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Ch. 17 Matching Review WS, APUSH

Great Railroad Strike of 1877
Nationwide strike, 1000s of rr workers & labor allies, protested growing power of rr corps. & steep wage cute imposed by rr managers amid a severe eco depression, began in 1873.
Management revolution
International management structure adopted by + large, complex corps., distinguished top executives from day-to-day operations & departmentalized operations by function.
Interstate Commerce Act
1886, created fed. regulatory agency designed to oversee rr industry & prevent collision & unfair rates.
Knights of Labor
1st mass labor org. created among Ams working class. 1869, peaked in strength mid-1880s. Attempted to bridge boundaries of ethnicity, gender, ideology, race & occupation to build “universal brotherhood” of all workers.
Advocacy of a stateless society achieved by revolutionary means. Feared for their views, ppl who took approach became scapegoats for 1886 Haymarket Square bombing.
Greenback-Labor Party
National pol. movement calling on gov. to + $ supply in order to assist borrowers & foster eco. growth. Also called for greater regulation of corporations & laws enforcing 8-hour workday.
American Federation of Labor
Org. created by Samuel Gompers, 1886, coordinated activities of craft unions & called for direct negotiation w/ employers in order to achieve benefits for skilled workers.
Haymarket Square
5/4/1886, conflict, both workers & policemen killed/wounded during labor demonstration in Chicago, called by local anarchists. Created backlash against all labor orgs., Knights of Labor.
Vertical integration
Business model, corporation controlled all aspects of production, raw materials -> packaged products. Robber barons/industrial innovators (Gustavus Swift & Andrew Carnegie) pioneered business form at end of CW.
Scientific management
System of organizing work developed by Frederick W. Taylor in late 19th century. Designed to coax max output from individual worker, + efficiency & – production costs.
Closed shop
Workplace where a job seeker had to be union member to gain employment. Advocated by craft unions, to keep out lower-wage workers & strengthening unions’ bargaining position w/ employers.
Real eco. wealth, created by workers who make living by physical labor (ie farmers & craftsmen) & merchants, lawyers, bankers & other middlemen unfairly gain wealth from workers.
Small group of associates, hold stock from a group of combined firms, managing them as a single entity.
Chinese Exclusion Act
1882, barred Chinese laborer from entering US. Continued until 1940s.
Horizontal integration
Business concept, late 19th century, pressure competitors & force rivals to merge cos into conglomerate. John D. Rockefeller, Standard Oil pioneered business model.
Farmers’ Alliance
Rural movement founded in TX during depression of 1870s, spread across Plains states & S. Advocated cooperative stores & exchanges that would circumvent middlemen, & called for gr8er gov. aid to farmers & stricter reg. of rrs.
Mass production
Coined by Henry Ford, helped to invent system based on assembly of standardized parts. Accompanied continued des killing of industrial labor.
Granger laws
Eco. reg. laws passed in some midW states in late 1870s, triggered by pressure from farmers & Greenback-Labor Party.
Homestead lockout
1892, against workers a steel mill after Andrew Carnegie refused to renew union contract. Union supporters attacked guards hired to close them out & protect strike-breakers, employed by mill, but National Guard suppressed resistance & Homestead, like other steel plants, became non-union mill.
Elimination of skilled labor under new system of mechanized manufacturing, workers completed discrete, small-scale tasks rather than crafting an entire product. Employers found they could pay workers less & replace them + easily.

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