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chap 11 management

leadership
as defined here is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals
humility
means being unpretentious and modest rather than arrogant and prideful
servant leader
transcends self-interest to serve others, the organization, and society
authentic leadership
which refers to individuals who know and understand themselves, who espouse and act consistent with higher-order ethical values, and who empower and inspire others with their openness and authenticity.
interactive leadership
means that the leader favors a consensual and collaborative process, and influence derives from relationships rather than position power and formal authority
traits
are the distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader, such as intelligence, honesty, self-confidence, and even appearance
strengths
are natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills and provide each individual with his or her best tools for accomplishment and satisfaction
Consideration
falls in the category of people-oriented behavior and is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust
Initiating structure
is the degree of task behavior; that is, the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work activities toward goal attainment
country club management
thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere
team management
work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect
middle of the road management
adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level
impoverished management
exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership
authority compliance
efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interfere to a minimum degree
Leadership Grid
is a two-dimensional leadership model that measures the leader’s concern for people and concern for production to categorize the leader in one of five different leadership styles.
contingency approaches
is a model of leadership that describes the relationship between leadership styles and specific situations
situational model
which links the leader’s behavioral style with the readiness level of followers.
a task-oriented leader style
fits a low-readiness follower, and a relationship leader style fits a higher-readiness follower.
the suitability of a leader’s style
is determined by whether the situation is considered favorable or unfavorable to the leader.
substitute for leadership
is a situational variable that makes a leadership style redundant or unnecessary.
neutralizer
is a situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors.
vision
is an attractive, ideal future that is credible yet not readily attainable
Transformational leaders
are distinguished by their special ability to bring about innovation and change by creating an inspiring vision, shaping values, building relationships, and providing meaning for followers.
Transactional leaders
clarifies subordinates’ roles and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for followers.
charismatic leader
is a leader who has the ability to inspire and motivate people to transcend their expected performance, even to the point of personal sacrifice.
The conformist
is a follower who participates actively in the organization but does not use critical thinking skills.
pragmatic survivor
has qualities of all four extremes—depending on which style fits with the prevalent situation.
passive follower
exhibits neither critical, independent thinking nor active participation.
effective follower
is both a critical, independent thinker and active in the organization
pragmatic survivor
A follower who has qualities of all four follower styles, depending on which fits the prevalent situation, is called a
effective follower
is a critical, independent thinker who actively participates in the organization.
Uncritical thinking
means failing to consider the possibilities beyond what one is told, accepting others’ ideas without thinking.
Critical thinking
means thinking independently and being mindful of the effect of one’s behavior on achieving goals.
alienated follower
is a person who is an independent, critical thinker but is passive in the organization.
power
is the potential ability to influence the behavior of others.
influence
is the effect that a person’s actions have on the attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior of others
legitimate power
Power coming from a formal management position in an organization and the authority granted to it is called
reward power
stems from the authority to bestow rewards on other people
coercive power
It refers to the authority to punish or recommend punishment.
expert power
Power resulting from a person’s special knowledge or skill regarding the tasks being performed is referred to as
Referent power
comes from an individual’s personal characteristics that command others’ identification, respect, and admiration so they wish to emulate that individual

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