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Ch.5 Marketing exam practice questions

D
_____ is never simple, yet understanding it is the essential task of marketing management.
A) Brand personality
B) Consumption pioneering
C) Early adoption
D) Consumer buying behavior
E) Understanding the difference between primary and secondary data
D
The consumer market is made up of which of the following?
A) individuals who acquire goods or services for personal consumption
B) households that purchase goods or services for personal consumption
C) businesses that purchase goods and services
D) A and B
E) all of the above
D
Of the following, the best starting point to understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is the ________ model of a buyer’s behavior.
A) belief
B) subculture
C) generational
D) stimulus-response
E) societal
B
Marketing stimuli consist of the four Ps. Which is NOT one of these Ps?
A) product
B) politics
C) price
D) promotion
E) place
B
Economic, technological, and cultural forces are all ________ in the stimulus-response model of buyer behavior.
A) buyer responses
B) stimuli
C) components of the buyer’s decision process
D) buyer characteristics
E) buying attitudes
D
In the model of buyer behavior, which of the following is NOT a major type of force or event in the buyer’s environment?
A) economic
B) technological
C) political
D) channels
E) cultural
B
The marketer wants to understand how the stimuli are changed into responses inside the consumer’s ________, which has two parts: the buyer’s characteristics that influence how he or she perceives and reacts to the stimuli and the buyer’s decision process itself.
A) culture
B) black box
C) belief
D) lifestyle
E) social class
A
________ is(are) the most basic cause(s) of a person’s wants and behavior.
A) Culture
B) Brand personality
C) Cognitive dissonance
D) Social factors
E) Selective perception
B
It is most accurate to say that marketers are always trying to spot ________ in order to discover new products that might be wanted.
A) lifestyles
B) cultural shifts
C) groups
D) dissonance
E) attitudes
C
Each culture contains smaller ________, or groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
A) alternative evaluations
B) cognitive dissonances
C) subcultures
D) social classes
E) occupations
D
Which of the following do marketers NOT consider as an important American subculture?
A) Hispanics
B) African Americans
C) mature consumers
D) opinion leaders
E) Asian Americans
A
This group of consumers tends to buy more branded, higher-quality products. and to make shopping a family event, with children having a big say in the purchase decision. In general, they are very brand loyal, and they favor companies who show special interest in them.
A) Hispanic
B) African American
C) Asian
D) mature
E) gay and lesbian
B
________, the fastest-growing U.S. demographic segment, now number more than 46 million.
A) African Americans
B) Hispanics
C) Asian Americans
D) Mature consumers
E) Gays and lesbians
B
Although more price-conscious than other segments, ________ consumers tend to be strongly motivated by quality and selection. Brands are important. They enjoy shopping and are more fashion conscious than other ethnic groups.
A) Hispanic
B) African American
C) mature
D) Asian
E) baby boomer
C
________, the most affluent U.S. demographic subculture, now have more than $450 billion in annual spending power.
A) African Americans
B) Hispanics
C) Asian Americans
D) Gen Xers
E) Gays and lesbians
D
Which of the following is NOT true of mature consumers?
A) The best strategy is to appeal to their active, multidimensional lives.
B) They are an ideal market for “do-it-for-me” services.
C) High-tech home entertainment products appeal to them.
D) They place more importance on brand names and are more brand loyal than members of other age groups are.
E) They are good candidates for cosmetics and personal care products.
A
________ are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
A) Social classes
B) Cultures
C) Reference groups
D) Attitudes
E) Lifestyles
D
What is one way that social class is NOT measured?
A) occupation
B) education
C) income
D) number of children in the family
E) house type
C
Which statement is true regarding social class in the United States?
A) Social class is determined primarily by income level.
B) Lines between social classes in the United States are fixed and rigid.
C) Social classes show distinct product preferences in clothing and automobiles.
D) Wealth is more critical than education level in measuring social class.
E) People are relegated to a permanent class layer in the United States.
B
Family is one of the ________ factors that influence consumer behavior.
A) cultural
B) social
C) personal
D) psychological
E) business
B
________ are groups to which an individual wishes to belong, as when a teenage basketball player hopes to play someday for the Los Angeles Lakers.
A) Membership groups
B) Aspirational groups
C) Leading adopter groups
D) Leisure groups
E) Social class groups
A
________ are people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exert influence on others.
A) Opinion leaders
B) Habitual buyers
C) Social networkers
D) Stealth marketers
E) Buzz marketers
A
Opinion leaders are sometimes referred to as ________.
A) the influentials
B) the upper class
C) the middle class
D) buzz marketers
E) networkers
B
Many companies, such as JetBlue and Sony, enlist everyday consumers who are enthusiastic about their brands to become ________ who share their passion for a company’s products with large circles of friends and acquaintances in return for insider knowledge and other rewards.
A) early adopters
B) brand ambassadors
C) direct marketers
D) direct sellers
E) aspirational consumers
C
Companies who use brand ambassadors are participating in ________.
A) opinion leading
B) traditional marketing
C) buzz marketing
D) direct marketing
E) values marketing
C
Facebook.com and YouTube are examples of ________.
A) buzz marketing
B) opinion leaders
C) social networks
D) virtual worlds
E) early adopters
A
________ is the most important consumer buying organization in society; the roles and influences of different members have been researched extensively.
A) Family
B) Social class
C) Membership group
D) Subculture
E) Reference group
B
A ________ consists of the activities people are expected to perform according to the persons around them.
A) motive
B) role
C) lifestyle
D) life-cycle
E) tradition
A
A buyer’s decisions are influenced by ________ such as the buyer’s age and life-cycle stage, occupation, economic situation, lifestyle, and personality and self-concept.
A) personal characteristics
B) reference groups
C) perceptions
D) attitudes
E) psychographics
C
People change the goods and services they buy over time because of the two changing factors of ________.
A) belief and attitude
B) perception and personality
C) age and life-cycle stage
D) groups and learning
E) family and tradition
C
________ is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics, including his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
A) Personality
B) Culture
C) Lifestyle
D) Motive
E) Social class
C
All of the following make up a person’s lifestyle EXCEPT ________.
A) AIO dimensions
B) interests
C) dissonance-reducing buying behavior
D) opinions
E) work
A
A customer’s lifestyle can be measured using the AIO dimensions. What does AIO stand for?
A) Activities, Interests, Opinions
B) Achievement, Involvement, Organizations
C) Accommodation, Investment, Orientation
D) Acknowledgement, Interests, Observations
E) Adoptions, Interests, Occupations
D
________ refers to the unique psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and lasting responses to one’s own environment. It is usually described in traits such as self-confidence, dominance, sociability, autonomy, defensiveness, adaptability, and aggressiveness.
A) Alternative evaluations
B) Belief
C) Culture
D) Personality
E) Self-awareness
C
Researchers found that a number of well-known brands tended to be strongly associated with one particular trait, such as Jeep with “ruggedness.” Which of the following terms would a marketer use to describe a specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand?
A) brand perception
B) product image
C) brand personality
D) new product
E) brand equity
E
Brand personality is a mix of human traits attributed to a brand. Which of the following is NOT one of the five brand personality traits discussed in your text?
A) sincerity
B) excitement
C) competence
D) sophistication
E) emotion
C
A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors. Which is NOT one of these factors?
A) motivation
B) perception
C) alternative evaluation
D) learning
E) beliefs
B
A ________ is a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct a person to seek satisfaction.
A) stimulus
B) motive
C) culture
D) perception
E) tradition
A
According to Freud’s theories, people are ________ many of the psychological forces shaping their behavior.
A) unaware of
B) unsure of
C) aware of
D) status-driven about
E) socially conscious of
C
The term ________ refers to qualitative research designed to probe consumers’ hidden, subconscious motivations.
A) perception analysis
B) neuromarketing research
C) motivation research
D) need recognition investigation
E) depth research technique
D
Maslow’s theory is that ________ can be arranged in a hierarchy.
A) stimuli
B) beliefs and attitudes
C) perceptions
D) human needs
E) decisions
C
Which of the following is NOT part of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
A) physiological needs
B) safety needs
C) stimulus needs
D) self-actualization needs
E) social needs
D
What is the LEAST pressing in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs?
A) physiological needs
B) social needs
C) esteem needs
D) self-actualization needs
E) safety needs
B
________ is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
A) Personality
B) Perception
C) Selective grouping
D) Learning
E) Self-actualization
D
People cannot focus on all of the stimuli that surround them each day. A person’s tendency to screen out most of the information to which he or she is exposed is called ________.
A) selective retention
B) selective distortion
C) selective attitude
D) selective attention
E) selective perception
B
People tend to interpret new information in a way that will support what they already believe. This is called ________.
A) selective retention
B) selective distortion
C) selective attitude
D) selective learning
E) selective perception
A
People forget much that they learn. They tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. This is called ________.
A) selective retention
B) selective distortion
C) selective attitude
D) selective attention
E) perceptual vigilance
B
Some consumers worry that they will be affected by marketing messages without even knowing it. They are concerned about ________ advertising.
A) alternative evaluation
B) subliminal
C) perceptual
D) innovative
E) comparative
B
________ describes changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.
A) Lifestyle
B) Learning
C) Perception
D) Cognitive dissonance
E) Aggressiveness
D
Learning occurs through the interplay of all of the following EXCEPT ________.
A) drives
B) stimuli
C) cues
D) dissonance behavior
E) reinforcement
A
________ are subtle stimuli that influence where, when, and how a person responds to an idea.
A) Cues
B) Drives
C) Messages
D) Personalities
E) Impulses
C
Applying ________, marketers can affect demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement.
A) subliminal advertising
B) social classes
C) learning theory
D) need recognition
E) cognitive dissonance
C
A(n) ________ is a descriptive thought that a person has about something.
A) lifestyle
B) motive
C) belief
D) attitude
E) perception
D
A(n) ________ is a person’s relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
A) lifestyle
B) motive
C) belief
D) attitude
E) perception
C
The buyer decision process consists of five stages. Which of the following is NOT one of these stages?
A) need recognition
B) information search
C) variety-seeking buying behavior
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
A
The buying process starts with ________, in which the buyer recognizes a problem or need.
A) need recognition
B) information search
C) evaluation of alternatives
D) purchase decision
E) separation of needs and wants
D
If the consumer’s drive is strong and a satisfying product is near at hand, the consumer is likely to buy it then. If not, the consumer may store the need in memory or undertake a(n) ________.
A) brand personality
B) alternative evaluation
C) postpurchase behavior
D) information search
E) product adoption
D
The information sources that are most effective at influencing a consumer’s purchase decision are ________. These sources legitimize or evaluate products for the buyer.
A) commercial
B) public
C) experimental
D) personal
E) social
A
Marketers describe the way the consumer processes information to arrive at brand choices as ________.
A) alternative evaluation
B) information search
C) purchase decision
D) situational factors
E) post-purchase dissonance
B
Generally, the consumer’s purchase decision will be to buy the most preferred brand, but two factors can come between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. Which of the following is one of these factors?
A) postpurchase behavior
B) attitude of others
C) cognitive dissonance
D) alternative evaluation
E) new product adoption
C
After purchasing a product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied and will engage in ________.
A) need recognition
B) alternative evaluation
C) postpurchase behavior
D) product expectations
E) information searches
A
The relationship between the consumer’s expectations and the product’s ________ determines whether the buyer is satisfied or dissatisfied with a purchase.
A) perceived performance
B) brand personality
C) recognition
D) consumer market
E) service quality
B
Almost all major purchases result in ________, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
A) need recognition
B) cognitive dissonance
C) purchase decisions
D) legitimization
E) dissatisfaction
B
Consumers learn about new products for the first time and make the decision to buy them during the ________.
A) new product recognition
B) adoption process
C) evaluation process
D) information search
E) quality assessment
C
Relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, divisibility, and communicability are all examples of ________.
A) alternative evaluation
B) dissonance-reducing buying behavior
C) product characteristics that influence rate of adoption
D) individual differences in innovativeness
E) postpurchase behavior
C
As compared to consumer markets, business markets are ________.
A) approximately the same
B) smaller
C) huge
D) somewhat larger
E) less complex
A
Which of the following is NOT a way that business and consumer markets differ?
A) satisfaction of needs through purchases
B) market structure and demand
C) nature of the buying unit
D) types of decisions
E) decision process
A
Large business purchasers usually call for detailed product specifications, written purchase orders, careful supplier searches, and formal approval. These are all examples of how the business buying decision process is more ________ than the consumer buying decision process is.
A) formalized
B) creative
C) relationship-oriented
D) independent
E) concentrated
C
Which business buying situation is the marketer’s greatest opportunity and challenge?
A) modified rebuy
B) straight rebuy
C) new task
D) multiple rebuys
E) system rebuy
E
Marketers call the decision-making unit of a buying organization the ________.
A) business buyer
B) business-to-business market
C) supplier-development center
D) buying system
E) buying center
E
Which of the following statements about buying centers is true?
A) The buying center is like a standing committee.
B) The buying center roles are specified on the organizational chart.
C) The typical buying center has five employees, one to assume each of the buying center’s roles.
D) An individual’s role in the buying center does not change.
E) The buying center may involve informal participants who are not obvious to sellers.
D
The first step of the business buying process is ________.
A) general need description
B) supplier search
C) proposal solicitation
D) problem recognition
E) order-routine specification
B
During which stage of the business buying process is a buyer most likely to conduct value analysis, carefully studying components to determine if they can be redesigned, standardized, or made less expensive?
A) general need recognition
B) product specification
C) proposal solicitation
D) order-routine specification
E) performance review
E
Reverse auctions, trading exchanges, and company buying sites are all ways that companies can participate in ________.
A) secure extranets
B) product value analysis
C) vendor-managed inventory systems
D) systems selling
E) e-procurement
A
A problem with the rapidly expanding use of e-purchasing is that it ________.
A) can erode established customer-supplier relationships
B) saves less time than expected
C) generates more transactions to document
D) generates less cost savings than predicted
E) reduces the amount of time purchasing people can spend on strategic issues
F
The starting point of understanding how consumers respond to various marketing efforts is called the marketing-stimulus model of buyer behavior.
F
Each social class contains groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
F
Younger consumers are better off financially than mature consumers. They are the ideal market for travel, restaurants, high-tech home entertainment products, and leisure goods and services.
F
Subcultures are society’s relatively permanent and ordered divisions whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
T
Online social networks represent an important form of buzz for marketers.
F
Children exert little influence on family buying decisions, particularly in areas such as entertainment and food.
F
Personality is a person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her psychographics.
T
A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors: motivation, perception, learning, and beliefs and attitudes.
T
Maslow’s theory is that human needs–including physiological, safety, social needs, esteem, and self-actualization needs–are arranged in a hierarchy and that an unsatisfied need motivates an individual to take action to satisfy it.
F
Alternative evaluation is the process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
F
A belief is the specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand.
T
Consumers do not use a simple and single alternative evaluation process in all buying situations.
T
After purchasing the product, the consumer will be satisfied or dissatisfied and will engage in postpurchase behavior.
T
Almost all major purchases result in cognitive dissonance, or discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
F
When a consumer learns about a new product for the first time and makes a decision to try it, the consumer is engaged in the alternative evaluation process.
F
People differ greatly in their readiness to try new products. In each product area, there are “consumption pioneers.” They are also called laggards.
T
Early adopters are opinion leaders in their communities and adopt new ideas early but carefully.
T
Members of the early majority are deliberate; although they rarely are leaders, they adopt new ideas before the average person.
F
The late majorities are tradition bound; they adopt an innovation only when it has become something of a tradition itself.
F
In general, innovators tend to be relatively older, more mature, and have a lower income than late adopters.
F
Ed purchases new technological devices such as PDAs, DVRs, and MP3 players after many people he knows already own the devices. However, Ed is rarely among the last people he knows to purchase a new technology. Ed is part of the laggard adopter group.
T
Two characteristics that are especially important in influencing an innovation’s rate of adoption are relative advantage and compatibility.
F
One set of business purchases is made for each set of consumer purchases.
T
Buyer and seller are less dependent upon each other in the business buying process than in the consumer buying process.
F
Buyer and seller are less dependent upon each other in the business buying process than in the consumer buying process.
F
Of the different types of buying situations, the modified rebuy presents the fewest decisions for a business buyer to make.
T
The buying center is not a fixed or formally identified unit within an organization.
T
Environmental, organizational, interpersonal, and individual factors all influence business buyer behavior.
F
In the supplier search stage of the business buying process, the buyer ranks the importance of reliability, price, and other desired characteristics in the product.
T
The benefits of e-procurement include access to new suppliers, lower purchasing costs, and more time-efficient order processing and delivery.
A
Generation Xers, who were born between 1965 and 1976, share the childhood experiences of higher parental divorce rates, recession, and corporate downsizing. They tend to care about the environment and value experience over acquisition. Generation Xers make up a ________.
A) subculture
B) social class
C) social network
D) life-cycle stage
E) lifestyle
C
Rashmi Singh always knows about the trendiest fashions. She actively shares her knowledge with a wide group of friends and colleagues about where to shop for cutting-edge fashion at great deals, and her advice is often followed. Rashmi is an example of a(n) ________.
A) membership group
B) innovator
C) opinion leader
D) buzz marketer
E) experiential source
B
A shoe company uses ads featuring the members of a country music band with the hope that the band’s fans will see them wearing the company’s shoes and want to wear the same shoes. The shoe company is hoping that fans of the band view the band as a ________.
A) membership group
B) reference group
C) brand personality
D) subculture
E) lifestyle
C
There is a trend in the United States toward rediscovering the flavor of regional cooking and the use of locally grown ingredients. People are choosing to spend hours in the kitchen using only the freshest ingredients to recreate local culinary traditions. This change in ________ is one of the reasons the number of farmers markets in the United States has increased by 70 percent in the last eight years.
A) life-cycle stage
B) subculture
C) lifestyle
D) personality
E) life cycle
B
A marketing research company asked members of a focus group to describe several motorcycle brands as animals. This is an example of ________.
A) hierarchical need analysis
B) interpretive consumer research
C) status influence
D) buzz marketing
E) information search
D
Bob’s job description had been changed. The rationale for the changes made no sense to Bob when they were explained. Bob continued to perform most of his job duties as usual. He has engaged in ________.
A) selective distortion
B) selective attitude
C) selective interpretation
D) selective attention
E) perceptual defense
A
Stephanie and Jamal attended a sales seminar. Both left the seminar with differing opinions about what was important to implement in their jobs. Both used the information in different ways, according to what each already believed was important. They have engaged in ________.
A) selective distortion
B) selective attitude
C) selective retention
D) selective attention
E) perceptual defense
C
Juana looked at her September issue of O magazine and did not see anything of interest. After her mother was diagnosed with bipolar disorder, she found the issue extremely interesting because it offered advice on how to help people who are suffering from this problem. The September issue of the magazine became quite interesting to Juana due to ________.
A) subliminal messaging
B) social factors
C) selective attention
D) the hierarchy of needs
E) unconscious motivations
D
Donna wants to buy a new coat. During the ________ stage of her purchase process she asked her friends to recommend a store and/or a style of coat. She searched the newspaper for coat sales, and she visited nearby stores to see what is available in her price range.
A) product evaluation
B) alternative evaluation
C) need recognition
D) information search
E) purchase decision
B
Blake is in the process of buying a new car. He is highly involved in the purchase and perceives significant differences among his three favorite models. Blake’s next step is most likely to be ________.
A) postpurchase behavior
B) evaluation of alternatives
C) opinion leadership
D) cognitive dissonance
E) purchase decision
E
Leona purchased two bottles of wine from vineyards in Australia. When asked her opinion of the wine, she said the burgundy wine tasted like alcoholic grape juice, but the Chablis had a crisp taste that she really enjoyed. These statements were made during the ________ stage of the purchase decision.
A) information search
B) situational analysis
C) alternative evaluation
D) purchase decision
E) postpurchase behavior
C
Bill thought he had received the best deal on his new car. Shortly after the purchase, Bill started to notice certain disadvantages of his new car as he learned more about other cars available. Bill is experiencing ________.
A) postpurchase culture
B) selective perception
C) cognitive dissonance
D) purchase decision
E) information evaluation
A
Cameron loves to know about and purchase the most up-to-date technological gadgets. Among his friends, he is almost always the first to own the newest electronic product. Often the products that Cameron buys become adopted by large groups of consumers, but occasionally Cameron will purchase a product that is adopted by only a small portion of the population. To which of the following adopter groups does Cameron belong?
A) innovator
B) early adopter
C) early majority
D) late majority
E) laggards
C
Which of the following is NOT part of the business market?
A) Scott Sign Systems sells interior signs to an Alabama resort.
B) A municipal government buys chemicals for its city swimming pools.
C) Sue buys a gift for her mother.
D) A Canadian software company buys airplane tickets to send a group of salespeople to make a presentation to a heavy equipment manufacturer in Japan.
E) Airmark sells a vinyl printing press to a manufacturer of plastic bags.
B
Kroger buys a lot of cranberry products at Christmas due to high consumer demand. This is an example of ________ demand.
A) joint
B) derived
C) elastic
D) fluctuating
E) inelastic
C
You regularly purchase cleaning supplies for your custodial staff, using the same vendor and ordering relatively consistent amounts of the same products with each purchase. This is an example of a ________ situation.
A) modified rebuy
B) new task
C) straight rebuy
D) solution selling
E) value analysis
A
You call in a department manager to assist in a purchase of industrial equipment. You are considering a change in product specifications, terms, and possibly suppliers. This is most likely a ________ situation.
A) modified rebuy
B) new task
C) straight rebuy
D) solution selling
E) value analysis
A
Worthington Farm raises chickens. For years, it has used wooden coops for hauling its poultry to market. When Bob Worthington went to reuse some of his coops, he noticed many of them could not be sufficiently cleaned for reuse and needed to be replaced. Worthington was at which stage of the business buying process when he decided to replace his old coops?
A) problem recognition
B) general need description
C) product specification
D) product value analysis
E) performance review
C
John Herr’s company has standardized the size of its paper bags so that each bag can be used in five to seven different store departments. This approach to cost reduction likely took place in the ________ stage of the business buying process.
A) problem recognition
B) general need description
C) product specification
D) supplier search
E) proposal solicitation
A
Pace Hardware uses Learningnow.com to improve sales force effectiveness and facilitate sharing of expertise. It allows Pace retailers to link with other Pace retailers to ask for managerial and marketing advice. It also allows Pace retailers to ask their suppliers about product usage, deliveries, and warranties, and it allows suppliers to send new-product information directly to Pace retailers. In this scenario, Pace Hardware is using a(n) ________.
A) extranet
B) intranet
C) search engine
D) trading exchange
E) reverse auction

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