as defined here is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals
means being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful
transcends self-interest to serve others, the organization, and society
which refers to individuals who know and understand themselves, who espouse and act consistent with higher-order ethical values, and who empower and inspire others with their openness and authenticity.
means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority
are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and even appearance
are natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills and provide each individual with his or her best tools for accomplishment and satisfaction
falls in the category of people-oriented behavior and is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust
is the degree of task behavior; that is, the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment
country club management
thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere
work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
middle of the road management
adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership
efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree
is a two-dimensional leadership model that measures the leader’s concern for people and concern for production to categorize the leader in one of five different leadership styles.
is a model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific situations
which links the leader’s behavioral style with the readiness level of followers.
a task-oriented leader style
fits a low-readiness follower, and a relationship leader style fits a higher-readiness follower.
the suitability of a leader’s style
is determined by whether the situation is considered favorable or unfavorable to the leader.
substitute for leadership
is a situational variable that makes a leadership style redundant or unnecessary.
is a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.
is an attractive, ideal future that is credible yet not readily attainable
are distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change by creating an inspiring vision, shaping values, building relationships, and providing meaning for followers.
clarifies subordinates’ roles and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for followers.
is a leader who has the ability to inspire and motivate people to transcend their expected performance, even to the point of personal sacrifice.
is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills.
has qualities of all four extremes—depending on which style fits with the prevalent situation.
exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation.
is both a critical, independent thinker and active in the organization
A follower who has qualities of all four follower styles, depending on which fits the prevalent situation, is called a
is a critical, independent thinker who actively participates in the organization.
means failing to consider the possibilities beyond what one is told, accepting others’ ideas without thinking.
means thinking independently and being mindful of the effect of one’s behavior on achieving goals.
is a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization.
is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others.
is the effect that a person’s actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others
Power coming from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it is called
stems from the authority to bestow rewards on other people
It refers to the authority to punish or recommend punishment.
Power resulting from a person’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks being performed is referred to as
comes from an individual’s personal characteristics that command others’ identification, respect, and admiration so they wish to emulate that individual
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