a production facility organized around processes to facilitate low-volume, high variety production. The vast majority of global production is devoted to making low-volume, high-variety products in places called “job shops.” Such facilities are organized around specific activities or processes. In a factory, theses might be departments devoted to welding, grinding, and painting. In a restaurant, they might be bar, grill, and bakery. Such facilities are process focused in terms of equipment, layout, and supervision.
A product-oriented production process that uses modules. The repetitive process line is the classic assembly line. Widely used in the assembly of virtually all automobiles and household appliances, it has more structure and consequently less flexibility than a process-focused facility. Fast-food firms are an example of a repetitive process using modules (parts or components of a product previously prepared, often in a continuous process).
High-volume, low-variety processes. The facilities are organized around products. Also called continuous processes, because they have very long, continuous production runs. Products such as glass, paper, tin sheets, light bulbs, beer, and bolts are made via a continuous process.
Mass customization focus
: rapid, low costs production that caters to constantly changing unique customer desires. It is not just about variety, it is about making precisely what the customer wants when the customer wants it economically.
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