B, then A is said to have power over B.
D) A can have power over B only if A is B’s leader.
E) A can have power over B only when A and B have similar goals.
C) If A has the capacity to influence the behavior of B, then A is said to have power over B.
Which of the following is a differentiating factor between power and leadership?
A) control
B) influence
C) ability
D) goal compatibility
E) negative affect
D) goal compatibility
Which of the following is a feature of power?
A) lack of dependence of followers
B) use of positive styles over negative tactics
C) downward influence of leader on followers
D) lack of goal compatibility between leaders and followers
E) lack of control on behavior of followers
D) lack of goal compatibility between leaders and followers
Which of the following is true with regard to leadership?
A) It maximizes the importance of lateral and upward influence patterns.
B) It eliminates the requirement of goal compatibility.
C) It stimulates research in the area of tactics of influence.
D) It focuses on downward influence on followers.
E) It encourages dependence of followers on leaders.
D) It focuses on downward influence on followers
Research on power is likely to provide information on the most effective ________.
A) leadership styles for motivating followers
B) methods to reduce dependence on leaders
C) tactics for gaining compliance of employees
D) methods of rewarding successful employees
E) modes of assessing employee performance
C) tactics for gaining compliance of employees
Power may be categorized as ________.
A) informational and personal
B) formal and informal
C) informal and legitimate
D) formal and personal
E) direct and indirect
D) formal and personal
The ________ power is based on the fear of the negative results from failing to comply.
A) legitimate
B) coercive
C) punitive
D) referent
E) abusive
B) coercive
In the last one week, May and Phyllis have been putting in extra hours at work so that the project assigned to them by their manager is completed well within time. Though the manager was due to assign two more people for this project, he had not done so. As a result, May and Phyllis, who were having to do double their routine workload, went and complained to the division manager. May was promptly suspended from work for complaining about her immediate supervisor. This represents the operation of ________ power.
A) reward
B) legitimate
C) coercive
D) expert
E) referent
C) coercive
________ power represents the compliance that is achieved based on the ability to distribute positive benefits that others view as valuable.
A) Legitimate
B) Coercive
C) Reward
D) Personal
E) Reflective
C) reward
As a regional sales officer, one of Brandon’s job responsibilities is to process the yearly appraisal forms of his subordinates and provide them with increments, bonuses, or benefits based on their performance that year. This job responsibility directly reflects his ________.
A) active power
B) expert power
C) referent power
D) reward power
E) coercive power
D) reward power
Legitimate power is directly based on ________.
A) charisma of the leader
B) interpersonal trust and commitment of the manager
C) structural position of the manager in the organization
D) personality traits of the manager
E) ability of the manager to serve his subordinates
C) structural position of the manager in the organization
Which of the following statements is true regarding legitimate power?
A) Legitimate power develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person.
B) Legitimate power comes from an individual’s unique characteristics.
C) Legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward.
D) Celebrities who endorse products in commercials wield legitimate power over people.
E) Legitimate power is a type of personal power.
C) legitimate power is broader than the power to coerce and reward
Which of the following types of power can be categorized as personal power?
A) coercive
B) legitimate
C) reward
D) referent
E) positional
D) referent
________ power is influence wielded as a result of proficiency, special skill, or knowledge.
A) Legitimate
B) Reward
C) Referent
D) Expert
E) Coercive
D) expert
At the PR firm where Gerald works, everyone considers him to be very good with his work and depends heavily on his knowledge to help the organization to solve its problems. Gerald is often seen teaching interns a simpler way to present an article, helping project managers with scheduling, and even the CEO often asks him for his opinion on important matter because of his experience and skill. Gerald’s specialized knowledge depicts his ________.
A) expert power
B) coercive power
C) legitimate power
D) referent power
E) reward power
a) expert power
________ power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits.
A) Coercive
B) Legitimate
C) Referent
D) Expert
E) Reward
C) referent
Carl believes that he is lucky to be working under a manager like Mr. Parker — conscientious, flexible and easy to work with. It was Mr. Parker who helped Carl learn the demands of the job, gave him opportunities to learn from the mistakes he made, and always provided sound advice. Mr. Parker, who is in the field for over eighteen years, never made Carl feel like a novice and this only increased Carl’s personal confidence in his work and his loyalty toward his manager. Carl, who is now doing very well on the job, aims to be a manager like Mr. Parker. From the scenario, which of the following conclusions can be drawn?
A) Mr. Parker is an authoritarian manager.
B) Carl has a low degree of trust propensity.
C) Mr. Parker has a high degree of referent power.
D) Mr. Parker engages in a lot of ingratiation.
E) Mr. Parker exercises a high degree of coercive power.
C) Mr. Parker has a high degree of referent power
Which of the following is true with regard to bases of power?
A) Coercive power involves an identification with and imitation of the person in power.
B) Legitimate power is used by companies when they hire celebrities to promote their products.
C) Expert and referent power are the two major types of formal power.
D) The personal sources of power are most effective for increasing employee performance and satisfaction.
E) Reward power is the most common and broad type of power seen in operation in organizations.
D) The personal sources of power are most effective for increasing employee performance and satisfaction
Will Paten was the manager of a team of twelve people in the marketing division of Palmer Inc. Will, who was working in the company for eleven years, was held in high regard and liked by all his colleagues and subordinates. However, Aaron and Abby, two of his subordinates, were noted for flouting his rules and directives frequently. They continued behaving in this manner even after Will had categorically requested them to refrain from upsetting the momentum of the team. Which of the following, if true, would best explain Aaron and Abby’s continued noncompliance with Will’s requests?
A) The promotions and bonuses of the team members depended heavily on Will’s performance ratings.
B) The company had provided Will with additional duties and he was left with little time to ensure that his team members performed well.
C) Will believed that since the job demands in marketing were ambiguous and ever-changing, a supportive approach to leadership would suffice.
D) Will was uncomfortable exercising coercive measures to control employees.
E) Will was considered an expert at analyzing market trends and making accurate projections about demand and revenue.
D) Will was uncomfortable exercising coercive measures to control employees
Joanna Mills has recently been promoted to the position of a project manager at Palmer Inc., a software development firm. As a project manager, she now has the authority to delegate work, provide supervision and feedback, and monitor employee performance. Ever since her promotion, she has been preparing herself to guide her subordinates in different project activities. However, she feels that the employees do not proactively approach her for help. Which of the following, if true, would best explain this situation?
A) Joanna has several years of experience in working on software programs.
B) The sole criterion for Joanna’s promotion was her effectiveness in meeting individual targets.
C) Employees identify with Joanna because she successfully rose from the position of a programmer to that of a manager.
D) The managers who promoted her believed that her approachable nature will be a key factor in improving team performance.
E) The company follows a 360-degree performance evaluation system.
B) The sole criterion for Joanna’s promotion was her effectiveness in meeting individual targets
Which of the following types of power is most likely to be negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment?
A) expert power
B) reward power
C) legitimate power
D) coercive power
E) referent power
D) coercive power
Levin and Co. is a group of oil refineries that has been in the news recently. The company had to stop production for over two weeks because their key supplier refused to sell them crude oil at the old prices. Even after rounds of negotiations, the supplier refused to give in to the demands of Levin and Co. and finally, the company had to acquire the raw material from the same supplier because alternative suppliers, though abundant, could not provide the quantities the company demanded at such short notice. This shows the role of ________ in increasing the power one enjoys.
A) alternatives
B) dependence
C) abundance
D) substitutability
E) exchange
B) dependence
Dependence would be low when ________.
A) the goods have very few suppliers
B) the goods have low accessibility
C) the goods in question are scarce
D) the products are important
E) the goods have substitutes
E) the good have substitutes
Which of the following power tactics involves increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in decision making?
A) legitimacy
B) rational persuasion
C) consultation
D) ingratiation
E) pressure
C) consultation
Which of the following power tactics uses warnings and threats and is typically the least effective of all the power tactics?
A) coalitions
B) exchange
C) pressure
D) rational persuasion
E) consultation
C) pressure
The power tactic of using flattery and creating goodwill before making a request is known as ________.
A) ingratiation
B) consultation
C) inspirational appeal
D) motivational appeal
E) affective appeal
A) ingratiation
Rational persuasion is a power tactic that involves the use of ________.
A) formal authority
B) logical arguments and factual evidence
C) emotions to target the values, needs, and hopes of the other party
D) benefits or favors in exchange for following a request
E) warnings, repeated demands, and threats
B) logical arguments and factual evidence
Mike Ford is a senior accountant at Coleman and Co., which is a financial management company. Mike has wanted to be on the board of representatives of his company for a long time but the company stipulates a minimum number of years an employee must work at the organization before he makes it to the board. Mike is unwilling to work two more years to reach that stipulated experience and so he found a way to transgress this rule. He met up with one of the existing board members who was having problems accounting for allocated funds that went missing and offered to settle that for him in his department provided he nominate Mike to the board. Which of the following power tactics is being used here?
A) ingratiation
B) legitimacy
C) inspirational appeals
D) pressure
E) exchange
E) exchange
When the contract with one of their major suppliers was about to expire, the management of Pierre and Collins began seeking tenders from potential vendors. One of the top management executives, Todd Hughes, wanted the contract to go to a vendor he personally knew. In order to do so, he held separate discussions with two key members of the organization wherein he downplayed the potentials of the competing tenders and convinced them to support this offer. At the meeting to finalize a supplier, Todd and his supporters strongly supported the tender of the supplier they had chosen amongst themselves and convinced their CEO to hire this supplier despite the higher price quoted by him. Which of the following power tactics is being used here?
A) ingratiation
B) legitimacy
C) coalition
D) pressure
E) inspirational appeals
C) coalition
Which of the following power tactics is more effective when the audience is highly interested in the outcomes of a decision process?
A) ingratiation
B) consultation
C) personal appeals
D) exchange
E) pressure
B) consultation
When the audience does not care about the outcomes, using a combination of ________ can help lessen negative reactions to the feeling that one is dictating outcomes.
A) ingratiation and personal appeals
B) pressure and exchange
C) legitimacy and ingratiation
D) exchange and rational persuasion
E) inspirational appeals and consultation
C) legitimacy and ingratiation
________ is the only tactic effective across organizational levels.
A) Legitimacy
B) Inspirational appeal
C) Rational persuasion
D) Ingratiation
E) Pressure
C) rational persuasion
Which of the following power tactics can be used most effectively for exerting lateral influence?
A) legitimacy
B) inspirational appeal
C) coalition
D) ingratiation
E) pressure
C) coalition
Which of the following power tactics would be considered a soft tactic?
A) rational persuasion
B) exchange
C) coalition
D) politicking
E) pressure
A) rational persuasion
Which of the following power tactics would be considered a hard tactic?
A) rational persuasion
B) inspirational appeals
C) personal appeals
D) coalition
E) consultation
D) coalition
Which of the following statements is true with regard to the effectiveness of tactics?
A) Soft tactics are less effective than hard tactics when used individually.
B) The combination of a soft tactic with reasonable persuasion is more effective than a combination of two hard tactics.
C) All tactics are equally effective with regard to upward influence.
D) Individuals from collectivist cultures are typically more likely to use soft tactics that reflect personal power.
E) Individuals from
B) The combination of soft tactic with reasonable persuasion is more effective than a combination of two hard tactics
For a person to be recognized as having a high degree of political skill, he/she must have the ________.
A) ability to recognize that power in an organization does not translate into success
B) ability to submit to the demands made by others at all times
C) ability to influence others to enhance their own objectives
D) ability to respect and consider the needs of others first
E) ability to make sacrifices for the betterment of others
C) ability to influence other to enhance their own objectives
Which of the following statements is true?
A) The impact of sexual harassment is individual, not organizational.
B) A clear understanding of the actions that constitute sexual harassment does not exist.
C) Today, the rise of overt forms of sexual harassment presents a major concern for organizations.
D) Women in positions of power in an organization are free from sexual harassment by male subordinates.
E) Curtailing sexual harassment requires higher-order intervention programs as managers cannot be expected to help in this regard.
B) A clear understand of the actions that constitute sexual harassment does not exist
Political behaviors usually ________.
A) lie outside of an individual’s specified job requirements
B) are counterproductive to individual goals
C) are seen only in large organizations
D) are sanctioned by organizational leaders
E) are expected as part of each job requirement
A) lie outside of an individual’s specified job requirements
Which of the following factors contributes to political behavior in the organization?
A) presence of pure and objective facts
B) existence of uniform goals and interests among all employees
C) provision of clear and objective performance outcomes
D) presence of limited resources in the organization
E) perception that gains of one group are not at the expense of the loss incurred by another group
D) presence of limited resources in the organization
________ occurs when people within organizations use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests.
A) Legitimate political behavior
B) Politicking
C) Illegitimate political behavior
D) Sabotage
E) Whistle-blowing
B) Politicking
Employees exhibiting which of the following features are more likely to engage in political behavior?
A) lack of organizational investment
B) external locus of control
C) low need for power
D) Machiavellian personality
E) low self-monitoring
D) Machiavellian personality
Which of the following is an individual factor that influences political behavior?
A) reallocation of resources
B) unclear performance evaluation system
C) high performance pressures
D) perceived job alternatives
E) zero-sum reward practice
D) perceived job alternatives
If an individual ________, then he is less likely to engage in illegitimate political behavior.
A) has invested a lot in the organization in terms of time and efforts
B) possesses a scarce skill or knowledge
C) has influential contacts outside the organization
D) does not expect any future benefits from the organization
E) has an external locus of control
A) has invested a lot in the organization in terms of time and efforts
Which of the following is an organizational factor that increases illegitimate political behavior?
A) internal locus of control
B) low expectations of success
C) high trust
D) low organizational investment
E) zero-sum reward practice
E) zero-sum reward practice
Which of the following organizational factors encourages political behavior?
A) using objective criteria in the appraisal
B) using multiple outcomes to measure performance
C) allowing significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal
D) avoiding the zero-sum approach for resource allocation
E) ensuring role clarity
C) allowing significant time to pass between the time of an action and its appraisal
Timothy Jenkins was working for six years at Hartford Mills, a company that takes a strong stand against unionization. Though Timothy’s designation was that of a production supervisor, as the company grew, he also took on additional duties like keeping a check on employee safety, ensuring that legal measures are followed, and implementing programs for labor welfare that the company planned. Many believed that Timothy was doing a great job for the company and so it came as a surprise when Timothy was rumored to face severe disciplinary action as he was encouraging the workers to join a union. However, he was let off with a mere warning. Which of the following, if true, would explain this paradox?
A) The management had recently instituted a formal employee welfare committee.
B) Timothy stressed the fact that he was a meticulous worker who always adhered to company policies.
C) The management had recently moved from an open shop mechanism to a closed shop mechanism.
D) Timothy claimed that he was only looking to ensure greater employee welfare which was one of the duties the company had assigned to him.
E) Timothy argued that allowing unionization had increased the levels of employee satisfaction in one of their rival companies.
D) Timothy claimed that he was only looking to ensure greater employee welfare which was one of the duties the company has assigned to him
Timothy Jenkins was working for six years at Hartford Mills, a company that takes a strong stand against unionization. Though Timothy’s designation was that of a production supervisor, as the company grew, he also took on additional duties like keeping a check on employee safety, ensuring that legal measures are followed, and implementing programs for labor welfare that the company planned. Many believed that Timothy was doing a great job for the company and so it came as a surprise when Timothy was rumored to face severe disciplinary action as he was encouraging the workers to join a union. However, he was let off with a mere warning. Timothy claimed that he was only looking to ensure greater employee welfare which was one of the duties the company had assigned to him. Which of the following, if true, would help Hartford Mills avoid such situations in the future?
A) ensuring the provision of a retaliatory policy for employees who go against the company
B) holding town hall meetings to explain to employees why Timothy was suspected
C) enlisting the support of popular employees like Timothy to discharge the employee welfare duties
D) engaging in collective bargaining as it is the only way to motivate employees to work efficiently
E) specifying the permissible and illegal aspects of an employee’s formal role in the organization
E) specifying the permissible and illegal aspects of an employee’s formal role in the organization
To avoid politicking during performance evaluations, an organization should ________.
A) create role ambiguity
B) use democratic decision making
C) use a single outcome measure
D) use objective criteria
E) allow a significant lapse
D) use objective criteria
Under the zero-sum approach, rewards are distributed such that ________.
A) rewards are equal and do not increase or decrease with changes in profit margins
B) rewards increase for all employees at an identical rate
C) any drop in profits reduces the pay of employees by an identical amount
D) amount allocated for rewards is variable
E) rewards increase for a group at the expense of loss for another group
E) rewards increase for a group at the expense of loss for another group
Reactive and protective behaviors designed to avoid action, blame, or change are termed ________.
A) repressive behaviors
B) defensive behaviors
C) submissive behaviors
D) impression management behaviors
E) proactive behaviors
B) defensive behaviors
Will Cears works at Mesner Corp, as a middle-level manager. Will recognizes that his firm is plagued by organizational politics. Since he is not good at playing games, he frequently engages in defensive behaviors in order to protect himself and his interests. Will is frustrated because he believes that he has little control over his environment, and his environment is uncomfortable to him. He has had some success at establishing a sense of control for himself by appearing to be cooperative and supportive to his colleagues. However, he continues to hold his reservations against politicking and does not engage in it. This is an example of ________ in order to avoid action, blame, or change.
A) buffing
B) buck passing
C) scapegoating
D) misrepresenting
E) stalling
E) stalling
Buck passing is seen when an employee ________.
A) avoids an unwanted task by falsely pleading ignorance or inability
B) prolongs a task to give the appearance of being occupied
C) documents his activity rigorously to project an image of competence and thoroughness
D) develops explanations that lessen his responsibility for a negative outcome
E) transfers responsibility for the execution of a task or decision to someone else
E) transfers responsibility for the execution of a task or decision to someone else
Which of the following defensive behaviors involves rigorously documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness?
A) buffing
B) justifying
C) scapegoating
D) stretching
E) overconforming
A) buffing
Placing the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy is known as ________.
A) scapegoating
B) buffing
C) stalling
D) justifying
E) overconforming
A) scapegoating
Daphne is one of the three project managers at Virgo Inc., an art and design studio. Raymond and Gabriel, the other two project managers, are unhappy working with Daphne as she always selects projects that suit her area of expertise and avoids projects which require more ambiguous work, have tight deadlines, and represent a low probability of success. Raymond and Gabriel feel that they deserve greater credit than Daphne for being open and accepting different work demands and situations, as opposed to Daphne, who always takes a conservative and risk-averse approach. Daphne is using the defensive behavior of ________ here.
A) scapegoating
B) ingratiating
C) stalling
D) retaliating
E) playing safe
E) playing safe
Which of the following defensive behaviors involves developing explanations that lessen one’s responsibility for a negative outcome and apologizing to demonstrate remorse?
A) scapegoating
B) misrepresenting
C) justifying
D) overconfirming
E) stretching
C) justifying
Which of the following is a defensive behavior that is used to avoid change?
A) stalling
B) scapegoating
C) misrepresenting
D) stretching
E) preventing
E) preventing
Which of the following differentiates between high self-monitors and low self-monitors?
A) High self-monitors are more likely to use defensive impression management techniques, while low self-monitors are more likely to use self-focused impression management techniques.
B) High self-monitors are commonly seen in collectivist cultures, while low self-monitors are commonly seen in individualist cultures.
C) High self-monitors tend to mold their appearances and behavior to fit each situation, while low self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities.
D) High self-monitors prefer to avoid using power and politics at the workplace, while low self-monitors engage in a lot of politicking.
E) High self-monitors have an external locus of control as they attribute successes or failures to luck and fate, while low self-monitors have an internal locus of control and believe that they control the outcomes.
C) High self-monitors tend to mold their appearances and behavior to fit each situation, while low self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities
Which of the following is an assertive impression management technique?
A) conformity
B) apologies
C) self-promotion
D) flattery
E) buffing
D) falttery
Which of the following is a self-focused impression management technique?
A) flattery
B) enhancement
C) apologies
D) excuses
E) conformity
B) enhancement
Which of the following impression management techniques involves an individual admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action?
A) flattery
B) favors
C) apologies
D) misrepresentation
E) exemplification
C) apologies
Which of the following impression management techniques uses ingratiation?
A) flattery
B) exemplification
C) enhancement
D) conformity
E) apologies
D) conformity
Recently, Curtis Gibson had an interview for the position of a senior manager at a transit service. At the interview, the interviewer made a passing remark about how policies can make or break the best economy in the world. Immediately, Curtis launched into a discussion of how true the interviewer was, substantiating his claim with stories from real economies around the world. Similarly, when the interviewer suggested that Curtis work the earlier shift because, if selected, he would have to commute a significant bit to reach work, Curtis vehemently agreed saying “you couldn’t be more right.” Which of the following impression management techniques is Curtis using?
A) favors
B) exemplification
C) enhancement
D) self-promotion
E) conformity
E) conformity
Winston Mayer is a sales manager for a large company producing beverages and ready-to-eat meals. Winston is often seen working late and on weekends when the company stipulates a five-day work week. Winston justifies his working extra by claiming that “in sales, one cannot afford to waste a minute” and he is often condescending when subordinates take their allotted time off. He frequently speaks to his manager about the the new deals he finalizes when he is working beyond the normal working hours to prove his point. From the information provided, we can say that Winston is using ________ as an impression management technique here.
A) flattery
B) exemplification
C) favors
D) apologies
E) conformity
B) exemplification
In the last month, Stacey, an intelligent and astute employee, has finished only half the work she was scheduled to complete. In addition, she has been taking frequent leaves citing her ill health being the reason but her manager suspects she has been playing truant. When the manager confronted her about her pending work, Stacey began to give excuses; she said that the work was time-consuming, she was unwell, and that it was not a high-priority project in the first place. In this scenario, Stacey is using a(n) ________ impression management technique.
A) self-focused
B) assertive
C) aggressive
D) defensive
E) ingratiation-based
D) defensive
Victor Ortiz was a successful and popular manager at the marketing division of a consumer goods company. Many attributed the company’s immense success in the last two years to Victor’s highly creative marketing plans which cost the company very little but increased the visibility of its products. He also effectively tied up with new retail chains so the demand for their products grow as the new retail chains grow. Recently, a subordinate alleged that Victor had sexually harassed her and stories of similar allegations being made against him in the past resurfaced. The situation was laid to rest when Victor made an appearance with the victim by his side claiming that the allegations were baseless as he was romantically involved with her. Though this announcement did not convince people, the allegations against Victor were withdrawn. From the information provided in the scenario, this outcome can be explained by the fact that ________.
A) Victor has a high degree of referent power
B) Victor has enough power to get away with his misdeeds
C) Victor has abided by the standards of equity and justice
D) Victor has used a defensive impression management technique
E) Victor has used scapegoating to free himself from the charges
B) Victor has enough power to get away with his misdeeds

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