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Ch.4 Computer Concepts

During a typical computing session, your computer might run an average of 50 processes.
TRUE
In the GUI shown in the accompanying figure there are two application windows: calculator and word processor.
TRUE
A button allows you to select one item from several options.
FALSE
During the boot process, RAM is loaded into the operating system kernel.
FALSE
The sequence of events that occurs between the time that you turn on a computer and the time that it is ready for you to issue commands is referred to as the boot process.
TRUE
Today’s Windows operating systems do not require a kernel that accesses DOS.
TRUE
One of the primary strengths of Windows is security.
FALSE
Microsoft Windows suffers from the reputation for being the most vulnerable to viruses, worms, and other attacks.
TRUE
In a dual boot system, to change operating systems, you have to reboot.
TRUE
A General Purpose License, or GPL, allows anyone to make copies for their own use or to give or sell to others.
TRUE
A root directory can be subdivided into smaller lists.
TRUE
When you use Windows, Mac OS, or a Linux graphical file manager, each subdirectory is depicted as a folder.
TRUE
Folders cannot be created within other folders.
FALSE
A file extension is always the same as a file format.
FALSE
To be certain a file can be opened by the recipient, simply save it as an .exe; then anyone can open it.
FALSE
Often file management is represented by a tree metaphor.
TRUE
File management utilities usually retain the files within a folder when that folder is deleted.
FALSE
Viruses can damage files to the point that your computer can’t access any data on its hard disk.
TRUE
With remote backups, the speed for backing up and restoring data is independent of the speed of your Internet connection.
FALSE
Some systems streamline the backup process by restoring a computer’s operating system, device drivers, settings, and data in a single step – a process called restore pointing.
FALSE
A(n) ____ system is a type of system software that acts as the master controller for all activities that take place within a computer system.
operating
A command to print a document is relayed through various levels of ____.
software
The operating system, application software, and ____ are organized similar to the chain of command in an army.
device drivers
All of the following are examples of resources EXCEPT ____.
All of the above are resources
Activities associated with resource management by an operating system include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
installing new memory
____ provides process and memory management services that allow two or more tasks, jobs, or programs to run simultaneously.
Multitasking
Within a single program, ____ allows multiple parts to run simultaneously.
multithreading
An operating system’s ____ capability supports a division of labor among all the processing units.
multiprocessing
The term ____ is a technical term for the region of memory that holds data waiting to be transferred from one device to another.
buffer
At the upper-right corner of the accompanying figure, the object labeled “Macintosh HD” is an example of a(n) ____.
icon
In the accompanying figure, the word “Calculator” appears in ____.
an Application window
In the accompanying figure, the icons at the bottom of the screen appear in the ____.
dock
In the accompanying figure, “Untitled” Word Document appears in a(n) ____.
application window
A ____ is an additional set of commands that the computer displays after you make a selection from the main menu.
submenu
A ____ displays the options associated with a command.
dialog box
Microsoft Windows is installed on more than ____ of the world’s personal computers.
80%
Through many editions, the Windows user interface was characterized by a colorful Start button in the ____ corner of the screen.
lower-left
The strengths of Microsoft Windows include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
reliability
The number and variety of programs that run on ____ are unmatched by any other operating system.
Windows
The strengths of Mac OS do NOT include ____.
its use of resource forks
VMWare and Parallels Desktop software are examples of ____.
virutal machine software
Weaknesses of Mac OS include ____.
limited selection of applications
Files maintained by the Macintosh operating system can have two parts, called ____.
forks
In the Mac OS, the data ____ contains data or the commands for a program.
fork
In the Mac OS, the resource ____ stores information about the data.
fork
The operating system that was developed in 1969 by AT&T’s Bell Labs and gained a good reputation for its dependability is ____.
UNIX
____ was developed by a Finnish student. It continues to gain popularity as an operating system for personal computers. It is distributed under the terms of a GPL.
LINUX
A Linux ____ contains the Linux kernel, system utilities, GUI, applications, and installation routine.
distribution
The significance of ____ data is that it cannot be intercepted by corporate spies or government censors.
encrypted
RIM is the ____ company that developed the BlackBerry smartphone.
Canadian
Current versions of Windows support file names up to ____ characters long.
255
An optional file identifier that is separated from a main file name by a period is a ____.
file extension
The main directory maintained by your computer’s operating system is the ____ directory.
root
A computer file’s location is defined by a ____.
file specification
In the accompanying figure, C: is an example of a(n) ____.
drive
In the accompanying figure, Music is an example of a ____.
primary folder
n the accompanying figure, Reggae is an example of a ____.
secondary folder
In the accompanying figure, Marley One Love is an example of a ____.
file name
In the accompanying figure, mp3 is an example of a ____.
file extension
An extension of .sys designates a ____ type of file.
configuration
An extension of .ocx designates a ____ type of file.
support
An extension of .wav designates a ____ type of file.
sound
File management capabilities available from application software include ____ files.
all of the above
A file ____, in the context of Windows, is a piece of information that describes a file.
tag
The difference between the Save and the Save As commands is that ____.
all of the above
The accompanying figure is an example of a(n) ____ utility.
file management
Utilities, like the one shown in the accompanying figure, often use some sort of storage metaphor to help you visualize and mentally organize the files on your disks. The metaphors are called ____ storage models.
logical
Using Microsoft Windows products, like the one in the accompanying figure, to select files and folders which are not listed consecutively, ____.
click on each file while holding down the Ctrl key
Using Microsoft Windows products, like the one in the accompanying figure, to select files and folders which are listed consecutively, ____.
click on the first and last file while holding down the Shift key
A description of what actually happens on the disk and in the circuits is represented by a ____.
physical storage model
Most hard disks are formatted by the ____.
factory
____ is the process of creating a CD, DVD, or BD by selecting all the files and then copying them in a single session.
Disc mastering
In relation to disks, ____ is a recording technology that lets you record in multiple sessions.
packet writing
A group of sectors is called a ____.
cluster
The file system used by Mac OS is ____.
HFS+
The file system used by Windows 8 is ____.
NTFS
The file system used by Windows Vista is ____.
NTFS
To delete data from a disk in such a way that no one can ever read it, you should ____.
use special file shredder software
Files stored in noncontiguous clusters are ____.
fragmented
If your backups are ____, keep them in a safe place.
local
Web sites that offer storage space for backups are called ____ backup services.
online
An easy way to back up your important data is simply by copying selected files to a ____.
USB flash drive
You should consider making backups of your ____.
all of the above
____ compares the content of files on two devices and makes them the same.
Synchronization
A(n) ____ system backup includes a copy of every file stored on your computer’s hard drive. In addition to data files, it includes copies of all installed programs, settings, and the operating system.
full
A(n) ____ backup contains any files that were added or changed since the last full backup.
differential
A(n) ____ backup makes a copy of only those files that were added or changed since your last backup.
incremental
A(n) ____ disk is a bootable CD, DVD, or other media that contains a complete copy of your computer’s hard disk as it existed when the computer was new.
recovery
A disk ____ is a bit-by-bit copy of the data from all sectors of a disk.
image
One file storage metaphor that is based on a hierarchical diagram is sometimes referred to as a ____ structure.
tree

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