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BUS 346 Ch. 5 (Ch. 6 for Davis)

Marketers often use principles and theories from ______________ and _____________ to decipher many consumer actions and develop basic strategies for dealing with their behavior.
Sociology; Psychology
Marketers often use principles and theories from sociology and psychology to better understand consumers’ actions and:
develop strategies to better deal with their behavior
Generally, people buy one product or service instead of another because they
Perceive it to be the better value
The consumer decision process model represents
The steps that consumers go through before, after, and during the decision making process
The consumer buying process begins when
The consumer recognizes an unsatisfied need
When Karen realized her dog had fleas, Karen had:
an unsatisfied need
The greater the discrepancy between a consumer’s needy state and the desired state, the greater:
the consumer’s recognition will be
The greater the discrepancy between a consumer’s ______________, the greater the consumer’s need recognition will be.
needy state and desired state
Upscale men’s and women’s clothing stores primarily appeal to consumers’______________ needs.
Psychological
When mountain climbers purchase clothing for scaling Mount Everest, their purchases are primarily addressing ________________ needs.
Functional
Laura has a nearly-new economy car but wants a sports car. If she decides to purchase a sports car, she will be primarily fulfilling ______________ needs.
Psychological
A key to successful marketing is determining how to meet the correct balance of ________________________ needs that best appeals to the firm’s target markets.
Functional and psychological
By producing motorcycles that do more than get riders to their destinations and back, Harley-Davidson is addressing consumers’__________________ needs
Functional and psychological
When the floor rusted through on her old car, Kelly knew she had a problem. Logically, Kelly’s next step in the consumer decision process would be to:
Search for information
When Kelly began searching for a new car to replace her old, rusty one, she probably relied on _____________________ sources of information.
Internal and External
When Brandon decided he needed a new car, he immediately called his old college roommate who owns a BMW dealership to ask questions about options and financing. Brandon was searching for information from:
An external source
Peter wanted an unbiased source of information to help him decide what brand of appliances to buy for his new condominium. Peter would most likely search for information from:
Consumer reports
Once consumers have recognized a need, they begin to search for ways to satisfy that need. The internal search is characterized by:
Examining personal memories and knowledge
Which of the following is not one of the four factors affecting consumers search processes?
Function vs psychological need
Ryan believes he is responsible for his actions, and he will conduct extensive searches before making a purchase. Michael’s favorite phrase, when confronted by the need to make a decision, is, “Whatever.” In marketing terms, Ryan is said to have a(n) ___________ and Michael, a(n) ___________.
Internal locus of control; external locus of control
In the consumer decision process, we decide how much time and effort to expend searching for information based partly on:
The degree of perceived risk associated with the product or service being considered
Kathy has naturally curly hair and has often been disappointed with the haircuts she has received. When she moved to a new town, she approached her new office mates and several strangers with curly hair and asked them where they had their hair cut. She chose to spend considerable effort finding a new hair stylist based on the ____________ associated with her purchase decision
Performance risk
How much time consumers spend searching for information depends on:
The perceived benefits versus perceived costs of searching
The locus of control
Actual or perceived risk
The type of product or service.
–(answer on test: “all of the above”)
While on vacation, Martha had her camera stolen. Not wanting to waste vacation time, Martha went out and purchased another camera just like the one that was stolen. For Martha the _________________ was low.
Perceived benefit vs. perceived cost of searching was low
Before flying, Jaden researches the types of planes the airline uses, scans the plane for defects as it taxis up to the terminal, and follows the pilot and crew as they come through the airport. He has no experience as a pilot or airplane mechanic. Jaden probably has a misguided sense of his:
Locus of control
Every year, before he puts his boat in the water, James has his mechanic put a new battery in the boat. James is probably concerned with ____________ risk.
Performance
Jordana is a travel agent. Whenever she sells an expensive vacation package, she encourages the customer to buy travel insurance, which provides reimbursement in case of trip cancellation due to illness or another emergency. Jordana is trying to reduce her customers’__________ risk.
Financial
André was afraid his condominium would look shabby to his future in-laws, so he had it painted just before their visit. André was addressing his __________ risk.
Social
Consumers consider universal, retrieval, and evoked sets during which stage of the consumer decision process?
Evaluation of alternatives
When Alisa decided to buy a new computer, she considered all the brands she could recall seeing advertised. This represents Alisa’s _________ set.
Retrieval
When Maya decided to buy a new computer, she thought about all the brands she could recall seeing advertised, but she would only consider those brands she could buy at her local electronics store. This represents Maya’s ________ set.
Evoked
Marketers particularly want their brands and products to be in consumers’__________ sets.
Evoked
Elena is in the process of buying a new car. There are many possible cars to choose from, but she is focused on a few she would actually consider buying. These make up her _____________ set.
Evoked
The Wall Street Journal provides a set of guidelines each year for readers purchasing a laptop computer. The guidelines include recommendations for hard disk capacity, memory size, battery life, and several other attributes. The Wall Street Journal is providing consumers with:
Evaluative criteria
Determinant Attributes=
product or service features that are important to buyers and that are used to differentiate among choices
Andrea and Karl got married a year ago and are ready to move out of their apartment and into a new home. After looking at several houses, they have developed a list of features that are important to them and that are different among the homes they have visited. The features on their list are called __________.
Determinant attributes
Jonathan prefers shirts made with a 50-50 cotton blend, but he will sometimes buy shirts with less cotton if they are less expensive. Jonathan uses _________________ to decide which shirts to buy.
Compensatory decision rule
Dawn flies regularly between Atlanta and Los Angeles. She almost always uses Delta Airlines and has lots of Delta Sky Miles credit (Delta’s frequent flyer program). Still, she uses an online fare comparison website each time to see if a competitor has a better price or a more convenient schedule. Dawn uses __________________ to decide which airline to fly.
Compensatory decision rule
Jubyung is buying a laptop computer to take on trips. Although he looks at several brands, he refuses to buy a computer that weighs more than five pounds. Jubyung is basing his decision on:
A non-compensatory decision rule
Brenda always buys Sears Kenmore appliances. She believes that the Kenmore brand offers good quality and value and does not consider alternatives. Brenda uses ______ to select appliances.
a decision heuristic
When John and Dorothy go out to dinner, they look for unusual wines on the wine list. Experience has taught them that unusual wines are often personal favorites of the restaurant owner and can offer a special experience. John and Dorothy have their own ________________ when choosing wines.
Decision heuristic
The way a product is presented can influence the decision-making process. Along with brand and price, this is known as:
A decision heuristic
Decision Heuristic=
a shortcut to simplify the decision process
Many consumers correlate price with quality, thinking that the higher the price, the better the quality. For these consumers, this is a:
Decision heuristic
Marketers are particularly interested in post-purchase behavior because it:
involves actual rather than potential customers
Setting unrealistically high consumer expectation often leads to:
Customer dissatisfaction
Ralph, an accident and injury attorney, wants satisfied customers but does not want to create unrealistic expectations. To avoid this potential problem, Ralph will evaluate his:
Advertising
Personal selling techniques
Promotional efforts
Promises and assurances to clients
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Sometimes consumers have second thoughts after buying goods that are expensive, infrequently purchased, or associated with a high level of risk. This is an especially critical time for marketers, as their customers are dealing with:
Buyers’ remorse
Reginald greets his regular customers by name every morning when they come in for coffee. He offers them a taste of anything special he is cooking that day. He has a database with their birthdays, and offers them free meals on their birthdays. Reginald hopes that this attention to his “regulars” will encourage them to:
Spread positive word of mouth
Daniel sells specialty software designed to allow small insurance companies to manage customer data and claims. Daniel knows that satisfied customers are likely to come back for software updates. To ensure that customers are satisfied after purchasing his software, Daniel should:
-Create realistic expectations through his communication with customers
-Carefully demonstrate the software to his customers’ staff
-Provide a satisfaction guarantee or return policy
-Provide a hotline to answer customers’ questions.
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Jorge is running for Congress against a sharp, experienced politician, someone who is known for her debating skills and cunning wit. Jorge decides on a strategy of setting low expectations for his performance in the debate, telling reporters “Don’t mis-underestimate me.” Like marketers, political candidates who set expectations too low could:
tarnish the voters’ image of the candidate.
Darrell sells custom cabinets for upscale residential homes. Darrell hopes that satisfied customers will create word of mouth referrals for him. To make it more likely that his customers are satisfied, Darrell could do any of the following EXCEPT:
tell customers that he has the best quality cabinets available anywhere in the country
Many teenagers, both male and female, have clothes they purchased in the past that they “would not be caught dead in” today. When they occasionally see those clothes hanging in the back of their closet, these teenagers probably feel:
Post purchase cognitive dissonance
Post-purchase cognitive dissonance is especially likely for products that are:
expensive, infrequently purchased, and associated with high levels of risk
Marketers frequently design customer relationship management programs to:
Retain loyal customers
Marketers fear negative word of mouth because when consumers are dissatisfied, they:
Often want to complain to many more people
Most firms maintain customer complaint services online, in the store, or over the telephone. Firms attempt to respond quickly to complaints, hoping to:
Negative word of mouth and rumors
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs includes physiological needs at the lowest level and self-actualization at the top. The three levels in between are:
Safety, love, and esteem
After Sharon graduated from college, she found a steady and good-paying job, got married and began to raise a family, and began to receive recognition at work and in the community. Eventually, she began to devote more time and effort to intellectual and aesthetic pursuits. Sharon is moving up:
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
The consumer decision process can be influenced by:
A firm’s marketing mix
Psychological factors
Social factors
Situational factors.
–(answer ont est: “all of these”)
Motive=
a need or want strong enough to cause the person to seek satisfaction
There are approximately 1 billion people living in India. Only about 200 million of these people earn more than the equivalent of $1000 per year. According to Maslow’s Hierarchy, most of the other 800 million Indian consumers are primarily addressing their _____________ needs.
Physiological
Negative attitudes are typically difficult for marketers to change because:
Attitudes are learned and long lasting
Though he has never owned a Jaguar, Jerry thinks they are poorly made and have many mechanical problems. For Jaguar to sell Jerry a car, the company would need to change the _____________ component of Jerry’s attitude.
Cognitive
Apple computer users tend to like the company and love its products. Apple has nurtured this _____________ component of their customers’ attitudes.
Affective
__________ refer(s) to the process by which consumers select, organize, and interpret information.
Perception
American visitors to the Indonesian island of Bali are often aghast when they see the sign for the Swastika resort. Americans associate the Swastika symbol with Nazi Germany while Indonesians associate the symbol with the four major elements on Earth. The two groups have different:
Perceptions
Firms hope that helping consumers to learn more about a company and its products will affect consumers’:
Attitudes
Learning refers to a change in a person’s thought process or behavior that arises from:
Experience
Stuart wanted to impress Janet with the perfect engagement ring. He had been saving money for months, and he noticed his attitudes and perceptions about diamond rings changing as he began paying attention to ads for rings. Marketers call this process:
Learning
Among the factors affecting the consumer decision-making process is/are ________, the way consumers spend their time and money to live.
Lifestyle
Christophe bought Timberland boots because he felt they were perfect for his outdoor activities. Patrick bought the same kind of boots because he felt they were stylish, especially with the logo clearly visible. The psychological factor driving Patrick’s behavior is:
Lifestyle
Vacation, restaurant, and entertainment choices require marketers to consider which of the following social factors?
Family influences
A consumer’s external social environment includes:
Family, reference groups, and culture
Jennifer’s spending decisions are heavily influenced by her family, her peers, and the beliefs and values she was exposed to in her religious education. Jennifer’s spending decisions are heavily influenced by her:
External social environment
Natalia and her fiancée Dow are planning their wedding. She knows her mother wants her to have a traditional church wedding with a Roman Catholic priest officiating. Natalia would like to have an informal ceremony on the beach, since that type of wedding has become popular with her friends. Furthermore, Dow is from Thailand and would like to have a monk officiate. Natalia and Dow’s wedding decisions are influenced by:
Family, reference groups, and culture
Many Hollywood movie stars were among the first to buy electric and hybrid vehicles. These stars often became ___________, influencing other consumers’ behavior.
Reference groups
The shared meanings, beliefs, morals, values, and customs of a group of people constitute its:
Culture
Beverage firms sometimes hire attractive young people to sit at fashionable bars, sipping the company’s latest product offering. The firms hope these “models” will serve as a(n) _____________ and influence consumers.
Reference group
Before going on his first business trip to China, Brad asked his Chinese-American friend to advise him on customs and values common among the Chinese businesspeople he will likely encounter. Brad is trying to avoid ___________ business blunders.
Cultural
Where Caroline grew up, everyone knew everyone else, no one locked the doors on their house, and a person’s word could be trusted. When she went to work in another part of the country, she was surprised by how few people had similar values and beliefs. Caroline had to adjust to ______________ differences.
Cultural
The traditional marketing strategy of selling umbrellas when it is raining is an example of how __________________ factors influence consumers’ decisions.
Situational
______________________ factors often override or influence psychological and social issues influencing consumers’ purchase decision.
Situational
Store atmosphere factors such as ____________ can influence consumers’ purchase decisions.
Lighting
Scents
Music
Color
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Paula is about to open a new hardware store. She is making decisions regarding lighting, colors, and layout of merchandise. Paula knows these ________________ factors will influence consumers’ purchase decisions.
Store atmosphere
For specialty goods like Rolex watches or Ferrari automobiles, marketers often use ________________ to influence consumers’ purchase decisions.
Well-trained sales people
Jacinta manages the shoe department in a large department store. She will probably use _______________ to influence consumers’ decisions while in her part of the store.
Store atmospherics
Promotions
In-store demonstrations
Salespeople
–(answer on test: “all of these”)
Steve wasn’t sure what kind of salsa he wanted to get for his upcoming Superbowl party. It seemed like there were dozens of varieties to choose from. He noticed that he could sample a few at a station in the store. He tried four, rejected two and bought several jars of the two he really liked. He also ended up buying a different–and more expensive–kind of tortilla chip after tasting it. Marketers identify this as a success story of:
In-store demonstrations
Brenda was planning a small dinner party, and had gone to a new specialty food store with coupons she’d found in the Food section of the paper. At the store she also found a “buy one, get one free” deal, and a free gift offered with the purchase of a particular dessert. She altered the menu as a result of the _____________ and ended up spending less than she’d planned.
In-store promotion
Many states have laws regulating the prices businesses charge during emergencies like hurricanes. These laws are designed to protect consumers whose ______________ state may impair their ability to make sound purchase decisions.
Temporal
There is an old saying, “Never go to the grocery store hungry.” This saying suggests that a consumer’s _________________ state may adversely affect purchasing decisions.
Temporal
The consumer’s level of involvement can lead to two types of decision-making processes: _________ and ___________.
Extended problem solving; Limited problem solving
Consumers use and process different aspects of advertising or messages. _______________ yields greater attention and deeper processing, and leads to strong attitudes and purchase intentions. A. An external locus of control
High involvement
Thanh has to decide which college to attend. This is the most important, riskiest and more expensive decision she has ever made. She will be engaged in:
Extended problem solving
Limited problem solving usually relies on:
Past experience more than external information
Last semester, Henri bought his textbooks over the Internet and saved a considerable amount of money. Classes start in a few days, and he needs to decide right away how and where to purchase his books. Henri will engage in ___________________________ process
Limited problem solving
Most “big box” retailers regularly move products from one aisle to another. They also put personal care products in the pharmacy area, many aisles away from the grocery products. They do this because consumers who spend more time walking through the store are likely to make:
Impulse purchases
Marketers love consumers who engage in _________________, buying their company’s product with little thought or consideration of alternatives.
Habitual decision making
To attract and maintain habitual purchasers, marketers spend considerable effort:
Creating strong brands and store loyalty
For which of the following purchases would consumers most likely engage in limited problem solving?
College courses
The three components of an attitude are:
Cognitive
Affective
Behavioral
Alex decides to join an organization that raises funds for research into autism. Which component of Alex’s attitude toward autism research does this represent?
Behavioral component
An online retailer needs to be able to measure how well they convert purchase intentions into actual purchases. This is known as the:
Conversion rate
Zappos.com constantly reminds customers of recently viewed items and informs them when stock is low in effort to entice the customer to make a purchase. Zappos is trying to improve its:
Conversion rate
Tomas, a bank employee, doesn’t feel that his co-workers accept him. He decides to dress more casually, as they do, hoping to be accepted. Which level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is Tomas trying to work on?
Love needs
There are five types of risks associated with purchase decisions. Which of the following best describes a situation where your new car stalls in the middle of a busy intersection?
Physiological risk
Barak is considering buying a hybrid car, but he’s not sure that he believes the gas mileage estimates. Barak is concerned about:
Performance risk
A home security company will advertise the need for home surveillance products to appeal to which level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
Safety
Joanna lives according to her own rules, unconcerned about designer labels, brand names and luxury items. Joanna is at what level in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
Self-actualization
Fashion designers have realized that plus size consumers have significant buying power. Which of the following best describes the course of action fashion designers should take to capture this market?
Identifying, understanding, and carefully considering the demands of larger shoppers
Some websites provide friend-based merchandising, which means that customers “bring” their friends to the e-retailer so they can shop together. Which of the influences on the consumer buying process does this represent?
Social
__________ are the three types of attribute sets
Universale, retrieval, and revoked

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