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Performance is multidimensional that we need to consider many different types of behaviors to understand performance. Types of multidimensional behaviors include task performance and contextual performance. * Task performance is activities that transform raw materials into goods and services and help with the transformation process by replenishing the supply of raw materials, distributing its finished products, ore providing important planning, coordination, supervising, or staff functions that enable the organization to function effectively and efficiently. Contextual performance is defined as those behaviors that contribute to the organization’s effectiveness by providing a good environment in which task performance can occur. Both task and contextual performance are important dimensions to take into account in performance management systems. * Global competition is raising the levels of effort required of employees. The organization needs to employ a workforce engage in both task and contextual behaviors. * Contextual performance behaviors can make a profound impact on customer satisfaction. When employees put in extra effort to satisfy customer’s needs, it brings a different result.

Interpersonal cooperation is a key determinant of team effectiveness, so contextual performance becomes particularly relevant for teamwork. * Employees are aware that contextual performance is important in affecting organizational effectiveness, so they are more

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satisfied with the system and believe the system is faired if contextual performance is measured in additional to task performance. * Measuring contextual performance explicitly is also important because, unless carefully defined, it can be subjective and subject to bias compared to measuring task performance. Figure 4. Wows that employees work in an organizational context, engaging in certain behaviors that produce certain results. The same employee may behave differently if placed in different situation. Behavior approach emphasizes how an employee does the Job. It is most appropriate when * The link between behaviors and results is not obvious; it is beneficial to focus on behaviors as opposed to outcomes. * Outcomes occur in the distant future. When the desired results will not be seen for months, or even years, the measurement of behaviors is beneficial. * Poor results are due to causes beyond he performer’s control.

When result of an employees’ performance are beyond the employee’s control, it makes sense to emphasize the measurement of behaviors. * The results approach emphasizes the outcomes and results produced by the employees. Defining and measuring results usually takes less time than defining and measuring behaviors needed to achieve these results. The results approach is usually seen as more cost effective because results can be less expensive to track than behaviors. Data resulting from a results approach seem to be objective and are intuitively very appealing.

I en result approach Is most appropriate when * Workers are skilled in the needed behaviors. The workers must have the necessary knowledge and skills to do the work and know what specific behaviors are needed to achieve the desired results and they are also sufficiently skilled to know what to do to correct any process-related problems when the desired results are not obtained. * Behaviors and results obviously related. Certain results can be obtained only if worker engages in certain specific behaviors. * Consistent improvement in results over time.

When results improve consistently over time, it is n indication that workers are aware of the behaviors needed to complete the Job successfully. In these situations, it is appropriate to adopt a results approach to assessing performance. * Many ways to do the Job right. When there are a different ways in which one can do the tasks required for a Job, a result approach is appropriate. An emphasis on results can be beneficial because it could encourage employees to achieve the desired outcomes in creative and innovative ways. The traits approach emphasized the individual performer and ignores the specific tuition, behaviors, and results.

If one adopts he traits approach, raters evaluate relatively stable traits, which include cognitive abilities and personality. Traits are not under the control of individuals. They are not likely to change even if an individual is willing to exert substantial effort to do so. Employees may feel that the system base on traits is not fair because the development of these traits is usually beyond their control. The fact that an individual processes a certain trait does not mean that this trait will necessarily lead to desired results and behaviors.

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