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Business Law Ch1-4

One of the important functions of law is to provide
a. natural law.b. stability and predictability.

c. legal realism.

d. jurisprudence.

B. Stability and predictability
The American legal system has been most strongly influenced by
a. Roman law.b. natural law.

c. English law.

d. uniform laws.

C. English Law
Remedies are best described as
a. agency rulings to enforce existing regulations.b. legal principles that underlie previous court decisions.

c. statutes against theft.

d. the legal tools available to a court to redress grievances.

D. Legal Tools available to a court to redress grievances
The IRAC method of legal reasoning does NOT include
a. developing public policy solutions to legal problems.b. ascertaining the facts and issues of the case.

c. determining the rule of law that applies in the case.

d. applying the rule of law to the facts and issues of the case.

A. Developing public policy solutions to legal problems
Primary sources of American law include
a. federal and state statutes only.b. federal and state statutes and administrative regulations only.

c. federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, constitutions, and court cases.

d. federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, constitutions, legal scholarship, and court cases.

C. Federal and state statutes, administrative regulations, constitutions and courts cases
Administrative agencies are created to
a. develop uniform rules to deal with commercial relations.b. perform specific government functions.

c. provide more efficient government office management.

d. act as a buffer between the executive and legislative branches of government.

B. perform specific governments functions
Another term for case law or judge-made law is
a. the common law.b. regulatory law.

c. international law.

d. the law of Indian affairs.

A. Common Law
Civil law can best be described as
a. the law that governs relations between persons.b. law concerned with criminal offenses.

c. federal, but not state, statutory law.

d. law governing the relations among nations.

A. A law that governs relations between persons
In the field of legal research, a “citation” is
a. a reference to a Supreme Court case that is considered the latest authority on a point of law.b. a reference to a publication in which a legal authority can be found.

c. the location of a trial court or court of original jurisdiction.

d. an academic honor in a law school.

B. A reference to a publications in which a legal authority can be found
A law enacted by the Wyoming legislature requires that all drivers over the age of seventy-five pass a driving test to ensure that they are competent to operate a motor vehicle. If a driver fails to take or pass the test, the license is suspended. Plakke is a 77-year-old Wyoming resident whose license was revoked because he failed to take the test. He was notified by mail of the fact, but nothing else was done. Police later stopped Plakke for speeding and issued him a traffic citation for driving with a suspended license. The court most likely will find Plakke
a. guilty under the state statute.b. guilty under administrative law.

c. not guilty because the court has no authority to enforce the statute.

d. not guilty because the mail notification was not sufficient and Plakke did not have a chance to contest the original decision in court.

A. Guilty under the state statute
Laura prevails in her lawsuit against Matthew for injuries she sustained in a car accident. As a result, Laura is entitled to a remedy. In the U.S. legal system, Laura’s remedy will most likely be in the form of
a. specific performance.b. rescission.

c. damages.

d. injunction.

C. Damages
Enrico is a state appeals court judge. In making judicial decisions, Enrico issues rulings that are consistent with precedents established in similar cases within his jurisdiction. Enrico is following the principle of
a. laches.b. stare decisis.

c. constitutional constructionism.

d. courts of equity.

B. Stare decisis
Start Ch 2
The doctrine of judicial review allows
a. the president to revoke Supreme Court decisions when they go beyond the bounds of Court authority.b. the judicial branch to decide whether laws or actions of the other branches of government are constitutional.

c. the judicial branch to write laws when Congress is unable or unwilling to do so.

d. congress to remove federal judges when their decisions do not follow public policy or are unconstitutional.

B. Judicial branch to decide whether laws or actions of other branches of government are constitutional
A long-arm statute allows a court in one state to exercise jurisdiction over
a. a resident of the state in which the court is located.b. any defendant from another state or country who is being sued by a citizen of the state in which the court is located.

c. a defendant from another state or country who has minimum contacts with the state in which the court is located.

d. the citizens of any state that shares a border with the state in which the court is located.

C. A defendant from another state or country who has minimum contacts with the state in which the court is located
A state court can exercise jurisdiction over property located within its boundaries. This type of jurisdiction is called
a. in-state jurisdiction.b. in personam jurisdiction.

c. in rem jurisdiction.

d. in propria jurisdiction.

C. In rem jurisdiction
When both federal and state courts have the power to hear a case, these courts have
a. concurrent jurisdiction.b. general jurisdiction.

c. subject-matter jurisdiction.

d. exclusive jurisdiction.

A. Concurrent Jurisdiction
Venue refers to the
a. primary subject matter of a case at trial.b. basis for selecting a jury.

c. procedure for appealing a case.

d. most appropriate location for a trial.

D. Most appropriate location for a trial
A federal court can exercise jurisdiction if a case involves
a. a writ of certiorari.b. a treaty, the U.S. Constitution, or a federal law.

c. an appeal of an order of the United Nations.

d. state law and parties who are all from the same state.

B. A treaty. the US constitution, or a federal law
The federal court system does NOT include the
a. United States Supreme Court.b. U.S. district courts.

c. U.S. Chamber of Commerce.

d. Court of International Trade.

C. US Chamber of commerce
Cecil is a resident of Ohio. While driving through California, he has an accident involving Lupe, a California resident. Lupe files a lawsuit in a California state court. Over Cecil, the California court has
a. diversity jurisdiction.b. in personam jurisdiction.

c. in rem jurisdiction.

d. no jurisdiction.

B. In personam jurisdiction

Defined:Court jurisdiction over the “person” involved in a legal action; personal jurisdiction.

Playtoys, Inc., manufactures the Whirligig, a toy that the company discovers can cause harm. Before anyone is injured, Anne, a pediatric nurse who has not purchased a Whirligig, files a suit against Playtoys. In seeking to have the suit dismissed, Playtoys’s best argument is that Anne does not have
a. certiorari.b. jurisdiction.

c. standing to sue.

d. judicial review.

C. Standing to Sue
Dexter loses his breach-of-contract case against Micheletta in a Georgia state trial court. Dexter appeals to the state court of appeals. Losing again, he files his next appeal with
a. the United States Supreme Court.b. the Georgia Supreme Court.

c. a U.S. district court.

d. a U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals.

B. Georgia Supreme Court
*Milo, a citizen of Iowa, files a lawsuit in an Iowa state trial court against Jalisco Farm Supply, a Texas company that sells supplies in Iowa. The court has original jurisdiction because
a. the parties have diversity of citizenship.b. the court has concurrent jurisdiction.

c. the court has venue.

d. the case is being heard for the first time.

D. The case is being heard for the first time
Ravi, who lives in Ohio, files a lawsuit against Trading Post, a Washington company, in an Ohio state court. The Trading Post’s only sales activity outside the state of Washington occurs via its Web site. According to the sliding-scale standard, the Ohio court can always exercise personal jurisdiction over out-of-state defendants based on Internet transactions if the court finds that the defendant has
a. a commercial cyber presence.b. conducted substantial business with Ohio residents through its Web site.

c. interacted with at least three Ohio residents through its Web site.

d. received a national trademark and domain name for its Web site.

B. Conducted substantial business with Ohio residents through its website.
Transpac Corp. and Alliance, Inc., agree to a contract that includes an arbitration clause. After a dispute arises, the case goes to arbitration. The arbitrator finds in Transpac’s favor. Alliance files a lawsuit, alleging that the award should not be enforced because the arbitrator made an error in her findings of fact. The court will likely
a. review the merits of the dispute.b. set aside the arbitrator’s award.

c. review the sufficiency of the award.

d. do nothing.

D. Do nothing
Jahan, a homeowner, files a lawsuit against Jalen, his construction contractor. Prior to trial, they meet with their attorneys to try to resolve their dispute before going to trial. This proceeding is known as
a. negotiation.b. early neutral case evaluation.

c. a summary jury trial.

d. arbitrability.

A. Negotiation
Nina decides to take her claim against her Internet service provider to FairDeal.com, a private, online dispute resolution provider. This limits her access to the court system
a. only as to this claim.b. entirely, as to this and all other claims against her Internet service provider.

c. not at all.

d. for a period of sixty days.

C. Not at all
Britney files a lawsuit against Kevin. If her case is like most lawsuits filed in this country, it will be
a. arbitrated.b. settled.

c. litigated.

d. sent for a mini-trial.

B. Settled
Corrina was a two-year-old, living in Phoenix, when her uncle bought a handgun made by Uberti, an Italian company. The uncle wrapped the gun in a towel and put it under the seat of his car. Corrina was helping her uncle clean out his car when the gun fell out, hit the pavement, and discharged. The bullet killed Corrina. Her parents filed a suit against Uberti in an Arizona state trial court. Uberti asked the court to dismiss the case on the ground that the parents lacked standing to sue. The court probably
a. granted the motion to dismiss the case because the court lacked jurisdiction.b. granted the motion to dismiss the case because Corrina’s parents lacked standing.

c. denied the motion to dismiss the case, because Corrina’s parents had standing.

d. denied the motion to dismiss the case, because venue was proper.

C. Denied the motion to dismiss the case because Corrina’s parents had standing.

Defined:
Harm. The party bringing the action must have suffered or will imminently suffer harm—an invasion of a legally protected interest. The controversy must be real and substantial rather than hypothetical.
Causation. There must be a causal connection between the conduct complained of and the injury.
Remedy. It must be likely, as opposed to merely speculative, that a favorable court decision will remedy, or make up for, the injury suffered.

Refer to the hypothetical scenario Reviewing—page 47. Then answer the following question.
On what basis might the federal district court in Illinois exercise jurisdiction in this case?
a. A state long-arm statute.b. In rem jurisdiction.

c. Diversity of citizenship.

d. Federal question.

C. Diversity in Citizenship

Defined:Under Article III, Section 2, of the Constitution, a basis for federal court jurisdiction over a lawsuit between (1) citizens of different states, (2) a foreign country and citizens of a state or of different states, or (3) citizens of a state and citizens or subjects of a foreign country. The amount in controversy must be more than $75,000 before a federal court can take jurisdiction in such cases.

Refer to the hypothetical scenario Reviewing—. Then answer the following question.
Does the federal district court have original or appellate jurisdiction?
a. Original jurisdiction, because the case involved federal laws.b. Original jurisdiction, because the case was initiated in that court and that is where the trial will take place.

c. Appellate jurisdiction, because federal district courts are courts of appeal.

d. Appellate jurisdiction, because the district court must review the state court’s findings.

B. Original jurisdiction, b/c the case was initiated in that court and that is where the trial take place
Refer to the hypothetical scenario Reviewing—. Then answer the following question.
Assume that Garner filed his action in a Nevada state court. Would that court have personal jurisdiction over Foreman or his manager? Explain.
a. Yes, because the defendants owned property in Nevada.b. No, because the defendants were not Nevada residents.

c. Yes, because the defendants met with Garner and formed a contract in the state of Nevada.

d. No, because the defendants only came to Nevada to meet with Garner; that cannot be the basis of jurisdiction.

Yes, because the defendants met with Garner and formed a contract in the state of Nevada
What system of justice do American and English courts follow?
a. mediation system of justiceb. exchange system of justice

c. adversarial system of justice

d. conciliatory system of justice

Adversial system of justice
In general, the three major phases of litigation are
a. motions, depositions, and interrogatories.b. pretrial, trial, and posttrial.

c. examination, cross-examination, and conclusion.

d. filing, answering, and countersuing.

B. Pretrial, trial and postrial
The two basic pleadings involved in a lawsuit are
a. a deposition and an interrogatory.b. a complaint and a summons.

c. a summary judgment and a default judgment.

d. a complaint and an answer.

D. A complaint and an answer
A defendant could offer which of the following as an affirmative defense?
a. an affidavit stating that the plaintiff is lyingb. a counterclaim against the plaintiff

c. self-defense

d. a motion to dismiss

C. Self-defense
The process of obtaining information from an opposing party prior to going to trial is known as
a. excavation.b. discovery.

c. internment.

d. service of process.

B. Discovery
An affidavit is
a. a sworn statement by a party or a witness.b. an interrogation by an attorney.

c. a set of written questions answered under oath.

d. a kind of pretrial conference.

A. A sworn statement by a party or a witness
A posttrial motion to set aside a verdict and enter a new verdict in favor of the nonprevailing party is known as a motion for
a. summary judgment.b. an appeal.

c. a writ of certiorari.

d. a judgment notwithstanding the verdict.

D. A judgement notwithstanding the verdict

Note:Such a motion will be granted only if the jury’s verdict was unreasonable and erroneous.

In general, an appellate court will overturn the decision of a lower court only if
a. the judge in the lower court is later found guilty of fraud or undue influence.b. an error occurred in applying the law to the case.

c. an error was made in stating the facts of the case.

d. the plaintiff lost the case; defendants have no right of appeal.

B. an error occurred in applying the law to the case
Motor Sports, Inc., sues A-Z Speed. Motor Sports alleges that A-Z breached (failed to perform) a contract that required A-Z to sell ten Jet Skis to Motor Sports. Under the rules governing discovery, Motor Sports is most likely entitled to obtain
a. physical examinations of key employees of A-Z.b. permission for Motor Sports’ president to personally inspect the contents of all of A-Z’s paper records and computer files.

c. documents in A-Z’s possession relating to the contract.

d. access to the contents of A-Z’s top executives’ safe-deposit boxes.

C. Documents in A-Z’s possession relating to the contract
Jorge files a lawsuit against Lily. Lily responds to the complaint by filing an answer. After the pleadings are closed, Jorge can file
a. a counterclaim.b. a motion for judgment on the pleadings.

c. a motion for judgment n.o.v.

d. an affirmative defense.

B. A motion for judgments on the pleadings
Vic decides to sue Avi. To begin the suit, Vic must file a complaint. A complaint should contain
a. a statement of the basis for the court’s jurisdiction.b. a statement indicating the key evidence behind the suit.

c. a motion for judgment n.o.v.

d. a motion for summary judgment.

A. a statement of the basis for the court’s jurisdiction
In preparation for a trial between Gabriel and ABC Corporation, ABC’s attorney places Gabriel under oath and asks Gabriel questions that are recorded by a court reporter. This is known as
a. a deposition.b. an interrogatory.

c. voir dire.

d. request for admissions.

A. a deposition

Note: type of discovery

Keith sells Jasper his house. After moving in, Jasper learns that Keith failed to disclose serious defects in the house. Jasper sues Keith. After the pretrial procedures are completed, the case enters the trial phase. The attorneys begin the process of voir dire. During voir dire
a. jurors are picked from a jury pool.b. the bailiff organizes the courtroom so that the trial can proceed in a proper fashion.

c. the attorneys view and discuss pretrial documents obtained during discovery.

d. the attorneys determine the appropriate number of jurors.

A. jurors are picked from a jury pool
Ophelia sues Winnie. While presenting her case, Ophelia’s attorney calls Ophelia’s doctor to the witness stand. The questioning of this witness at this point in the trial is known as
a. cross-examination.b. direct examination.

c. interrogation.

d. a request for admissions.

B. Direct examination
Holly owns a plot of land next to Jaran’s property. Jaran builds a fence between their properties. Holly claims that the fence encroaches on her property and that Jaran is trying to steal her land. Jaran refuses to move the fence, claiming that he built the fence in the right place. Holly sues Jaran in a state trial court. Holly’s attorney explains to her that she must prove her case by a preponderance of the evidence. This means Holly must
a. bring more evidence to the trial than Jaran brings.b. show that it is indisputable that her claim is true.

c. show that Jaran’s claim is not true.

d. show that it is more likely than not that her claim is true.

D. Show that it is more likely than not her claim is true
A trial between Shane and Verna results in a jury verdict in Shane’s favor. After the jury renders its verdict, Verna’s attorney can file a motion
a. for a judgment on the pleading.b. for a new trial.

c. to dismiss the case.

d. for summary judgment.

B. for a new trial
A judgment is entered against Mitch in Andre’s case against him. Mitch appeals to an intermediate appellate court, which agrees to review the case. On appeal, most appellate courts
a. reverse the trial court decision.b. remand the case for new trial.

c. affirm trial court findings of fact.

d. modify trial court findings of fact.

C.Affirm trial court findings of fact
Sahmura prevails in her lawsuit against Art. Art can satisfy the judgment by
a. cosigning a loan on behalf of Sahmura for at least the value of the judgment.b. naming Sahmura as the beneficiary on a life insurance policy equal to the value of the judgment.

c. transferring property he owns directly to Sahmura or selling property he owns and using the proceeds to pay her.

d. all of these choices are valid ways of satisfying the judgment.

C. transferring property he owns directly to Sahmura or selling property he owns and using proceeds to pay her.
Stout, a construction worker, fell from a beam and suffered serious injuries. He sued his employer, Sunrise Construction, for damages. In most jurisdictions, a court will first impose lighter sanctions but eventually will dismiss a case if a party shows blatant disregard for court orders. Over six years of pretrial motions, Stout was repeatedly asked to provide the names of expert witnesses he intended to call for his case. Sunrise filed motions three times asking the court to compel Stout to answer the questions. The trial court entered three orders to compel Stout to answer and four orders allowing him extra time to answer. Stout did not respond. Sunrise filed a motion to dismiss because of Stout’s failure to comply with the orders. What would the court most likely do?
a. Dismiss the case because of Stout’s refusal to provide information to Sunrise.b. Dismiss the case even though Stout had a good reason not to provide Sunrise with the information.

c. Refuse to dismiss the case because Sunrise had no right to Stout’s medical records.

d. Refuse to dismiss the case because Stout’s injuries were severe, which means he must be given the chance to litigate.

A. dismiss the case because of Stout’s refusal to provide information to Sunrise.
Martin brought a civil rights action against his employer, the New York Department of Mental Hygiene, after it failed to promote him. His complaint stated that the department had discriminated against him by denying him “the authority, salary, and privileges commensurate with this position.” The department filed a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim for which relief could be granted. The court probably
a. refused to dismiss the case because the complaint did state a claim.b. refused to dismiss the case because Martin had standing to sue.

c. dismissed the case because it lacked venue.

d. dismissed the case because the complaint did not state a claim.

D. Dismissed the case bc the complaint did not state a claim

ch 4

The system of checks and balances embodied in the U.S. Constitution allows
a. the executive branch to dominate all the other branches.

b. each branch to limit some actions of the other branches.

c. the legislative branch to determine which cases are reviewed by judges.

d. the judicial branch to have the final say on any issue.

B. Each branch to limit actions of the other branches
The commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution authorizes
a. the judicial branch to regulate commerce.b. the executive branch to regulate commerce.

c. the legislative branch to regulate commerce.

d. the states to regulate commerce and foreign trade.

C. The legislative branch o regulate commerce
The federal government has the constitutional authority to regulate all business enterprises
a. that are involved in commerce between the states.b. that are located in North America.

c. that are involved in international commerce.

d. that are involved in commerce within a state.

A. that are involved in commerce bw the states
Police powers allow states to
a. have state police forces but not exercise other powers.b. regulate only “public activities,” such as protest marches.

c. regulate private activities to promote public health, safety, and general welfare.

d. regulate interstate commerce.

C. regulate private activities to promote public health, safety and general warfare
The clause in the federal Constitution that has had the greatest impact on business is the
a. separation of powers.b. commerce clause.

c. taxing and spending clause.

d. Tenth Amendment.

B. Commerce clause
The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution are known as
a. the Declaration of Man’s Rights.b. the Bill of Rejoinder.

c. the Bill of Rights.

d. the Magna Carta.

C. the Bill of rights
As originally intended, the first ten amendments to the Constitution limited only the power of
a. foreign citizens located in the United States.b. state government officials.

c. Commerce Department officials.

d. the federal government.

D. The federal government
The Establishment Clause, found in the First Amendment to the United States Constitution
a. prohibits the government from creating a state-sponsored religion.b. prohibits the establishment of foreign churches in the United States.

c. guarantees that no person can be compelled to do something contrary to his or her religious belief.

d. guarantees that churches cannot demand donations from their members.

A. Prohibits the government from creating a state-sponsored religion
The Bill of Rights contains a list of protections for the individual against governmental interference. Whenever the language describing a right is overly broad or unclear
a. the right does not apply to anyone.b. Congress must pass legislation clarifying the right.

c. the United States Supreme Court decides what the language means.

d. the individual state legislatures interpret the unclear language.

C. The US States SCourts decides what the language means
Under the federal Constitution, the president can veto or sign the legislation that Congress enacts. This demonstrates the principle of
a. the supremacy clause.b. privileges and immunities.

c. checks and balances.

d. full faith and credit.

C. Checks and balances
Sebastian, a citizen of New York, wants to obtain a business license in Illinois. The Illinois legislature passed a law requiring nonresidents to pay a $1,500 fee to apply for business licenses in the state of Illinois. Illinois residents pay nothing for a business license. This discrepancy in the fees between the residents of Illinois and other states may violate
a. the privileges and immunities clause.b. the due process clause.

c. the full faith and credit clause.

d. the separation of powers.

A. the privileges and immunities clause
Congress passes a law prohibiting cigars made in Cuba from being sold in the United States. The Florida state legislature then passes a law allowing the sale of Cuban cigars in Florida. If the constitutionality of the Florida law is challenged in court, it will most likely be
a. struck down on the basis of the supremacy clause.b. struck down on the basis of the due process clause.

c. upheld on the basis of the supremacy clause.

d. upheld unless Congress expressly prohibits states from enacting laws regarding cigars.

A. Struck down on the basis of the supremacy clasue
The state of Michigan was in an economic crisis. The governor and legislature asked Congress to exempt Michigan’s citizens from their federal tax burden for two years. Does Congress have the authority to make the exemption?
a. Yes, Congress has taxing and spending power to use as it wishes.b. Yes, the privileges and immunities clause allows Congress to grant privileges to certain states.

c. No, the commerce clause does not allow different rules for different states.

d. No, the taxing and spending clause requires that taxes be imposed uniformly throughout the United States.

D. No, the taxes and spending clause requires that taxes be imposed uniformly throughout the US
A state legislature passes a statute prohibiting businesses from supporting any political candidate. If some business owners challenge the constitutionality of the law in court, will the law be upheld?
a. No, because the law is an unconstitutional restriction on free speech.b. No, because the business owners’ privileges and immunities have been violated.

c. Yes, because the law only prohibits political speech by businesses, not by individual citizens.

d. Yes, because political speech is restricted if “constitutionally permissible.”

A. No, because the law is an unconstitutional restriction on free speech
Jan operates a successful business selling child pornography. Her enterprise is likely to be
a. protected by the First Amendment.b. protected under the right to privacy.

c. considered political speech.

d. considered criminal.

D. Considered criminal
Ocean City passes an ordinance that prohibits all churches from meeting within its city limits. This rule affects the residents’ constitutional right to
a. procedural due process.b. substantive due process.

c. full faith and credit.

d. interstate commerce.

B. Substantive due process

Note: limits what the government may do in its legislative and executive capacities.

A city ordinance allows only two hot dog stands to operate in the city’s downtown area. If someone who would like to add another hot dog stand challenges this ordinance under the equal protection clause, the rule will be subject to
a. the rational basis test.b. strict scrutiny.

c. intermediate scrutiny.

d. the police power test.

A. the rational basis test
Young was a commercial tour boat operator on the northern coast of Kauai, Hawaii. He was licensed by the state of Hawaii to operate his boat in Hanalei Bay. The U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Coast Guard also granted Young an unrestricted license to operate his boats in Hanalei Bay. Hawaii subsequently passed a law that banned all commercial use of Hanalei Bay. The state refused to renew Young’s state license and ruled that he was not allowed to operate his vessel based on his federal licenses. Young sued the state, alleging that the state law that prohibited him from operating his boat conflicted with the federal law that authorized him to do so. The court probably found that the state law was
a. unconstitutional under the supremacy clause.b. unconstitutional under the equal protection clause.

c. constitutional under the supremacy clause.

d. constitutional under the due process clause.

A. Unconstitutional under the supremacy clause
A Minnesota statute required all operators of slow-moving vehicles to display a fluorescent red triangular sign. Hershberger, a member of the Amish religion, was charged with violating the statute. His defense was that the law violated his First Amendment right to freedom of religion because displaying “loud” colors on his slow-moving black buggy conflicted with his religious belief that he should remain separate from the modern world. Hershberger stated that he was willing to display the sign if he could use silver, instead of red, reflective tape, which was equally effective. The state argued that the law applied to all equally. The court most likely found that the statute, as it applied to Hershberger, was
a. constitutional under the safety clause.b. constitutional under the free exercise clause.

c. unconstitutional under the free exercise clause.

d. unconstitutional under the due process clause.

C. Unconstitutional under the free exercise clause
Refer to the hypothetical scenario Reviewing—. Then answer the following question.
Why does this statute raise equal protection issues instead of substantive due process concerns?
a. Because the law applies equally to all persons.b. Because the law applies only to persons riding motorcycles.

c. Because the law places a burden on certain persons without fair procedures.

d. Because the law applies to motorcycle riders who reside out of state as well as state residents.

B. Because the law applies only to persons riding motorcycles

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