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Ch.17 Test

In the late nineteenth century, industry in the United States
A. obtained the bulk of its raw materials from Central and South America.
B. faced a growing shortage of laborers.
C. saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
D. lacked adequate capital to expand the domestic market.
E. suffered from an entrepreneurial deficit.
C. saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
2. Who among the following began to develop an oil empire by taking control of competing oil companies in Ohio?
A. Cyrus Field
B. J.P. Morgan
C. John D. Rockefeller
D. Andrew Carnegie
E. Samuel Morse
C. John D. Rockefeller
3. Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the United States
A. boomed as a result of the expanding United States Navy.
B. emerged as an important supplier for railroad construction.
C. largely replaced the iron industry.
D. resulted in the construction of large commercial ocean freighters.
E. barely developed at all.
E. barely developed at all.
4. The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
A. included blowing air through molten iron.
B. involved adding ingredients to molten iron.
C. was also developed by an American, William Kelly.
D. included both blowing air through and adding ingredients to molten iron.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
5. The open-hearth process of making steel
A. was replaced by the Bessemer process.
B. was first done in the United States.
C. produced small quantities of high-grade steel.
D. made the production of large dimension pieces possible.
E. was ridiculed by established steelmakers such as Abram Hewitt.
D. made the production of large dimension pieces possible.
6. In the United States, the steel industry first emerged in
A. Pennsylvania and Ohio.
B. Vermont and Massachusetts.
C. Illinois and Indiana.
D. New Jersey and New York.
E. Alabama and Mississippi.
A. Pennsylvania and Ohio.
7. All of the following cities became important centers for steel production EXCEPT
A. Pittsburgh.
B. Chicago.
C. Atlanta.
D. Birmingham.
E. Detroit.
C. Atlanta.
8. In the late nineteenth century, the needs of the American steel industry directly contributed to the further development of all of the following EXCEPT
A. the automobile industry.
B. steam engine technology.
C. freighters on the Great Lakes.
D. the Pennsylvania Railroad.
E. the oil industry.
A. the automobile industry.
9. The first significant oil production in the United States occurred in
A. Ohio.
B. Texas.
C. California.
D. Michigan.
E. Pennsylvania.
E. Pennsylvania.
10. In the 1870s, the “internal combustion engine” was developed in
A. Europe.
B. the United States.
C. Asia.
D. Africa.
E. Australia.
A. Europe.
11. In 1917, automobile production in the United States
A. was the nation’s largest industry.
B. saw Charles and Frank Duryea build the first practical gasoline-powered car.
C. saw five million cars on American roads.
D. was almost nonexistent.
E. finally became feasible thanks to the innovations of Henry Ford.
C. saw five million cars on American roads.
12. Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
A. took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
B. lasted just over one minute.
C. did not in fact take off by itself.
D. took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina and did not in fact take off by itself.
E. All these answers are correct.
A. took place near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
13. In 1900, the emergence of research laboratories in American corporations
A. occurred as federal funding for research greatly expanded.
B. led to a diversification of research interests.
C. developed similar research goals as in Europe.
D. was deemed unnecessary since so many American university laboratories existed.
E. centralized the sources of research funding.
B. led to a diversification of research interests.
14. In the early twentieth century, a principle goal of “Taylorism” was to
A. make industrial workers more independent in carrying out their jobs.
B. emphasize the importance of craft and quality in the workplace.
C. encourage industrial workers to act creatively to solve production problems.
D. create a large labor force of highly skilled workers.
E. organize industrial production into many simple tasks.
E. organize industrial production into many simple tasks.
15. A key to Henry Ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was
A. the use of welds instead of rivets to speed production.
B. a reduction in the size of his labor force.
C. the use of interchangeable parts.
D. the training of highly skilled workers.
E. his encouragement of labor unions in organizing his factories.
C. the use of interchangeable parts.
16. In 1929, the base price of a Ford Model T was
A. $290.
B. $470.
C. $630.
D. $950.
E. $1120.
A. $290.
17. Which of the following statements about the American railroad industry in the late nineteenth century is FALSE?
A. It included the nation’s largest businesses.
B. It saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations.
C. It relied partially on government subsidies for its growth.
D. It was among the first to adopt new corporate form of organization.
E. It became a national symbol of concentrated economic power.
B. It saw Congress outlaw railroad combinations.
18. During the late nineteenth century, the growth of large corporations was helped
A. by sales of company stock to the public.
B. by “limited liability” laws.
C. by the realization that great ventures could not be financed by any single person.
D. by both sales of company stock to the public and “limited liability” laws.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
19. Who among the following was NOT significantly associated with the steel industry?
A. Henry Bessemer
B. Andrew Carnegie
C. J. Pierpont Morgan
D. Henry Clay Frick
E. James J. Hill
E. James J. Hill
20. The business structure of Carnegie Steel was a good example of
A. vertical integration.
B. horizontal integration.
C. diagonal integration.
D. central integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration
21. The business structure of Standard Oil was a good example of
A. vertical integration.
B. horizontal integration.
C. diagonal integration.
D. central integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration.
E. vertical and horizontal integration.
22. To John D. Rockefeller, the great “curse” of business in the late nineteenth century was
A. government regulation.
B. cutthroat competition.
C. the income tax.
D. the corporate tax.
E. the chronic labor shortage.
B. cutthroat competition.
23. In the American business community at the end of the nineteenth century,
A. one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
B. almost all corporations had achieved stability through “pool” arrangements.
C. federal reforms of corporations had ended the most predatory business practices.
D. most states had made it illegal for one corporation to buy another one.
E. rampant competitiveness and labor shortages helped to keep prices down and wages up.
A. one percent of businesses controlled one-third of all manufacturing.
24. In the late nineteenth century, most American business millionaires
A. railed against the implications of Social Darwinism.
B. came from financially humble origins.
C. were living examples of “self-made men.”
D. had made their fortune in the railroad industry.
E. began their careers from positions of wealth and privilege
E. began their careers from positions of wealth and privilege
25. The social theory of Social Darwinism
A. argued the new industrial economy was limiting the potential for individual wealth.
B. contended that ruthless corruption may be necessary in the attainment of wealth.
C. was created by Charles Darwin to explain industrial economies.
D. promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
E. argued that it behooved industrial titans to spread their wealth to the lower classes.
D. promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
26. In the late nineteenth century, Social Darwinists argued that people who failed economically in the United States did so because
A. they had not received a college education.
B. racism and other prejudices held them back.
C. they had poor individual character.
D. business wealth was concentrated into the hands of a few.
E. they were not members of “the Elect.”
C. they had poor individual character.
27. In the late nineteenth century, the first and most important promoter of Social Darwinism was
A. Henry George.
B. Horatio Alger.
C. Russell Conwell.
D. Jacob Riis.
E. Herbert Spencer.
E. Herbert Spencer.
28. According to the ideas expressed by Andrew Carnegie in his The Gospel of Wealth,
A. successful businessmen had every right to live as they pleased.
B. only pious Americans would prosper.
C. it was the “Christian duty” of every American to become wealthy.
D. the rich had great responsibilities to society.
E. the wealthy had earned their money through God’s blessing alone.
D. the rich had great responsibilities to society.
29. In his books, Horatio Alger
A. offered true accounts of poor Americans who had become wealthy.
B. took critical issue with the ideas of Social Darwinism.
C. emphasized the value of personal character in business.
D. criticized child labor in American industry.
E. argued that wealth and privilege were ultimately hollow achievements.
C. emphasized the value of personal character in business.
30. The late nineteenth century sociologist Lester Frank Ward
A. suggested that industrialism was creating “Organization Men.”
B. believed that government intervention in society would be harmful.
C. sought to apply Darwinian laws to human society.
D. argued that people could do little to alter the economic stratification of society.
E. believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society.
E. believed that human intelligence, not natural selection, shaped society.
31. In the late nineteenth century, Daniel De Leon
A. created the ideas of laissez-faire.
B. founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
C. argued that large corporations were ultimately of benefit to American workers.
D. led the American Federation of Labor.
E. became a strong advocate of Taylorism.
B. founded the Socialist Labor Party in the United States.
32. In the late nineteenth century, the social writer Henry George argued in favor of
A. taxing only the richest Americans.
B. a single land tax to replace all other taxes.
C. government efforts to increase land values.
D. heavier taxes on the raw materials of industry.
E. abolishing all taxes.
B. a single land tax to replace all other taxes.
33. Edward Bellamy’s 1888 book, Looking Backward,
A. described an America engaged in a second civil war due to concentrated wealth.
B. promoted the virtues of economic competition.
C. depicted a world presided over by an industrialist-king modeled on J. P. Morgan.
D. accepted the necessity of class divisions in a capitalist economy.
E. imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
E. imagined an ideal future in which all corporations were combined into one great trust.
34. In the late nineteenth century, due to the growth of industrial capitalism, American workers
A. saw a rise in their standard of living.
B. experienced a loss in their control over their own work.
C. were forced to contend with arduous and dangerous working conditions.
D. both saw a rise in their standard of living, and experienced a loss in their control over their own work.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
35. During the 1870s and 1880s, most of the immigrants to the United States came from
A. Italy and the Slavic countries.
B. Great Britain and northern Europe.
C. Poland, Hungary and Russia.
D. Japan and China.
E. Mexico.
B. Great Britain and northern Europe.
36. Until its repeal in 1885, the Labor Contract Law
A. discouraged immigration from non-European countries.
B. prevented the formation of labor unions.
C. put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen.
D. was an attempt to reform American business practices.
E. mandated that each worker sign an individual contract with a company.
C. put many new immigrants in debt to American businessmen.
37. By 1900, the average yearly income of American workers
A. was about $600.
B. allowed most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of living.
C. remained generally unaffected by economic boom-and-bust cycles.
D. both allowed most workers to maintain a reasonably comfortable standard of living and remained generally unaffected by economic boom-and-bust cycles.
E. None of these answers is correct.
E. None of these answers is correct.
38. In 1900, in regards to the work conditions in American factories,
A. workers generally controlled the pace of production.
B. laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week.
C. job security for industrial workers had significantly increased since 1865.
D. while safety conditions were poor, mechanization reduced the overall rate of accidents.
E. first-generation workers generally had little trouble adjusting to the nature of industrial labor.
B. laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week.
39. During the late nineteenth century, child labor in the United States
A. increased significantly.
B. was unregulated by laws in most states.
C. saw more children working in factories than in agriculture.
D. both increased significantly and saw more children working in factories than in agriculture.
E. None of these answers is correct.
A. increased significantly.
40. The Molly Maguires were a militant
A. offshoot of the Knights of Labor.
B. anti-immigration organization.
C. woman suffrage organization.
D. anarchist group.
E. labor union in the coal industry.
E. labor union in the coal industry.
41. The great railroad strike of 1877
A. began in the West and spread east.
B. saw the federal government refuse to intervene.
C. was launched in response to a wage cut.
D. saw organized labor gain its first major victory in the United States.
E. resulted in only two deaths around the country.
C. was launched in response to a wage cut.
42. The Knights of Labor
A. was primarily a trade union.
B. did not allow women to join.
C. began as a secret fraternal organization.
D. focused its efforts on improving wages and reducing hours.
E. tried in particular to enlist support for their cause from lawyers.
C. began as a secret fraternal organization.
43. At its height in 1886, the Knights of Labor were led by
A. Uriah S. Stephens.
B. Eugene Debs.
C. Henry Clay Frick.
D. Terence V. Powderly.
E. John Peter Altgeld.
D. Terence V. Powderly.
44. Samuel Gompers was the leader of the
A. American Federation of Labor.
B. Molly Maguires.
C. Knights of Labor.
D. Congress of Industrial Organization.
E. American Railway Union.
A. American Federation of Labor.
45. The Haymarket Square Riot of 1886
A. saw public outrage over the police firing into a crowd of workers.
B. resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists.
C. took place in Indianapolis.
D. resulted in a strike at the McCormick Harvester Company.
E. proved the catalyst for several wide-ranging labor reforms.
B. resulted in the conviction and execution of several anarchists.
46. During the late nineteenth century, anarchists in the United States
A. were relatively peaceful.
B. were linked with violence and terrorism in the public mind.
C. became tied to the labor movement in the public mind.
D. were both relatively peaceful and linked with violence and terrorism in the public mind.
E. All these answers are correct.
E. All these answers are correct.
47. In what industry did the Homestead strike of 1892 occur?
A. steel
B. railroad
C. meatpacking
D. coal
E. oil
A. steel
48. Which of the following events did NOT occur during the Homestead strike of 1892?
A. Henry Frick shut down the plant in an attempt to destroy the Amalgamated union.
B. The entire Pennsylvania National Guard was ordered to protect strikebreakers.
C. Hundred of guards hired by Homestead were defeated in a deadly battle with strikers.
D. One radical made a failed attempt to assassinate Henry Clay Frick.
E. The Amalgamated trade union won the strike.
E. The Amalgamated trade union won the strike.
49. The Pullman strike of 1894 began when George Pullman, owner of the company,
A. ordered rail workers to move into company-owned housing.
B. referred to workers as his “children.”
C. cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
D. refused to implement an eight-hour work day.
E. began hiring African-American workers in his factories.
C. cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
50. The Pullman strike of 1894
A. saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike.
B. was ultimately successful for the strikers.
C. had little effect on rail transportation throughout the nation.
D. ended when George Pullman dropped his demand that workers live in company housing.
E. ended when Governor John Peter Altgeld called out the militia to protect employers.
A. saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike.
51. Eugene Debs played a leading role in what labor event?
A. the Homestead strike
B. the Pullman strike
C. the Haymarket Square riot
D. the Railroad strike of 1877
E. All these answers are correct.
B. the Pullman strike
52. In the late nineteenth century, organized labor failed to make great gains for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
A. tensions between ethnic and racial groups which divided the work force.
B. labor unions which faced powerful and wealthy corporations.
C. geographical mobility which served to dilute institutional ties and class consciousness.
D. major labor organizations which represented only a small percentage of the industrial work force.
E. state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers which did not exist.
E. state and federal laws to protect the rights of workers which did not exist.

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