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CH9&12&13&11&14

International markets must be pursued if firms want to remain
competitive
Peter Drucker has labeled the expanded global marketplace the
transnational economy
Which of the following is not a feature of the global economy?
international laws governing fair trade
The process by which firms increase their awareness of the influence of international activities on their future and establish and conduct transactions with firms from other countries is known as
internationalization
Economic integration of many formerly national economies into one worldwide economy is called
globalization
The center of the controversy that aligns rich nations against poor nations is
what the trade rules will be, and who will write the rules
Moving jobs that have historically resided in the home country to a lower-cost host country is called
offshoring
Which of the following countries was not an original participant in the NAFTA agreement?
Puerto Rico
The most challenging situation for an MNC to face is
operating is less-developed countries.
To be viewed as legitimate in their host countries, MNCs must fulfill their social responsibilities, including all of the following except
Technological functions
Which of the following is not a factor in a host country’s perception of the legitimacy of an MNC?
profitability of the firm
The requirement for an MNC to take on local partners is referred to as
creeping expropriation.
Which of the following is not one the broad issues facing MNCs in their relationships with host countries?
religious and other traditional holidays
The main two factors of concern in management and control of global operations are
organizational structure/design and human resource management.
Richard Robinson suggests three levels of sensitivity that MNCs should exhibit for the long-run national interests of less-developed countries. All of the following are levels of sensitivity except
the need to modify marketing efforts to conform to local custom.
To resolve the infant formula controversy, Nestlè agreed to do all of the following except
providing purified water with the formula
Which of the following is not a characteristic of sweatshops?
forced prostitution
All of the following groups have criticized MNC labor practices except
church groups.
Which of the following is not an SA8000 standard proposed to improve sweatshop conditions?
provision of educational opportunities for workers
All of the following are proposed standards for the SA8000 program, to improve sweatshop conditions, except
providing retirement benefits.
The Alien Tort Claims Act allows
foreign individuals to sue U.S. firms in American courts for their actions abroad.
U.S. based MNCs are increasingly interested in cases brought under the Alien Tort Claims Act because
they are increasingly being named as defendants in tort cases for doing business in countries with repressive governments.
Which of the following is not an example of corruption?
negotiating for the lowest price on a contract
All of the following are arguments in support of bribery except
it is a way of providing needy foreigners with money they need.
Which of the following is not an argument commonly used against bribery?
Bribes are unfair because foreigners can get them, while U.S. citizens cannot
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
makes it illegal for the representative of an American corporation to offer or pay officials of foreign governments for the purpose of getting or maintaining business.
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act allows
grease payments.
Payment of a bribe implies some type of
quid pro quo.
Which of the following is not part of the anticorruption movement?
World Trade Organization
The United States’ rank in the Corruption Perception Index is
somewhere in the middle.
Recent instability and violence in certain foreign markets will result in all of the following effects except
abandonment of existing operations
The position that advocates that an MNC should continue to follow its home country’s ethical standards even while operating in another country is known as
ethical imperialism.
The position that advocates that an MNC follow the host country’s ethical standards is called
ethical relativism.
Which of the following is not one of George Enderle’s types of global firms with respect to their use of home versus host country ethical standards?
imperial
Values that are acceptable to all cultures and organizations are called
hypernorms
A country’s ethical norms that are inconsistent with at least some other countries’ legitimate norms are called
moral free space.
Which of the following is not a strategy for improving global business ethics?
imposing the home country’s ethical standards on the host country
The ethics and global strategy plan for improving global business ethics has as its central idea
utilizing ethical standards as significant inputs into top-level strategy formulation and implementation
An attempt to assess the underlying moral justifications for corporate actions and the consequent results of those actions are contained in
ethical impact statements
Richard DeGeorge’s seven moral guidelines for global business are similar to
hypernorms
Which of the following is not a driver of the quest to improve product and service quality?
legislation and regulation
The two central issues of goods and services are
quality and safety.
All of the following are reasons given for the current obsession with quality except
employee satisfaction
Which of the following is not a dimension of quality listed in the textbook?
status
All of the following are dimensions of quality except
objectivity
The ethical theory based on the concept of duty that states that firms have a responsibility to comply with the terms of the sale, inform the customer about the product, not misrepresent anything, and not coerce the customer is
contractual theory.
The ethical theory based on the concept of duty that focuses on the relative vulnerability of the customer is
due care theory.
The ethical theory based on the concept of duty that suggests that if a product causes harm, the firm should pay the costs of any injury is
social costs view.
The legal view of “let the buyer beware” that prevailed in the 1800s was
caveat emptor.
The current legal view of “let the seller take care” is
caveat vendor.
Which of the following is not one of the top ten list of safety principles?
Allow a margin of error for the consumer.
All of the following are in the top ten principles of safety except
encourage customers to try out the product before purchasing it.
Which of the following is not an allegation commonly made in product liability suits?
The product was produced under inhumane conditions.
The primary responsibility for product safety lies with the
producer.
Which of the following is not one of the top consumer product categories most frequently associated with injuries requiring hospital treatment?
automobiles
Reasons to be concerned about product liability include all of the following except
the number of trial attorneys being licensed.
The legal principle that anyone in the value chain of a product is liable for harm caused to the user if the product as sold was unreasonably dangerous is
strict liability.
Due diligence means that a company
has taken every possible precautionary step possible and followed all industry standards.
The fact that a company is responsible for the harm done to customers by its product even if it can show that it did its best according to the state of the art in the industry at that time is called
absolute liability.
A company that is held responsible for the damage caused by its product in proportion to its percentage of industry sales is subject to
market share liability.
The Tylenol case in the 1980s, in which capsules were injected with cyanide, is an example of
product tampering.
Business claims that current product liability law suffers from all of the following problems except
bias
Which of the following is not a way in which the Consumer Product Safety Commission works to reduce the risk of harm from consumer products?
lobbying Congress to pass new consumer protection laws
The Consumer Product Safety Commission works to reduce the risk of harm from consumer products in all of the following ways except
passing legislation outlawing products
Early research conducted in the organization later known as the Food and Drug Administration fed small doses of poison to
the “Poison Squad.”
The Food and Drug Administration regulates all of the following except
personal care products.
Which of the following is not part of the FDA’s mission?
to help identify and develop new foods and drugs
The Food and Drug Administration is part of
the Health and Human Services Department
Which of the following is not an activity engaged in by the Food and Drug Administration?
promotion
Some people are trying to get the Food and Drug Administration involved in the regulation of
dietary supplements
Business’s response to consumerism over time has been one of
ineffective action, followed by improved responses.
Today’s consumers exhibit all of the following characteristics in dealing with business except
forgiveness
Businesses have responded to consumer activism with all of the following efforts except
rebate and discount programs.
Programs that attempt to blend all of the functions of a business into a holistic, integrated philosophy built around teamwork, productivity, and customer satisfaction are called
total quality management programs.
The focus of total quality management programs is
the customer.
The initial part of the total quality management process is to
define quality in terms of customer expectations.
An important criticism of total quality management is that it
never did anything to define quality.
The body of methodologies and techniques for achieving quality that focuses on the number of defects is called
Six Sigma.
One of the strengths of Six Sigma program’s has been its
clarity of process and the steps companies must take to adopt it.
Six Sigma practitioners believe in fixing the ____ rather than the ____.
process; product
Anything that is internal or external to an entity is its
environment
The volume and intensity of use that can be sustained in a particular place and time is called
carrying capacity.
A measure of disorder of energy, indicating its unavailability for recycling for the same use, is
entropy.
All living and nonliving substances present in a particular place is a(n)
ecosystem
The role an organism plays in its natural community is its
niche
The continuous looplike movement of water, air, and various nutrients is a(n)
cycle
The point at which a particular phenomenon suddenly begins to be activated is the
threshold
Material or energy that has gone through a transformation process and is perceived as unwanted or devalued is
pollution
The inability of humans and nature to restore environmental conditions to a previous state within a relevant time frame is
irreversibility
The characteristic of an entity that is related to its ability to exist and flourish over an extended period of time is
sustainability
Which of the following is not commonly viewed as an existing natural environment problem
light pollution
All of the following issues are current environmental problems except
volcanic activity.
Human denial of responsibility for the misuse of the environment is reflected by:
NIMBY
The prevention of solar heat absorbed by our atmosphere from returning to space is known as
the greenhouse effect.
The secondary reason for the greenhouse effect is
deforestation
In the United States, the average weight of waste produced per person per day is about
4.4 pounds.
Which country releases 3.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide each year due to deforestation?
Indonesia
Problems made worse by deforestation include
soil erosion.
the greenhouse effect.
moisture and nutrient ecosystem cycles.
Endangered species are threatened with extinction due to all of the following reasons except
drought
A large number of children in developing countries suffer from chronic coughing due to
air pollution.
Precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids
is called acid rain.
Indoor air pollution
is becoming an increasing concern because most people spend the majority of their lives indoors.
Energy inefficiency is a major concern
in all countries.
Chemicals or mixtures that may present unreasonable risks of injury to health or to the environment are called
toxic substances.
The number of oil spills reported worldwide in a typical year is
around 14,000.
Companies with strong environmental management are likely to outperform companies that have
environmental liabilities.
Reports of studies explaining and estimating the ecological ramifications of questionable practices and irreversible uses of resources and proposing detailed, reasonable alternatives to these practices and uses are
environmental impact statements.
One approach to resolving air pollution problems, intended to reduce a particular pollutant over an entire industrial region by treating all emission sources as if they were under one bubble is called
emissions trading
The purpose of Superfund legislation was to
clean up hazardous waste dumps and spills.
In the Montreal Protocol of 1987, most of the nations that produced or used CFCs agreed to
a quick phase-out of CFCs
Environmental interest groups and business have recently
been reasonably cooperative with each other.
Groups that employ violent acts that involve real or threatened damage to people or property in pursuit of environmental goals are called
ecoterrorists
Businesses are paying close attention to all of the following green groups except
legislators
Business that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is following principles of
sustainability
Which of the following is not a CERES principle
cooperation with business and government
CERES principles include all of the following except
concentrate on industrialized countries
Managers can use crisis management in the environmental area by focusing on:
Prevention
Contingency plans
all of these
Which of the following is not a principle of sustainable success?
Your business should never use more than it can replace
Paul Dolan formulated all of the following principles of sustainable success except
Your business should never overextend in any area.
A systematic approach to incorporating environmental issues into running a business is
strategic environmental management.
The ability of an organization to effectively identify, acquire, foster, and retain loyal profitable customers is
customer relationship management.
The one question that is the best measure of customer loyalty is
would you recommend this product/service to a friend?
Which of the following is not one of the rights in the consumer’s Magna Carta?
right to be protected
A consumer’s right to choose refers to
the assurance that competition is working effectively.
The right to be heard was listed as part of the consumer’s Magna Carta because
many consumers felt that they could not effectively communicate their desires and grievances to businesses
The social movement that seeks to augment the rights and powers of buyers in relation to sellers is
buyer beware.
consumerism.
Which of the following is not a lesson from the consumer movement?
Consumers can force companies to change their behaviors through boycotts.
The father of the consumer movement is
Ralph Nader.
Common consumer complaints include all of the following except
lack of consumer credit
The power held by consumers comes from
grassroots involvement.
The two major classifications of issues in the business/consumer relationship are
product information and the product itself.
Issues related to product information include all of the following except
website design
Which of the following is not a commonly recognized benefit of advertising?
It lowers the price of goods and services.
Information that is direct and straightforward, that is not deceptive or manipulative is
clear.
Information that communicates truths, and avoids exaggeration and innuendo is
accurate
Information that provides potential purchasers with enough information to make the best choice among the options available is
adequate
Advertising abuses include all of the following types except
cynical depictions.
Words that are inherently vague, without being misleading are referred to as
weasel words.
Use of plot placements involve
placement of products part of the storyline of a television show.
Advertising claims that cannot be substantiated by evidence are termed
exaggerated claims.
Puffery is another way of saying that a statement is an exaggeration that uses
general superlatives.
Which of the following is not a problem associated with exaggerated claims?
They generally cost more to produce.
Advertising that is designed to persuade on the basis of human emotions and emotional needs rather than reason relies on
psychological appeals
The practice of directly contrasting a firm’s product with the product of a competitor is called
comparative advertising.
The fact that Abercrombie and Fitch terminated its sexually explicit catalogue is evidence that
sex does not necessarily sell.
The Children’s Television Act was passed to
prohibit the airing of commercials about products or characters during a show about those products or characters
Which of the following is not part of CARU’s guidelines for advertising directed toward children under the age of twelve
consider the socioeconomic level of the audience
CARU would object to tobacco ads directed toward children as a violation of which of its principles?
products that are inappropriate for use by children should not be advertised to them
The basic activity of CARU is
to review and evaluate child-directed advertising in all media.
The industry under the greatest attack for its marketing and advertising practices is
cigarettes
All of the following are significant issues in cigarette advertising except
its aim at less-developed countries
The fact that advertising can increasingly be found everywhere is referred to as
ad creep
Warranties were originally used by manufacturers to
limit the length of time they were responsible for products.
The traditional term that was used for advertising located in novel locations (now called ad creep) was
ambient advertising
An implied warranty is
an unspoken promise that there is nothing significantly wrong with the product.
A guarantee that is explicitly offered at the time of sale is called a(n)
express warranty.
The purpose of the Federal Packaging and Labeling Act of 1967 was to
both prohibit deceptive labeling of certain consumer products and require disclosure of certain important information.
The Federal Packaging and Labeling Act of 1967 is administered by the
Federal Trade Commission.
Which of the following is not a law that addresses information disclosure issues?
Credit Collection Limitation Act
The federal government’s major body for ensuring that business lives up to its responsibilities is the
Federal Trade Commission.
Community involvement is most commonly manifested through
donating the time and talents of its employees.
Educational recipients of giving include each of the following except
Student matching gifts
The biggest change in corporate philanthropy since 2001 was its alignment with which of the following
Each of these
Companies can benefit from volunteer programs that they sponsor in all of the ways shown below except
increasing productivity at work.
Which of the following is not a way in which companies can benefit from volunteer programs?
developing strong ties with local government officials
Assessing a firm’s competencies and determining where sharing them would accomplish the most good is an example of
resource-based giving.
Community involvement focuses on the contribution of
employee time and talent.
The central reason for community involvement is
self-interest.
Which of the following is not a reason commonly given for community involvement?
a way to help employees build their resumès
Being more systematic about the company’s relationship with the community often results in developing a
community action program.
Steps in developing a community action program include all of the following except
building bridges to the community.
Selection of projects for a community action program grows out of
matching community needs with company resources.
Guidelines for developing a community involvement strategy include all of the following steps except
decisions about which projects to undertake should take place at the highest levels of management.
Which of the following is not a guideline for developing a community involvement strategy?
The company should get involved in projects that will help it make more profit.
Standards of excellence in corporate community involvement include all of the following except
efficiency.
Which of the following is not a standard of excellence by which corporate community involvement should be judged?
crisis management
In terms of community involvement, foreign direct investors have practices and viewpoints
quite similar to those of U. S. firms
Philanthropy, as it is used in the textbook, means
business giving of financial resources.
Which of the following is not a reason that some people want more transparency in corporate philanthropy
to close tax loopholes
The “third sector” is composed of
non-profit organizations.
Which of the following is not a category of corporate contributions programs?
firms whose donations usually go to children’s programs
Of the portion of corporate philanthropy that goes to education, the majority of donations go to
higher education.
The primary reason given for support of higher education programs is
to increase the pool of trained personnel.
Fund-raising efforts by large non-profit organizations like United Way, who in turn donate funds to specific causes, are called
federated drives
Which of the following is not a category of recipient to whom corporations often give money?
athletic teams
Which of the following is a reason that corporate giving has slowed?
all of these
When a non-profit organization and a for-profit company join forces for their mutual advantages, they form a
public purpose partnership
An approach by which corporate giving is designed in a way that best fits with the firm’s overall mission and goals is called
strategic philanthropy.
One way in which philanthropy can be made strategic is to
bring contribution programs into sharper alignment with business endeavors.
The direct linking of a business’s product or service to a specified charity is
cause-related marketing
Cause branding is similar to cause-related marketing, but
is a longer term commitment.
Outsourcing refers to
the use of outside resources to accomplish tasks that were once done in-house
Employees might consider their roles in plant closings
an extension of numerous employee rights issues.
According to philosopher John Kavanagh, business’s moral responsibility with a plant closing is to
minimize negative externalities.
Which of the following actions is not usually a viable alternative to closing a plant?
seek tax breaks that will help profits
Employee ownership of a business whose former owners were considering shutting it down
is a difficult endeavor, with no assurance of success
For employee ownership of a business to work
employees must believe they have role to play in leading the company.
After the decision to close a plant has been made, actions that management should take may include all of the following except
announce the decision in the press before telling employees and community leaders.
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act (WARN) requires firms employing 100 or more workers to notify workers of a large layoff or shutdown at least ____ in advance
sixty days
Outplacement services seek to
minimize cost and disruption to the company and maximize benefits to the displaced workers.

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