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Business Communications Chapters 9-12 Review

What is the estimated amount of times a day that speakers address audiences?
33 million times a day
What is the average number of presentations business people give a year?
26
What is important to remember about the audience when analyzing the situation?
Key members
How much they know – or don’t know
What they want to know
Personal preferences
Group size
Attitudes (toward speaker and/or subject) – ex: math related
What are some significant demographics about the audience?
Gender – men: fixers and women: connection
Age
Cultural background
Economic status
What are some general goal types?
Informative
Persuasive
Entertain
What may change with a large audience?
Your delivery and choice of language will tend to be more formal and your listeners will be less likely to interrupt with questions or comments
What aspects does your goal have to have for it to be considered informative?
Clear, organized, and ethical
Needs to expand your listeners’ knowledge or help them acquire a specific skill
What aspects does your goal have to have for it to be considered persuasive?
Try to change what to do, feel, or think
What aspect can you goal have for it to be considered entertaining related?
After dinner
How can you make your goal specific?
Goal statement
Describe reaction you seek – desired outcome
Be specific and measurable
What does a good specific goal statement usually describe?
Whom to influence
What they should think or do
How, when, and where
What is your thesis statement?
A single sentence that summarizes the message
When should you use your thesis statement in the presentation?
In the introduction
In body (several times)
In conclusion
What are the different organizational pattern for informative presentations?
Chronological
Spatial
Topical
Cause-effect
What is the basic organizational plan?
Introduction
Body
Conclusion
How many points should the body have?
Minimum of 2 – maximum of 5
What is a general goal?
A broad indication of what you’re trying to accomplish
What is a specific goal?
Describes the outcome you are seeking
What are some potential problems most presentations suffer from?
Taking too long to get to the point
Including irrelevant material
Leaving out necessary information
Getting ideas mixed up
Chronological pattern
Arranges your points according to their sequence in time
Spatial pattern
Organizes material according to how it is put together or where it is physically located
Topical pattern
Groups ideas around some logical theme or divisions in your subject
Cause-effect pattern
Shows that certain events have happened or will happen as a result of certain circumstances – scientific
What are the best organizational patterns for persuasive presentations?
Problem-solution
Criteria satisfaction
Comparative advantages
Motivated sequence
Problem-solution pattern
Not the same as cause-effect. Simplest persuasive scheme. You begin by showing the audience something is wrong with the present situation and then suggest how to remedy it
Criteria satisfaction
Meets needs. Organizational strategy that sets up criteria the audience will accept and then shows how your idea or product meets them. Example: Picked college
Comparative advantages
Compare and contrast. Puts several alternatives side-by-side to show why yours is the best. Pros and Cons
Motivated sequence
Speaks the best. Enhance the audience’s involvement and interest. Has 5 total steps with the 4th step visualization. Flows – need, action, satisfaction.
What are the 5 steps of motivated sequence?
1. Attention
2. Need
3. Satisfaction
4. Visualization
5. Action
What are the rules for the main points when organizing the body
Stated as claims
Develop thesis
Use 2 to 5 points
State in parallel structure
Contain one idea
Claim
Statement asserting a fact or belief
What are the functions of the introduction?
Capture listeners’ attention
Give audience reason to listen
Set tone for topic and setting
Establish qualifications
Introduce thesis and preview presentation
What are some different types of opening statements?
Ask a question (can be rhetorical or an overt response)
Tell a story
Present a quotation
Make startling statement
Refer to audience
Refer to occasion
Use humor
Why can presenting a quotation be a good thing?
Someone else has probably already said what you want to say in a very clever way, and quotations let you use a source with high credibility to back up your message.
What should you make sure to do when using humor?
Use it wisely
What are the introductions four main steps?
1. Capture attention of listeners
2. Motivate audience to listen
3. Convince audience you are qualified
4. Give thesis statement
What is the most important step when preparing a presentation?
Preparing introduction
What is the second most important step when preparing a presentation?
Conclusion
What are the two steps in a conclusion
Review
Closing thought statement – action to be perspective
What should your review in your conclusion consist of?
Reviewing the thesis and summarize main points
What should your closing statement in your conclusion consist of?
Create favorable impression and give a sense of completion
What are some different types of closing statements?
Use techniques used for gaining attention
Return to theme of opening statement
Appeal for action
End with a challenge
What are characteristics of effective transitions?
Refer to preceding and upcoming ideas
Bridge between points
Call attention to themselves
What can an informative speech have, but not do?
Can have opinion but can’t tell you what to do
Transitions
Words or sentences that connect the segments of a presentation
What are the functions of transitions?
Promote clarity
Emphasize important ideas
Keep listeners interested
What are the functions of supporting material?
Clarity
Interest
Proof
What are the different types of verbal support?
Definitions
Examples
Stories
Statistics
Comparisons
Quotations
How can statistics be used as verbal support?
Numbers used to represent an idea
Can be especially strong proof
Careful choice avoids overwhelming the audience
What is the most common form of support in business
Statistics
How are comparisons used as verbal support?
Makes point by showing how one idea resembles another
Figurative (analogies)
Literal
What are two important characteristics with comparisons in verbal support?
Familiar part should be well-known to audience
Ensure comparison is valid
When citing your sources verbally, what are the simple steps to follow to get credit for source citation
Verbally state author, title, date (must say 2 of the 3)
If research comes from internet – state “date retrieved”, or “author unknown”
What guidelines should you follow when citing your sources?
1. Cite the source in a way that adds to the credibility of your presentation
2. Cite sources that have credibility with your audience
Presentations with visual aids are…
More effective
More interesting
More impact
Reflect better on the speaker
Easier to understand
Easier to remember
What are the benefits of visual aids?
Improves listener memory
Speeds comprehension
Adds to speaker credibility
What is the best way to have listener recall?
Verbal and visual cues
What do visual aids do?
Show how things look, work, and relate to one another and emphasize important points
What are some tips for objects, models, and handouts in presentations?
Make large enough to be seen
Keep small enough to be easily displayed
Usually wait until end of speech to pass around or hand out copies
Diagram
abstract, 2D drawings that show the important properties of objects without being completely representational
What are different types of visual aids?
Objects and models
Photographs
Diagrams
Lists and tables
Pie charts
Bar and column charts
Pictograms
Graphs
Video
Table
Effective means of highlighting key facts and figures
Pie Chart
Illustrate component percentages of a single item
Pictogram
Artistic variation of bar, column, or pie charts. Example: Dollar cut into pieces representing portions.
What are different medias for presenting visual aids?
Chalk and dry-erase marker board
Fill charts and poster board
Computer displays
Video players
When does chalk and dry-erase marker boards work for visual aids? What are they used for?
Only works for informal situations. Recording interactive information
What are the pros and cons of flip charts and poster board?
Pros: Easy to prepare and use, and no electrical equipment.
Con: Bulky and clumsy
What can computerized displays do? What should you remember?
Projection unit for larger audiences. Remember Murphy’s Law.
Murphy’s Law
Whatever can go wrong with the system probably will.
What are the 6 things that annoy listeners the most with powerpoints?
1. Reading off the slides (62%)
2. Text too small to read (47%)
3. Text color hard to read (43%)
4. Complete sentences (39%)
5. Too much motion (25%)
6. Charts too complex (22%)
What do speakers do? Listeners?
Speakers encode
Listeners decode
What are the dangers of presentation software?
Poorly-conceived messages
Design over content
Overly complex presentations
What design tips should you keep in mind when preparing a visual presentation?
4 to 6 lines per visual
40 characters per line
Phrases not sentences (improves ease of reading)
Same space at tops of visuals (easier to follow)
Use upper and lowercase type (easier to read)
Simple type face (doesn’t detract and easier to read)
What are the guidelines for using visual aids?
Selection
Design
Presentation
What should you keep in mind when selecting your visual aids?
Have a reason – if your image doesn’t explain a point better than words alone, don’t use it.
Match sophistication to audience
What should you keep in mind when designing your visual aids?
Large enough to see
Simple design
Few words
Horizontal printing
Label all items
What should you keep in mind when presenting your visual aids?
Display only when ready
Remove when finished
Check room and equipment ahead before presentation
Practice using visual aids
What are the three patterns of presentation style?
Monologue
Guided discussion
Interaction presentation
What are the different types of delivery?
Manuscript
Memorized
Extemporaneous
Impromptu
Monologue
One-way speeches, delivered without interruption. Most appropriate in large settings and on formal occasions
Guided discussions
Interactive. Speaker presents information and has a preset idea of what material to cover, but listeners are encouraged to speak up with questions and comments.
Interactive presentation
Involves the audience even more. Speaker still controls the program, but feels more like a conversation.
Manuscript presentation
Speakers read their remarks word for word from a prepared statement
Memorized presentation
Memorize the entire script. Worse than manuscript
Extemporaneous presentation
Planned and rehearsed but not memorized word for word
How should speaking notes be for an extemporaneous presentation?
Brief
Legible
Unobtrusive
What should you do for an impromptu presentation?
Anticipate when you may be asked to speak
Focus on audience and situation
Organize your thoughts
Present reasons, logic, or facts to support
Don’t apologize
Don’t ramble
What are the guidelines for delivery with visual elements?
Dress effectively (consider audience)
Step up to speak with confidence and authority
Get set before speaking
Begin without looking at your notes
Establish and maintain eye contact
Stand and move effectively
Don’t pack up early
Pause, then move out confidently
What are the guidelines for delivery with verbal elements?
Don’t emphasize mistakes
Use proper vocabulary, pronunciation, and enunciation
What are the guidelines for delivery with vocal elements?
Speak with enthusiasm and sincerity
Speak loudly enough to be heard
Avoid disfluencies
Vary your speech
Use pauses effectively
Disfluencies
Stammers and stutters that creep into everyone’s language at one time or another (eh, uh, um, etc)
What should you do when questions are asked during the presentation?
Allow for extra time
Promise to answer premature questions later
When can questions be asked?
During and after the presentation
How should you manage questions and answering them?
Start the session – get the ball rolling (one question you may have is…)
Anticipate likely questions
Clarify complicated or confusing questions (rephrase question in your own words)
Treat questioners with respect
Keep answers focused on your goal (don’t get off track)
Buy time when necessary
Address answer to entire audience
Follow last question with summary
What is very common with speaking?
Speech anxiety
Apprehension isn’t as visible as you think
How can you learn to speak with confidence?
Accept moderate amount of nervousness
Speak more often
Rehearse presentation
Focus on topic and audience, not self
Think rationally about presentation
How do you rehearse your presentation?
On your feet in front of audience
Expect talk to be 20% longer
Focus on introduction and conclusion
Rehearse in real setting
What are some myths about presentations?
Presentation must be perfect
Possible to persuade whole audience
Worst will happen
Briefings
Short talks that give already interested and knowledgeable audience members the specific information they need to do their jobs.
What are the characteristics of briefings?
Length (shorter)
Organization (organized simply, topically, or chronologically)
Content (summarize a position)
Presentation aids
Language and delivery (usually quite conversational)
What are the different types of reports?
Status reports
Final reports
Feasibility reports
Status reports
Progress report. Most common type of informative presentation. Update
Reports
Give your audience an account of what you or your team has learned or done.
Status reports
AKA progress report. Updates.
Final reports
Delivered upon completion of an undertaking. At the end, go back and analyze what was done right and wrong.
Feasibility report
What you’re able to do. Evaluates one or more potential action steps and recommends how the organization should proceed.
What should be done while planning a training program?
Define training goal
Develop schedule and list of resources
Involve audience
Organize presentation
How should you deliver training?
Link topic to audience
Start with overall picture
Emphasize organization
Cover only necessary information
Avoid jargon
Link familiar to unfamiliar
How can you emphasize the organization of your material when delivering training?
Number items
Use signposts
Use interjections
Use repetition and redundancy
Add internal summaries and previews
What are the different ways of organizing persuasive messages?
Problem-solution
Comparative advantages
Criteria satisfaction
Motivated sequence
What are the different types of persuasive presentations?
Motivational speech
Goodwill speech
Proposal (use problem-solution organization)
Sales presentation
What should you do in a sales presentation?
Use effective closing strategy
Establish client relationships before presentation
Put clients’ needs first
Listen to clients
Emphasize benefits, not features
How can you maximize your credibility for ethical persuasion?
Demonstrate competence
Earn audience’s trust
Emphasize similarity to audience
How can you demonstrate competence?
Knowledge of subject
Credentials
Ability
Motivational speech
Attempt to generate enthusiasm for the topic being presented
Goodwill speech
Aims to create a favorable image of the speaker’s cause in the minds of the audience
Proposal speech
Use problem-solution organization. Advocate that your audience take a specific action.
Sales presentation
One party presents remarks aimed at persuading another to purchase a product or service.
Persuasion
Act of motivating an audience through communication to voluntarily change a particular belief, attitude, or behavior.
How can you earn audience’s trust?
Honesty
Impartiality (don’t choose sides)
How can you emphasize similarity to audience?
Common ground. Most are willing to accept the ideas of a speaker whose attitudes and behaviors are similar to their own.
What should you avoid when using logical arguments?
Fallacies
Fallacies
Errors in reasoning
What are some examples of fallacies?
Personal attack (ad hominem)
Reduction to absurd (reductio ad absurdum)
Either-or
False Cause (post hoc ergo propter hoc)
Bandwagon appeal
Personal attack fallacy
Ad hominem. Attacks a person’s integrity in order to weaken the argument made
Reduction to the absurd fallacy
Reductio ad absurdum. Attacks an argument by extending to such extreme lengths that it looks ridiculous
Either-or fallacy
Sets up false alternatives, suggesting that if the inferior one must be rejected, then the other must be accepted.
False cause fallacy
Post hoc ergo propter hoc. Mistakenly assumes one event causes another because they occur sequentially.
Bandwagon appeal
Argumentum ad populum. Based on the often dubious notion that just because many people favor an idea, you should too.
What are some strategies for ethical persuasion?
Maximize your credibility
Use logical arguments
Use psychological appeals
How can you use psychological appeals in a persuasive speech?
Appeal to audience’s needs
Make goal realistic (Social judgment theory)
Focus appeals on critical audience segments
Defer thesis if audience is hostile
Present ample evidence to support claims
Consider citing opposing ideas
Adapt to audience’s cultural style
Social judgment theory
Helps speakers decide how to craft their arguments by identifying the range of possible opinions listeners might have about a speaker’s arguments.
When should you consider citing opposing ideas?
When audience disagrees
When audience knows both sides of issue
When audience will hear your view criticized
Inoculation Theory
Going to give you a little of the virus so your white blood cells are immune (shot/vaccine). Know other person’s side as much as your own – bring it up to shoot it down
What emotion hits most people?
Fear
What are the different approaches to organizing?
By topic or task
What are the different ways your can plan the introduction and conclusions in a group presentation?
For the presentation or for each speaker
What is especially important in presentations?
Transitions
What are the different ways transitions can be smooth?
When handled by spokesperson or by each speaker
What are transitions more important for?
Group presentations
What should you do prior to delivering a group presentation?
Plan for extensive rehearsal
Consider set up
Consider position of speakers
What should you do when delivering group presentation?
Listen attentively when not presenting
Speak to audience
What are the different types of special-occasion speaking?
Welcoming guest or group
Introducing another speaker
Honoring person or institution
Giving toast
Presenting award
Accepting award

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