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Business Process Re-engineering

Introduction

Bureaucracy is a strategy set forth by an organization to be followed by the employees and the leaders in order to have uniform results from all participating parties.

Bureaucracy structures planning could help eliminate variability in results when the leaders in the same company have different skills, experiences and goals. Max Weber (1995, p.23) in his book “Organization management strategies” advocates that the rules themselves should be standardized so that the personnel changes do not disrupt the whole company strategies. When each individual employs personal skills, ideas, skills and goals they may not rhyme and this may cause difference in management and may cause a drift in the company.

Bureaucracy position faster specialized skills eliminating many subjective judgments by managers where rules and regulations are established properly and have a set method to follow to avoid different individuals employing their rules hence causing a drift in the company.

Organization systems are the collections or parts also known as subsystems brought together to form a one full system or to accomplish a set goal by the organization. The system to be complete it has to have input processing and out put. If one of the subsystems is removed the nature of the system is changed.

Subsystems may include mechanical and human influenced subsystems. Mechanical subsystems may include machines; computers and vehicles while human include employees, leaders, suppliers and customers

Input subsystems

Advertisement is one of the most important components that characterize the operation of an organization in the market since it raises the awareness of the consumers about the availability of the products in the market. This is an input subsystem that calls for the customer to the organization therefore a well planned advertisement is an important component that helps a company to penetrate the market especially when introducing a new product. (Apter, 1989, p.76)

Lack of a planned advertisement may have limited growth of the company which in return may cause losses in the company. Keeping in mind that the company is operating in a very competitive market, there is a need to plan strategies to follow to avoid any sort of dissatisfaction to the customers which may lead to a drift.

Introduction of a new technology in an organization needs a proper planning that will enable the employees adapt and learn much quicker because lack of proper planning can cause a drift that may be hard to recover. There is a need to have set strategies to be followed and adequate training to lessen the risk of taking more time omitting other duties. The introduction of new technology in a company has caused a drift in many companies for most managers command employees on making use of technology that they are not used to therefore causing alternation of formally followed rules.

Example, if the company has been using paper work may in accounting department; introduction of computers may alter the set road map because of training and mental ideas that one is supposed to do more than before therefore causing a drift. To avoid this, an organization need to have a bureaucratic strategy that will inform the employees in advance so as they may be prepared physically, mentally and psychologically to avoid more excitement on introduction of the new technology. (Arthur  2004, p.56)

Processing subsystems

 Leadership strategy is an important factor that determines the viability of an organization operation. Good leadership is responsible for growth of the organization while unplanned leadership is responsible for drift in an organization. Planning mode of leadership, there should be a procedure to follow and that will help in determining the weaker points in the leadership. (Fred, 2005, p.23)

Most organizations are currently being held at ransom by the kind of leadership structure. There are many kinds of leadership that are used in running organizations depending on the kind of the organization. Authoritative kind of leadership in an organization has been responsible for some of the problems like making of decision for the organization. In this regard it is clear that there is a problem in making decision since they are made from the top and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) has to be consulted before any decision is made despite the fact that there are other people in the organization who are more experienced in this work.

Authoritative leadership holds the organization to the management and it discourages innovation since the CEO has to be consulted on all matters regarding the operation of the organization. Therefore there is a need for application of bureaucracy to govern the leaders to have a uniform format when guiding employees in order to have a better end result. (Leonard,  2003, p.67)

Output subsystems

Motivation is the force or impetus behind behavior and actions. This energizes behavior and directs behavior towards a goal, leaders are always expected to create a desire of working to employees by creating conducive environment and a favoring atmosphere for working.

Use of reinforcement by rewarding, an attractive object or event is supplied as a consequence of a particular work done perfectly. According to behavior approach to motivation, managers have an understanding of employees’ motivation which begins with careful analysis of incentive and rewards that are present in the organization. These incentives are like privileges and money. It’s always managers’ responsibility to identify behaviors that need to be reinforced like outstanding performance, punctuality, neatness and completion of work. (Mike, 2005, p.27)

The managers are always alert to notice the desired behavior occur. Occurrence is always accompanied by reinforcement. An employee who shows an improved performance is rewarded.

The principle is that reinforcement strengthens behavior and gives that exact behavior a chance to occur again. Cognitive approach state that behavior is determined by over thinking and not reward or punishment; it is initiated and regulated by mental process and not external events.

Managers’ role in motivation is to help workers develop on curiosity and help them develop methods for searching for information; workers are trained to be intrinsically motivated.

The social working approach is an integration of cognitive and behavior aspect. This theory sees motivation as a product of two main forces, individual expectations of success in a task and vicarious experience. Individual expectation of success is determined by personal effectiveness; personal effectiveness is also called self efficiency and refers to personal confidence. The manager should empower employees to become competent in performing a task. If the employee knows that he will succeed in doing a task, then his motivation will be high.

Vicarious experience constitutes the observation of other workers and compares performance. If the worker discovers that his performance is poor, he may lose his sense of competence. In this respect the manager should the employee to keep up with level of performance of other employees so that motivation is highlighted.

Though intrinsic motivation comes from the worker, is referred to as ego involvement. This results from employees’ identification with desired goal. The employee is fully involved in learning a task. Managers task is to empower the employee to identify with the work if the need for confidence is made.(Competence means ability to perform)

Ability to master every a task also mean competitiveness. In a task every employee has interest and desire to perform confidently in a company’s task. Managers’ role is to discover how to empower the employee to achieve. (Jackson, 2005, p.34)

Conclusion

There is interrelation between the organization systems and bureaucracy; they both depend on each other for better performance. Once organization systems are distinguished, the appropriate bureaucracies are applied to have end results favoring the organization performance.

Leaders and employees being the cornerstone of the organization performance, they need to support other subsystems for non can operate without the support of others. The whole system performance is determined by the subsystems management and implication of each idea for the organization welfare.

Reference:

Apter, E. (1989) Ghana in Transition, New York, Antheneum

Arthur T. (2004), Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Irwin

Fred, D.(2005), Concepts of Strategic Management, Prentice-Hall

Jackson K. (2005) Management, Kasneb news line

Leonard, G (2003), Applied Strategic Planning: How to Develop A Plan that Really Works, William Pfeiffer, McGraw-Hill.

Mike, D. (2005), The Grand Strategist, Henry Holt & Company.

Weber, M.(1995) Principles of bureaucracy, journal,Vol3, issue 02 p.23

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