Chief Security Officer
___ responsibel for security of business system and strategies for defending it against hakers/ viruses
Chief Knowlege officer
responisble for collecting, maintaining and distributing company knowlege
Chief Privacy Officer
responisble for ensuring the ethical and legal use of info within a company
Chief Tech Officer
Ensures the maintenence of the MIS system including speed and accuracy
Chief Information Officer
oversees MIS and ensures it alligns with business goals and obj
Associate program (affiliate program)
Businesses generate commissions or royalties
A technique that induces websites or users to pass on a marketing message
is the science of fact-based decision making and contains many models/methods
Decision Making at the Operational Level
at this level, employees develop, control, and maintain core business activities required to run the day to day operations
Operational decisions? Frequency?
are considered structured decisions which arise in situations where established processes offer potential solutions. Made frequently and are activities that happen day to day or weekly
The six-step decision-making process?
Problem identification Data collection Solution generation Solution test Solution selection Solution implementation
Define the problem as clearly and percisely as possible
Primary goal of ____Gather problem related data including who what when where and why. Gather facts but not rumors/opinions
How to do : Solution Generation
Detail every solution possible, includin ideas that seem far fetched
How to do : Solution Test
evaluate the solutions in terms of feasibility, sutibility, and aceptibility amongst partners
How to do : Solution selection
select the best one
If the Solution Solves the problem then youre right if not, start from the drawring board
What happens at the Managerial Level:
at this level, employees are continuously evaluating company operations to hone the firms abilities to ID, adapt and leveage change. For ex, a company with a competitive adv, needs to constantly change and adjust to maintain its lead, adv in the industry.
_____ do Both longterm and short term activites such as scheduals, budgets, business obj, allocate resources, monitor sub units of the company – ___ ___ decisions: they occure in which a few established processes help to evaluate potential solutions, but not enough to lead a definite recommended decision
managers; Semi structured
At the Strategic Level, managers:
managers develop overall business strategies, goals and obj. as part as companies strategic plan. Also monitor strategic performance of the organization and its overall direction in the political, economic and competitive business enviorment.
_____ occuring situations in which no producers or rules exsist to guide decision makers twoard the correct choice. They are normally Long Term business strategies and very inportant and infrequent
A____ is a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service or result
Operational decision making –
Employees develop, control, and maintain core business activities required to run the day-to-day operations
Structured decisions –
Situations where established processes offer potential solutions
____ are measures that evaluate results to determine whether a project is meeting its goals. Two core ___ are:
Metrics, critical success factors, Key performance Indicators
____ are steps companies perform to achieve their goals and objectives and implement strategies
critical success factors
_____ are quantifiable metrics a company uses to evaluate progress toward critical success factors. They contain (2)
Key performance Indicators. 1External 2 Internal measurements
____ Measurement, ____ is the proportion of of a market a firm captures and how to find it
External; firms sales/by total market sales for entire industry, Market Share
_____ Measurements, __ __ __,: indicates the earning power of a project its found by ___/___, and Projects that go across departments are harder to measure
Internal Measurements, Return on Investment, Profitability/project costs, Ex A fire extinguishers never used ROI’s low while a fire estinguisher that prevents a factory burning down has a high ROI
are the most successful problem solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry
Efficiency MIS Metrics? Focuses?
measure the performance of MIS itself, such as throughput, transaction speed, and system availability. It Focuses on the extent to which firm is using its resources in an optimal way “doing things right-getting the most of each resource
Effectiveness MIS Metrics? Focuses?
measure the impact MIS has on business process and activities, including customer satisfaction/customer conversion rates. Effectiveness focuses on how well a firm is achieving its goals and obj. doing the right things-setting the right goals, obj. and make sure they are accomplished
baseline values a system tries to attain.
is the process if continuously measing system results, compaing thise results to its benchmark values (Optimal sys performance), and ID steps and procedures to improve sys performance
is a simplified representation or abstraction of reality. They help managers monitor risk, understand uncertantiy, change variables, and manipulate time managing materials to make futer business decisions
___ Support System deals with, Transactional Information, Online Transaction Processing (OLTP), and Transaction Processing System
encompasses all the information contained within a single business process or unit or of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performance of daily operational or structural decisions
Ex is created when customers are purchasing stocks, airline reserv., or withdrawing cash from ATM
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) is the ____ to ____ (3)
capture of transaction and event information using technology to: 1 process the information according to defined business rules2 store information 3update exsisting info to reflect the new info
Transaction Processing System
is the basic business system that serves operational level (analysts) and assistants in making structured decisions Ex:Payroll for payroll, source docs include time sheets, wage rates, and employee benefit reports.
^TPS, inputs are ____, original transaction records
source documents; for payroll, source docs include time sheets, wage rates, and employee benefit reports.
___is the updating of employee records
___ Support System Uses Analytical Information, ONline analytical Processing, and decision support systems.
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performance of managerial analysis or semistructured decisions Ex: trends, sales, product statistics, and future growth projection. used for semistructured decisions
Online analytical processing
manipulation of information to create business intelligence in support of strategic decision making.
decision support systems and its importance
model information using OLAP which provides assistance in evaluating and choosing among different courses of action. DSS lets high level managers manipulate large amounts of detailed data from internal and external sources; DSS is important for discovering patterns over thousands of data
4 Common DSS techniques
What if analysis sensitivity analysis goal seeking analysis optimization analysis
What if analysis? Frequency?
checks the impact of a change in a variable or assumption on the model. Ex: What would happen to our inventory if a hurricane came through florida and reduced our iventory from 30% to 10%. They constantly change the variables to get a better understanding of various situations
is a special case of what if analysis; it is the study of other variables when one variable is changed repeatedly. Useful for when users are uncertian about the assumptions made in estimating the values of certain key variables
Goal seeking analysis
finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal such as desired level of output
_____ It sets a target value (goal) for a variable and then repeatedly changes other variables until the target value is achieved
Goal seeking analysis ex how many customers need to purchase the product to achieve a 5 Mil dollar profit
an extension of goal seeking analysis finds the optimum value for a target variable by repeatedly changing other variables, subject to specific constraints. Ex by changing revenue and cost variables in an optimization analysis managers can calculate the highest potential profit, and also set sonstraints on cirtain variables to find out the max ammount of raw materials needed for production
Executive Information System
is a specialized Decsision Support Model that supports senior level executives and unstructured, long term, nonroutine decisons. there is no right or wrong decision and the higher you go up the pyramid the more meaningful aggregation of info is.
Granularity more of it =?
refers to the level of detail in the model or the decision making process. More granularity more detailed the data
___ is a common tool that supports visualizations which track KPIs and CSFs by compiling info from multiple sources and customizing it to the users needs. they allow employees move beyond reporting using info to directly increase business performance with the following capabilities (3)
Digital Dashboards: Consolidation, Drill Down, Slice and Dice
is the aggregation of data from simple rollups to complex groupings of interrelated info. for ex data for different sales representatives can then be rolled up to an office level to the state level, and so on
enables users to view detailes and details od details of info. Opposite of consolidation; a user can view from the higher levels and drill down to lower ones, State level to office level for ex. allows managers view monthly to even hourly info
Slice and Dice
is the ability to look at information from diff perspectives. One slice of information could display all product sales during a given promotion while another slice displays a single products sales for all promotions it is often preformed along a time axis to analyze trends and find time based patterns in the information
are various commercial applications of AI such as softwares and devices that emulate and enhance human capabilities, learn through experience, ect. pros: help produce productivity in factories
are computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solveing difficult problems. Typically they include a knowlege base containg various accumulated experience and set of rules for applying the knowlege for each situation
___ is mathmatical method of handling impercise or subjective info. The basic approach is to assign values between 0 and 1 to vague or ambiguous information.___ represents informaion not included.___ represents. inclusion or membership.
Fuzzy Logic; Zero; One
is an AI sys that mimics the evolutionary process to generate increasingly better solutions to a problem. A ___ ___ is essentially an optimizing system: it finds the combination of inputs that give the best outputs
is the process within a genetic algorithm of randomly trying combinations and evaluating the success of the outcome
is a special purpose knwlege based information sys that accomplishes specific tasks on behalf of its users. ___ ____ unually have a graphical representation. they handel a majority of a company’s internet searching buying and selling
is a software that will search several retailer websites and provide info on their goods prices and availability
is a computer simulated enviorment that can be a simulation of the real world or an imaginary world. it is fast growing area of AI that strides to make a realistic, multisensory human computer interfaces.
____ ___ enables telepressence in which people can work together from anywhere around the world. It typically revolves around a virtual reality sys to enhance human touch and sight of a human who is remotley manipulating quipment to accomplish a task.
is the viewing of the physical world with computer generated layers of information added to it
Customer Facing Process
result in a product/service recieved by an organizations external customer such as comm. w/ customers, fullfilling orders,
Business facing Process
is invisible to external customers but crucial to effective management. it itncludes goal setting, day to day planning, allocating resources, ect
Business process patent
a patent that protects certain business proceedures for an activity. firn can create a value chain map of the entire industry to extend critical sucess facts and business process views byond its boundaries
business processes such as manufacturing goods, selling products, and providing service, that make up the primary activites in a value chain
Business process modeling, or mapping:
is the activity of creating a detailed flowchard or process map of a work process that shows its inputs, tasks and activities in a structured sequence
__ ___ ___ is a graphic description of a process showing the sequence of process tasks, which is developed for a specific purpose and froma selected viewpoint
A business process model
As Is Models represent ____ next step it to ___ and are meant to be simple.
the current state of the operation that has been mapped, without any specific improvements or changes to exsisting processes ; next steop is the to display how the process problem will be solved or implimented
To be process models
show the results of applying change improvement to the current as is model. purpose is for compleat understanding of the process before the solution is applied
layout arranges the steps of a business process into a sew of rows depicting the various elements
_____ includes the tasks, activities, and responsibilities required to execute each step in a business process. Understanding _____, customers expectations, and ect, allow managers to design better/ evaluate alternative business processes to maintain business adv when internal or external circumstances change
Business process improvement
attempts to understanf and measure the current process and make performance improvements accordingly
is the process of computerizing manual tasks, making them more efficient and efective, and and dramatically lower operational costs by increasing the speed of preforming activities.
improves business process efficiencies by simplifyingor eliminating unncecisary steps
occure when resources reach full capacity and cannot handel any additional demands; they limit throughput and impede operations
occures when a task or activity is unneccessarily repeated
Automating a business process that contains bottlenecks or redundancies will magnify or amplify these problems if they are not correct at first. Reducing ___ ___ req to process an order, is a common KPI for operations management. Rush and custom orders tend to create bottlenecks causing operations to fall below benchmarks. cycle time
____ ___ ___ ___ focus on evaluating and improving processes that include person to person workflow and sys to sys communication. It is a way to build, monitor aoutomated processes that span organizational boundriesand make things more efficient by:(3)
Business process management systems; 1Bringing processes, ppl, and info together 2 Break down barriers btween business areas and finding ‘owners for the process’ 3Managing front/back office processes
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