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Chapt 4

The cases of Enron, Worldcom, Parmalat, and Bristol-Meyers Squibb are examples of failed ethical judgment by information systems managers.
Firms that cooperate with prosecutors may receive reduced charges against the entire firm for obstructing investigations.
Political institutions require time to develop new laws and often require the demonstration of real harm before they act.
Advances in data storage have made routine violation of individual privacy more difficult.
The Utilitarian Principle states that if an action is not right for everyone to take it is not right for anyone to take.
Privacy is the right to be left alone when you want to be, without surveillance or interference from other individuals or organizations.
Standards for ensuring the accuracy and reliability of any corporate information systems are enforced through the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.
The FIP principles direct Web sites to disclose their information practices before collecting data.
“Cookies” are designed to directly obtain the names and addresses of Web site visitors.
Spyware is software that comes hidden in free downloadable software and can track your online movements.
P3P encrypts or scrambles e-mail or data so that it cannot be read illicitly.
Protection for trade secrets is enforced at the federal level.
The drawback to copyright protection is that the underlying ideas behind the work are not protected, only their manifestation in a product.
According to the courts, in the creation of unique software, similar concepts, general functional features, and even colors are protectable by copyright law.
The key concepts in patent law are originality, novelty, and invention.
Computers and information technologies potentially can destroy valuable elements of our culture in society even while they bring us benefits.
Despite the passage of several laws defining and addressing computer crime, accessing a computer system without authorization is not yet a federal crime.
Spam is unsolicited e-mail.
The European Parliament has passed a ban on unsolicited commercial messaging.
Radiation from computer display screens has been proved to be a factor in CVS.
What central issue of this chapter does the Washington, D.C., public school bus system’s technical innovations illustrate?
a. Information technology often has unexpected effects.
b. Technology can be a double-edged sword.
c. The negative effects of technology are little understood.
d. In most cases, the positive effects of technology overshadow the negative effects.
Answer: b
Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age did the D.C. school bus information system raise?
a. Quality of life
b. System quality
c. Accountability and control
d. Information rights and obligations
Answer: d
Which ethical issues will be most central if your career is in finance and accounting?
a. Protecting information systems from fraud and abuse
b. Enforcing corporate ethics policies
c. Responsibility regarding data accuracy and quality
d. Privacy issues concerning customer data
Answer: a
Information systems:
a. pose traditional ethical situations in new manners.
b. raise new ethical questions.
c. raise the same ethical questions created by the industrial revolution.
d. raise ethical questions primarily related to information rights and obligations.
Answer: b
The introduction of new information technology has a:
a. dampening effect on the discourse of business ethics.
b. ripple effect raising new ethical, social, and political issues.
c. beneficial effect for society as a whole, while raising dilemmas for consumers.
d. waterfall effect in raising ever more complex ethical issues.
Answer: b
The moral dimensions of the information society:
a. are geographically and politically biased.
b. are primarily addressed by existing intellectual property rights laws.
c. are predominantly quality-of-life issues.
d. cut across individual, social, and political levels of actions.
Answer: d
The four key technical trends responsible for current ethical stresses related to information technology are:
a. doubling of computer power every 18 months, data analysis advances, networking advances, the Internet.
b. doubling of computer power every 18 months, declining data storage costs, data analysis advances, lack of international standards for data protection.
c. doubling of computer power every 18 months, declining data storage costs, data analysis advances, networking advances and the Internet.
d. doubling of computer power every 18 months, declining data storage costs, data analysis advances, ease in file sharing and copying.
Answer: c
In the information age, the obligations that individuals and organizations have concerning rights to intellectual property fall within the moral dimension of:
a. property rights and obligations.
b. system quality.
c. accountability and control.
d. information rights and obligations.
Answer: a
Advances in data storage techniques and rapidly declining storage costs have:
a. doubled humanity’s knowledge.
b. made universal access possible.
c. doubled every 18 months.
d. made routine violations of privacy cheap and effective.
Answer: d
The use of computers to combine data from multiple sources and create electronic dossiers of detailed information on individuals is called:
a. profiling.
b. spyware.
c. spamming.
d. targeting.
Answer: a
NORA is:
a. profiling technology used by the EU.
b. federal privacy law protecting networked data.
c. a new data analysis technology that finds hidden connections between data in disparate sources.
d. sentencing guidelines adopted in 1987 mandating stiff sentences on business executives.
Answer: c
Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age do the central business activities of ChoicePoint raise?
a. Property rights and obligations
b. System quality
c. Accountability and control
d. Information rights and obligations
Answer: d
Accepting the potential costs, duties, and obligations for the decisions you make is referred to as:
a. responsibility.
b. accountability.
c. liability.
d. due process.
Answer: a
The feature of social institutions that means mechanisms are in place to determine responsibility for an action is called:
a. due process.
b. accountability.
c. courts of appeal.
d. judicial system.
Answer: b
The process in law-governed societies in which laws are known and understood and there is an ability to appeal to higher authorities to ensure that the laws are applied correctly is called:
a. liability.
b. due process.
c. courts of appeal.
d. FOI appeals.
Answer: b
Which of the following is not one of the five steps discussed in the chapter as a process for analyzing an ethical issue?
a. Assign responsibility.
b. Identify the stakeholders.
c. Identify the options you can reasonably take.
d. Identify and clearly describe the facts.
Answer: a
A colleague of yours frequently takes small amounts of office supplies, noting that the loss to the company is minimal. You counter that if everyone were to take the office supplies, the loss would no longer be minimal. Your rationale expresses which historical ethical principle?
a. Kant’s Categorical Imperative
b. The Golden Rule
c. Descartes’ Rule of Change
d. The “No free lunch” rule
Answer: a
A classic ethical dilemma is the hypothetical case of a man stealing from a grocery store in order to feed his starving family. If one used the Utilitarian Principle to evaluate this situation, you might argue that:
a. stealing the food is acceptable, because the grocer suffers the least harm.
b. stealing the food is acceptable, because the higher value is the survival of the family.
c. stealing the food is wrong, because the man would not want the grocery to steal from him.
d. stealing the food is wrong, because if everyone were to do this, the concept of personal property is defeated.
Answer: b
Immanuel Kant’s Categorical Imperative states that:
a. if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
b. one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
c. one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
d. if an action is not right for everyone to take, it is not right for anyone to take.
Answer: d
The ethical “no free lunch” rule states that:
a. if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, then it is not right to be taken at any time.
b. one should take the action that produces the least harm or incurs the least cost.
c. one can put values in rank order and understand the consequences of various courses of action.
d. everything is owned by someone else, and that the creator wants compensation for this work.
Answer: d
The ethical rules discussed in the textbook:
a. are based on political philosophies.
b. cannot always be guides to actions.
c. do not always apply in an e-commerce situation.
d. do not allow for competing values.
Answer: b
Which U.S. act restricts the information the federal government can collect and regulates what they can do with the information?
a. Privacy Act of 1974
b. Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999
c. Freedom of Information Act
d. HIPAA of 1996
Answer: a
FIP principles are based on the notion of:
a. accountability.
b. responsibility.
c. mutuality of interest.
d. ethical behavior.
Answer: c
The Federal Trade Commission Fair Information Practice principle of Notice/Awareness states that:
a. customers must be allowed to choose how their information will be used for secondary purposes other than the supporting transaction.
b. data collectors must take responsible steps to assure that consumer information is accurate and secure from unauthorized use.
c. there is a mechanism in place to enforce FIP principles.
d. Web sites must disclose their information practices before collecting data.
Answer: d
European privacy protection is _________________ than in the United States.
a. less far-reaching
b. less liable to laws
c. much less stringent
d. much more stringent
Answer: d
U.S. businesses are allowed to use personal data from EU countries if they:
a. have informed consent.
b. make sure they comply with U.S. data protection laws.
c. develop privacy protection policies that meet EU standards.
d. make their privacy protection policies publicly available.
Answer: c
When a cookie is created during a Web site visit, it is stored:
a. on the Web site computer.
b. on the visitor’s computer.
c. on the ISP’s computer.
d. in a Web directory.
Answer: b
The Online Privacy Alliance:
a. encourages self-regulation to develop a set of privacy guidelines for its members.
b. protects user privacy during interactions with Web sites.
c. has established technical guidelines for ensuring privacy.
d. is a government agency regulating the use of customer information.
Answer: a
In 2006, new United Kingdom RFID-enhanced biometric passports were cracked by UK security experts in 48 hours using equipment costing less than $500. The moral questions raised by this accomplishment center primarily around the dimension of:
a. information rights.
b. property rights.
c. system quality.
d. quality of life.
Answer: c
The P3P standard is concerned with protecting privacy by:
a. controlling pop-up ads based on user profiles and preventing ads from collecting or sending information.
b. allowing users to surf the Web anonymously.
c. scrambling data so that it can’t be read.
d. blocking or limiting cookies.
Answer: d
The limitation of trade secret protection is that although virtually all software programs of any complexity contain unique elements of some sort, it is difficult to prevent the ideas in the work from falling into the public domain when:
a. the software is released.
b. the software is open source.
c. the software is widely distributed.
d. a new version of the software is released.
Answer: c
Intellectual property can best be described as:
a. intangible property created by individuals or corporations.
b. unique creative work or ideas.
c. tangible property created from a unique idea.
d. the manifestation of an intangible idea.
Answer: a
What legal mechanism protects the owners of intellectual property from having their work copied by others?
a. Patent protection
b. Intellectual property law
c. Copyright
d. Fair Use Doctrine
Answer: c
“Look and feel” copyright infringement lawsuits are concerned with:
a. the distinction between tangible and intangible ideas.
b. the distinction between an idea and its expression.
c. copying graphical elements of a product.
d. copying creative elements of a product.
Answer: b
The strength of patent protection is that it:
a. puts the strength of law behind copyright.
b. allows protection from Internet theft of ideas put forth publicly.
c. is easy to define.
d. grants a monopoly on the underlying concepts and ideas.
Answer: d
One of the difficulties of patent protection is:
a. that only the underlying ideas are protected.
b. digital media cannot be patented.
c. assuring protection against theft.
d. the years of waiting to receive it.
Answer: d
Which of the following adjusts copyright laws to the Internet age by making it illegal to make, distribute, or use devices that circumvent technology-based protections of copyrighted materials?
a. Digital Millennium Copyright Act
b. Privacy Act
c. Freedom of Information Act
d. Electronic Communications Privacy Act
Answer: a
In general, it is very difficult to hold software producers liable for their software products when those products are considered to be:
a. part of a machine.
b. similar to books.
c. services.
d. financial services.
Answer: b
_________________ are not held liable for the messages they transmit.
a. Regulated common carriers
b. Private individuals
c. Organizations and businesses
d. Congressional delegates
Answer: a
It is not feasible for companies to produce error-free software because
a. any programming code is susceptible to error.
b. it is too expensive to create perfect software.
c. errors can be introduced in the maintenance stage of development.
d. any software of any complexity will have errors.
Answer: b
The “do anything anywhere” computing environment can:
a. make work environments much more pleasant.
b. create economies of efficiency.
c. centralize power at corporate headquarters.
d. blur the traditional boundaries between work and family time.
Answer: a
The practice of spamming has been growing because:
a. it is unregulated.
b. it is good advertising practice and brings in many new customers.
c. it helps pay for the Internet.
d. it is so inexpensive and can reach so many people.
Answer: d
Redesigning and automating business processes can be seen as a double-edged sword because:
a. the increases in efficiency may be accompanied by job losses.
b. the increases in efficiency may be accompanied by poor data quality.
c. the support for middle-management decision making may be offset by poor data quality.
d. the reliance on technology results in the loss of hands-on knowledge.

Answer: a

The U.S. CAN-SPAM Act of 2003:
a. makes spamming illegal.
b. requires spammers to identify themselves.
c. has dramatically cut down spamming.
d. does not override state anti-spamming laws.
Answer: b
Which of the five moral dimensions of the information age does spamming raise?
a. Quality of life
b. System quality
c. Accountability and control
d. Information rights and obligations
Answer: a
Which of the following refers to large disparities in access to computers and the Internet among different social groups and different locations?
a. Computer divide
b. Technology divide
c. Digital divide
d. Information divide
Answer: c
CVS refers to:
a. eyestrain related to computer display screen use.
b. computer virus syndrome.
c. wrist injuries brought about by incorrect hand position when using a keyboard.
d. cardiovascular stress induced by technology.
Answer: a
Which of the following is stress induced by computer use, and its symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience, and enervation?
a. Computer stress
b. CVS
c. Carpal tunnel syndrome
d. Technostress
Answer: d

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