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CH4

Self
the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person.
I
one’s sense of agency, action, or power.
Socialization
the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society.
Me
the self as perceived as an object by the “I”; as the self as one imagines others perceive one.
Other
someone or something outside of oneself.
Generalized other
an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings—regardless of whether we’ve encountered those people or places before.
Resocialization
the process by which one’s sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution.
Total institution
an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority.
Status
a recognizable social position that an individual occupies.
Role
the duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a particular status.
Role strain
the incompatibility among roles corresponding to a single status.
Role conflict
the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses.
Status set
all the statuses one holds simultaneously.
Ascribed status
a status into which one is born; involuntary status.
Achieved status
a status into which one enters; voluntary status.
Master status
one status within a set that stands out or overrides all others.
Gender roles
sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one’s status as a male or female.
Symbolic interactionism
a micro-level theory in which shared meanings, orientations, and assumptions form the basic motivations behind people’s actions.
Dramaturgical theory
the view of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes, and sets.
Face
the esteem in which an individual is held by others.
Ethnomethodology
literally “the methods of the people,” this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order.
If we place nature and nurture at opposite ends on a continuum, most sociologists would fall toward the nurture end of the continuum. Which statement best explains this tendency?
Sociologists focus on, and as a result give primary weight to, the social environment in explaining how people think, feel, and behave.
Mead would probably argue that if your four-year-old daughter picks her nose and keeps pulling up her dress while you are out at a fancy restaurant, it is because she:
has not internalized the generalized other.
Your professor drank too much over the weekend and tripped and sprained his ankle. When asked about his injury in class the next day, the professor replied, “I sprained my ankle playing soccer with the kids.” This is an example of:
saving face
Janet has a paper due in her English class, a test in her psychology class, and field notes due in her anthropology class this week. On top of it all, she needs to meet with her advisor to plan out classes for next semester. Janet is experiencing:
role strain
Studies have shown that people interact with babies differently based on whether the babies are boys or girls. Using role theory, we could argue that:
sex is a master status in our society.
According to Goffman, the esteem in which an individual isVenus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world.
face
According to dramaturgical theory, the primary goal of every social interaction is to:
make a good impression
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. This status overrides all of her other statuses and is known as her:
master status
The three basic tenets of symbolic interactionism theory include all of the following EXCEPT:
1.Human beings inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times, and social changes.
2.Human beings act toward ideas, concepts, and values on the basis of the meaning that those things have for them.
3.The meanings of ideas, concepts, and values are the products of social interaction in human society.
4.The meanings of ideas, concepts, and values are modified and filtered through an interpretive process that each individual uses in dealing with outward signs.
Human beings inherit mutual understandings of symbols across cultures, times, and social changes.
According to George Herbert Mead’s stages of development, children learn to recognize another through:
imitation
Which of the following best describes the difference between the I and the me in George Herbert Mead’s theory?
The I is selfish and impulsive; the me is how we believe others see us.
People and groups who influence our orientation to life and our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors are:
agents of socialization
Most sociologists (and biologists) argue that race is a human invention, or is socially constructed. Which of the following statements does NOT highlight how race is socially constructed?
People speak different languages
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept by:
interpreting how others think about us.
Goffman’s term for refraining from directly interacting with someone you know until an opening bracket has been issued is known as:
civic inattention.
Military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basics of people’s day-to-day lives and are known as:
total institution
According to Goffman, the main goal of impression management is to:
save face
Which of the following theories contains concepts such as front stage and backstage and has its roots in the work of William Shakespeare?
dramaturgical theory
In managing impressions, people rarely challenge the credentials of an actor, even when they suspect that a false impression is being created. Which of the following reasons does NOT explain this tendency?
People feel sorry for others who cannot pull off false impressions.
Involuntary statuses that we are born into are called:
ascribed statuses.
Front-stage mistakes, such as if your sociology professor accidently trips as she walks into class one day, are known as:
breaches
Expected conformity, especially among teenage friends, is known as:
peer pressure
The process by which people internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become functioning members of a given society is known as:
socialization
Two young men are on an elevator together. After briefly acknowledging each other’s presence, they politely ignore each other for the remainder of the ride. Goffman would refer to this behavior as an example of:
civic inattention
Which theory uses game playing to understand the development of self?
Mead’s role-playing theory
Children like Anna, who have experienced long periods of isolation, illustrate how:
“human nature” is the result of a complex relationship between nature (biology) and nurture (the social environment).
Twitter, texting, and Facebook have changed the way we communicate and have had a profound impact on all of the following EXCEPT:
how we deal with anxiety
Using dramaturgical theory, why is it more difficult to end a conversation (closing) when on the phone than in person?
It is impossible for people to see our closing gestures, many of which are nonverbal, when we’re on the phone.
Most people occupy many statuses at a particular point in time (e.g., student, son or daughter, employee, citizen). This list of statuses is known as the:
status set
According to research by Kohn and Schooler (1983) and Lareau (2003), parents of different social classes socialize their children differently. Which of the following statements best describes these differences?
Middle-class parents are more likely to stress independence and self-direction; working-class parents are more likely to instill respect for authority.
All of the statuses that an individual occupies at any given time constitute his or her:
status set
Cooley’s theory of socialization states that the self develops from our interactions with others and their reactions to us. This theory is known as:
looking glass self theory
Which of the following scenarios involves the use of peer pressure?
A student decides to go out for drinks after her friends make her feel guilty for studying too much.
A single mother who is experiencing incompatibility within her role, such as dealing with sleep deprivation and spending quality time with her children, may be experiencing which of
the following?
role strain
The story of the abused child named Anna teaches lessons about the importance of which of the following influences on human development?
human interaction
Which of the following is NOT an example of a given-off gesture?
consciously stifling a laugh when someone walks into the class with toilet paper on his or her shoe
In their book Preparing for Power, Cookson and Persell (1985) explore the role that private prep schools play in transmitting power and privilege to the students who attend them. As discussed in your textbook, which is the most important aspect of prep school education?
Private prep schools link students to important social networks that will benefit them for life
Harold Garfinkel and his students devised breaching experiments in order to:
see if groups that were matched on important social characteristics would react differently when the independent variable was introduced.
In terms of how we feel about ourselves, which of the following statements would Charles Horton Cooley argue is NOT true?
We are affected more by how people react to our behavior than by how we interpret their reactions.
Today’s assumption that childhood represents a distinct phase in the life course stands in sharp contrast to the notion of children as little adults that was popular in preindustrial times. This example highlights how:
our notions of childhood are socially constructed.
The final step in Mead’s theory of socialization is the development of an internalized sense of the total expectations of others. This is known as the ____________ other.
generalized
Military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basics of people’s day-to-day lives and are known as
total institution
According to Annette Lareau (2003), working-class and poor parents focus on the “accomplishment of natural growth,” while middle-class parents are more likely to engage in “concerted cultivation.” In the “accomplishment of natural growth,” children experience:
long stretches of leisure time, child-initiated play, and clear boundaries between the social life of children and adults.
According to Goffman, the esteem in which an individual is held by others is known as:
face
The sociological significance of roles is that they:
ay out what is expected of people.
Which theorist argued that other people essentially provide us with a social mirror and that our interpretations of this mirror affect how we see ourselves?
Which theorist argued that other people essentially provide us with a social mirror and that our interpretations of this mirror affect how we see ourselves?
Charles Horton Cooley
A drastic type of adult socialization that may occur when adults change environments is known as:
resocialization.
According to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
where we are our private selves and where the real story takes place.
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist's work?
Concepts such as I, me, and generalized other are part of which theorist’s work?
George Herbert Mead
Using Mead’s concept of the generalized other, which of the following explanations would you use to explain why a man “streaked” (ran around nude) at Harvard’s graduation ceremony?
He has a keen awareness of the generalized other and simply enjoys soliciting people’s reactions
Which of the following represents an ascribed status?
an American of Japanese descent
Today’s assumption that childhood represents a distinct phase in the life course stands in sharp contrast to the notion of children as little adults that was popular in preindustrial times. This example highlights how:
our notions of childhood are socially constructed.
Expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a particular status are called:
roles
The popular television show Sesame Street was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. Being that this show was successful, we can argue that:
the media serves as a powerful socializing agent.
A good deal of impression management can be said to involve teamwork. Which of the following is NOT an example of teamwork?
pedestrians on a street gathering to watch someone jump from a building
Which of the following scenarios provides an example of front-stage behavior?
Sally discovers her mother-in-law is dropping by shortly, so Sally rushes to tidy
up the house.
Which of the following theories contains concepts such as front stage and backstage and has its roots in the work of William Shakespeare?
dramatugical theory
Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on:
how we make sense of our world and convey this understanding to others in our effort to create mutually shared realities.
According to Goffman, when there is a breach (mistake) in an established script, people generally do which of the following?
work hard to repair the mistake so everyone can move forward

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