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Ch. 9 MIS

Systems development life cycle (SDLC)
The overall process for developing information systems from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
Legacy system
old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of tis useful life within an organization.
Conversion
the process of transferring information from legacy system to a new system.
software customization
modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements.
Off the shelf application software
supports general business processes and does not require any specific software customization
Planning Phase
1 of 7 SDLC phases Establishes a high-level plan of the intended project and determines project goals
Change agent
person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes.
brainstorming
technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted
project
temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
project management
the application of knowledge skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
project manager
individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure the project is completed on time and on budget.
project scope
describes the business need and the justification, requirements, and current boundaries for the project
project plan
formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project.
Analysis Phase
2 of 7 phases of the SDLC that Involves analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations of the intended system
Business requirements
the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful.
requirements management
the process of managing changes to the business requirements throughout the project
requirements definition document
prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
sign off
the users’ actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
Design phase
3 of 7 phases of the SDLC that Establishes descriptions of the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
Development Phase
4 of 7 phases of the SDLC that Involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
software engineering
is a disciplined approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods, techniques, or tools.
Computer aided software engineering (CASE)
provide automated support for the development of the system
control objects for information and related technology (COBIT)
set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors.
Object oriented languages
group data and corresponding processes into objects.
Fourth generation languages
programming languages that look similar to human languages.
Testing Phase
5 of 7 phase of the SDLC that Involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to eliminate errors and bugs, and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
Bugs
defects in the code of an information system.
Test conditions
detail the steps the system must perform along with the expected result of each step.
Implementation Phase
6 of 7 Phases of the SDLC that Involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with it
user documentation
is created that highlights how to use the system and how to troubleshoot issues or problems.
online training
runs over the internet or on a CD or DVD, and employees complete the training on their own time.
Workshop training
is held in a classroom environment and led by an instructor
help desk
group of people who respond to users’ questions
Maintenance phase
7 of 7 phases of the SDLC that Involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet its business goals
corrective maintenance
makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues.
preventive maintenance
makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure.
methodology
a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges.
Waterfall methodology
A sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
prototyping
modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system.
Discovery prototyping
Builds a small scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements.
Iterative development
Consists of a series of tiny projects. foundation of multiple agile methodologies.
Agile methodology
Aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
Rapid application development methodology
1 of 4 primary forms of agile methodology. Emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process
Extreme programming methodology
2 of 4 primary forms of Agile methodology. Breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
Rational unified process methodology
3 of 4 primary forms of Agile methodology. Provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates:Inception Elaboration Construction Transition
SCRUM Methodology
Uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
Primary reasons for project failure
Unclear or missing business requirements
Skipping SDLC phases
Failure to manage project scope
Scope creep
Feature creep
Failure to manage project plan
Changing technology
Tangible benefits
easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success of failure of a project.
intangible benefits
difficult to quantify or measure
Feasibility
the measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system.
Kill switch
a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion.
Project stakeholder
Individuals and organizations actively involved in the project or whose interests might be affected as a result of project execution or project completion
Executive sponsor
The person or group who provides the financial resources for the project
Project charter
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities and includes
Project scope statement
Project objectives
Project constraints
Projects assumptions
SMART
criteria are useful reminders on how to ensure that the project has created understandable and measurable objectives
PERT chart
graphical network model that depicts a project’s tasks and the relationships between them.
dependency
is a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and milestone
critical path
estimates the shortest path through the project ensuring all critical tasks are completed from start to finish.
Gantt Chart
simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project’s time frame listed horizontally.
In-sourcing (in-house-development
Uses the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain its information technology systems
Outsourcing
An arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
Onshore outsourcing
engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing
contracting an outsourcing arrangement within a company in a nearby country.
offshore outsourcing
using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems. Geographically far away.

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