Most professions require writing, now more than ever
Can earn more if solid communicator (Fortune)
After technical skills and GPA, communication is No. 1
Communication is skill-based – and can be improved
Models/processes teach critical thinking
Flattened management hierarchies
Expanded team-based management
Innovative communication technology
New work environments
Increasingly diverse workforce
Renewed emphasis on ethics
2) sender encodes idea in message
3) message travels over channel
4) receiver decodes message
5) (noise) feedback travels to sender (noise)
6) (little noise) possible additional feedback to receiver (little noise)
(coworker) horizontal flow (coworker)
Can be remarkably accurate
Is mostly disliked by management
Thrives where official information is limited
1) written by board of directors (100%)
2) received by vice president (63%)
3) received by general supervisor (56%)
4) received by plant manager (40%)
5) received by team leader (30%)
6) received by worker (20%)
2) *The doctrine of relative filth:* comparing your unethical behavior with someone else’s even more unethical behavior
3) *The rationalization trap:* justifying unethical actions with excuses
4) *The self-deception trap:* persuading yourself, for example, that a lie is not really a lie
5) *The ends-justify-the-means trap:* using unethical methods to accomplish a goal
*Persuasive* – its goal is to make the audience accept the message
*Economical* – it’s concise and doesn’t waste the reader’s time
*Reader-Oriented* – it focuses on the receiver, not the sender
*writing:* research, organize, compose
*revising:* edit, proofread, evaluate
*revising:* 50% (45% revising and 5% proofreading)
*prewriting:* 25% (thinking and planning 25%)
*writing:* 25% (organizing and composing)
*Anticipating the audience includes:* Visualizing primary readers & Visualizing secondary readers
*Adapting to the task and audience includes:* Developing audience benefits & Cultivating a “you” view
*Receiver-Focused:* Please complete these forms so that you will be eligible for health and dental benefits.
*”I” and “We” View:* We are issuing a refund. I have a few questions on which I would like feedback.
*”You” View:* You will receive a refund. Because your feedback is important, please answer a few questions.
*Phase 2 Writing:* Team members work separately
*Phase 3 Revising:* Team members work together to synthesize, but one person may do the final proofreading.
When communicating safety information, warn consumers of risks in clear, simple language.
When communicating marketing information, avoid statements that falsely advertise prices, performance capability, quality, or other product characteristics.
When communicating human resources information: Avoid subjective statements in evaluating employees; describe job-related specifics objectively. Avoid promissory statements in writing job ads, application forms, and offer letters.
Assume that everything is copyrighted.
Understand that Internet items are NOT in the public domain.
Observe fair use restrictions.
*Nature of copyrighted work:* Is the information necessary for the public good?
*Amount and substantiality of portion used:* Is the amount to be copied a small portion of a large work or a substantial portion of a small work?
*Effect on the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work:* Does the fair-use copying interfere with the author’s potential profit from the original?
2) *Cultivate the “you” view:* For example, your account is now open
3) *Be conversational but professional:* For example, your report was well written, not your report was totally awesome
4) *Express thoughts positively:* For example, you will be happy to, not you won’t be sorry that
5) *Be courteous:* For example, please complete the report, not you must complete the report!
6) *Strive for bias-free language, avoiding gender, race, age, and disability biases:* For example, office workers, not office girls
7) *Use plain language and familiar words:* For example, salary not remuneration
8) *Employ precise, vigorous words:* For example, fax me, not contact me
Searching manually in books, articles, and other secondary sources
Investigating primary sources, such as interviews and surveys
Experimenting scientifically with control groups
Sentence length: 8 words Comprehension rate: 100%
Sentence length: 15 words Comprehension rate: 90%
Sentence length: 19 words Comprehension rate: 80%
Sentence length: 28 words Comprehension rate: 50%
Sentences under 20 words are most readable.
*Indirect and Less Clear in Passive Voice:* Performance reviews were completed for all employees by the manager.
The higher the score, the easier it is to understand the document.
The Flesh-Kincaid Grade Level rates text on a U.S. school grade level.
Redundant: exact same vs. concise: exact or same
*Unbury verbs that are needlessly converted to wordy noun expressions.*
Buried Verbs: give consideration to vs. Unburied verbs: consider
*Drop slang* (informal words with arbitrary and extravagantly changed meanings that quickly go out of fashion)
*Eliminate flabby expressions.*
wordy: at this point in time vs. concise: now
*Limit long lead-ins* (unnecessary introductory words).
wordy: This is to inform you that Monday is a holiday. vs. concise: Monday is a holiday.
*Drop unnecessary opening fillers* (there is/are and it is/was beginnings).
wordy: There are over 50 visitors who commented on her blog. Concise: Over 50 visitors commented on her blog.
*Purge empty words.*
*Keep it simple by avoiding indirect and pompous language.*
wordy/unclear: It would not be inadvisable for you to affix your signature at this point in time. vs. Clear: You should sign now.
*Dump trite “business” phrases* (worn-out expressions).
trite: pursuant to your request vs. improved: as you requested
*Drop clichés* (expressions that have become exhausted by overuse)
*Control exuberance* (use of intensifiers such as definitely, quite, completely, extremely, really, and totally) to sound businesslike.
*Enhance white space by:* Adding headings, Including bulleted or numbered lists, Using short sentences, Writing short paragraphs, & Setting effective margins
*Ragged-right margins* provide more white space and improve readability.
*Use 10- to 12-point font for most body text.* For special effects consider: CAPITALIZATION, SMALL CAPS, Boldface, Italic, & Underline
*Use vertical lists* or enumerated items within sentences to improve comprehension: Use a numbered list for items that represent a sequence or reflect a numbering system; use bullets otherwise. Use enumerated items such as (a) and (b) within a sentence. Make the lists and enumerated items parallel.
*Use parallel construction* by expressing similar ideas in balanced, matching constructions.
Not parallel: The task force recommends buying a software license, creating software usage policies, and the benefits of the software should be demonstrated.
Parallel: The task force recommends buying a software license, creating software usage policies, and demonstrating the benefits of the software.
*Use numbered lists* to show a sequence: During the hiring process, follow these steps:1) Examine the application. 2) Interview the applicant. 3) Check the applicant’s references.
*Use bulleted lists* to highlight without necessarily showing a sequence. Consumers expect the following information at product Web sites: Price, Quality, Performance, & Availability
*Add headings* for quick comprehension. Types of headings to consider: Main headings, Subheadings, Category headings
*In general:* Look for typos, misspellings, and easily confused words. Study the document for inconsistencies and ambiguous expressions. Look for factual errors.
Summarizes main idea and uses REQ to remind receiver that a response is required. Opens with receiver’s name to express friendliness and to mark beginning of message. Starts directly, amplifies the main idea. Explains and discusses the topic. Uses bullets to improve readability. Also, consider columns, headings, enumerations, numbered lists, and so forth. Uses appropriate closing (action information, dates or deadlines, a summary of the message, or a closing thought). Closes with full contact information
Single-space within and double-space between paragraphs.
Include a complimentary close before your name when added formality is needed.
2) Making address goofs
3) Forgetting a subject line or failing to change it to match the “thread”
4) Not personalizing your message (such as skipping the salutation and closing identification)
5) Including inappropriate content (e.g., indiscretions, off-color jokes, and statements you will later regret)
6) Forgetting to check for spelling and grammar
7) Thinking no one else will ever see your email
8) Copying and forwarding recklessly
9) Completing the “To” line first (a slip of the fingers can send a message before its time, and you can never take it back)
10) Expecting an instant response
*interoffice memos:* Useful for internal messages that require formality or permanent records. Appropriate for delivering instructions, official policies, reports, long documents, and important announcements.
*business letters:* Useful for external messages that require a permanent record and confidentiality. Appropriate for conveying formality, sensitivity. Can deliver a persuasive, well-considered message
*Phase 2: Research, Organize, Compose* – Collect information. Choose the best organizational strategy. Compose the first draft. Group similar information together.
*Phase 3: Revise, Proofread, Evaluate* – Is the message clear? Correct? Did you plan for feedback? Will this message achieve its purpose?
Analyze tasks and define problems.
Share ideas and information.
Show interest and listen actively.
Encourage members to participate.
Synthesize points of agreement.
Insult, criticize, and compete with others.
Waste the group’s time.
Make inappropriate comments.
Fail to stay on task.
Withdraw, don’t participate.
2) understand other point of views
3) show concern for the relationship
4) look for common grounds
5) invent new problem solving options
6) reach an agreement based on what is fair
*Symptoms:* Group overestimates its power & morality. Group becomes closed-minded. Group members experience pressure to conform
*Prevention:* Consider multiple solutions. Establish systematic procedures . Avoid hearing leader preferences at start. Prevent insulation
Most commonly used collaborative tool in business
Tools include enhanced speakerphone, telephone, and mobile phone
Also known as voice conferencing, teleconferencing, conference calling, and phone conferencing
Collaborators connect in real time.
Although expensive, telepresence rooms are like being there.
Organizations reduce travel expenses, travel time, greenhouse gases, and worker fatigue.
Tools include video, audio, and software.
Used in business to share electronic documents and demonstrate products
Participants interact in real time
Tools include computer, Internet access, software, and (optional) camera
Distribute documents in advance and log on early.
Explain how to ask and answer questions.
Say your name before speaking.
Decide whether to “mute” phones.
Pay attention; don’t multitask.
Ask questions of specific peopleand use a strong voice.
Give everyone a chance to speak with “round-the-table.”
Listening to colleagues and teammates
Listening to customers
Become actively involved.
Separate facts from opinions.
Identify important facts.
Ask clarifying questions.
Paraphrase to increase understanding.
Capitalize on lag time.
Be aware of gender/cultural differences.
*Physical and Other Barriers:* Hearing impairment, Noisy surroundings, Speaker’s appearance or mannerisms, Lag time
Paraphrasing the content
Reflecting the implications
Reflecting underlying feelings
Inviting further contributions
Using non-verbal responses
2) Myth: Speaking is more important than listening. Fact: Speaking and listening are equally important.
3) Myth: Listening is easy and requires little energy. Fact: Active listeners undergo the same physiological changes as a person jogging.
4) Myth: Listening and hearing are the same process. Fact: Listening is a conscious, selective process, while hearing is an involuntary act.
5) Myth: Speakers are able to command listening. Fact: Speakers cannot make a person really listen.
6) Myth: Hearing ability determines listening ability. Fact: Listening happens mentally – between the ears.
7) Myth: Speakers are totally responsible for the communication success. Fact: Communication is a two-way street.
8) Myth: Listening is only a matter of understanding a speaker’s words. Fact: Nonverbal signals also help listeners gain understanding.
9) Myth: Daily practice eliminates the need for listening training. Fact: Without effective listening training, most practice merely reinforces negative behaviors.
10) Myth: Competence in listening develops naturally. Fact: Untrained people listen at only 25 percent efficiency.
Reinforce and accentuate
Replace and substitute
Control and regulate
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