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Chapter 1: Business Communication in the Digital Age, incomplete, to yellow highlights

Communication Skills Include
Traditional abilities and new Requirements
Traditional Abilities (Communication Skills)
Reading, listening, nonverbal skills, speaking writting
New Requirements (Communication Skills)
Media Savvy, Good Judgements online
Good Judgements online (new requirements)
Maintaining positive image and presence, protecting employer’s reputation.
Skills Employers Want
Excellent oral and written communication, ability to work in teams, professionalism and work ethic, critical thinking and analytical reasoning, unblemished social media presence
Percent Most Listen At
20-50
stereotype
An oversimplified perception of a behavioral pattern or characteristic applied to an entire group.
How to prevent miscommunication across cultures
Listen without interrupting, smile when appropriate, follow up in writing.
Listen without Interrupting (prevent miscommunication across cultures)
Curb your desire to finish sentences or to fill out ideas for the speaker.
Smile When Appropriate (prevent miscommunication across cultures)
This is considered the most uniform type of communication, but can often be considered insincere if done too much.
Follow Up in Writing (prevent miscommunication across cultures)
After conversations or oral negotiations, confirm the results and agreements with written messages-in the local language if necessary.
Communication Skills
writing, speaking, listening, nonverbal, and intercultural skills.
Communication Style
A cultural dimension that refers to how people in a culture communicate and use words
Context
A cultural dimension that refers to the stimuli, environment, or ambience surrounding an event.
Culture
A complex system of shared values, traits, morals and customs that molds the way people think, behave and communicate.
Empathy
The ability to share another person’s experience and emotions; thinking of how the receiver feels and is likely to respond.
Ethnocentrism
The belief in the superiority of one’s own culture; judging others by our own values
groupthink
An absence of critical thinking sometimes found in homogeneous groups.
high-context culture
A culture in which communicators tend to be intuitive and contemplative
high-power distance
A concept that describes cultures in which people accept hierarchal authority and defer to others because of their wealth, position, seniority or age.
individualism
A culture dimension that refers to an attitude of independence and freedom from control
low-context culture
A culture in which communicators tend to be logical, analytical and action-oriented
low-power distance
A concept that describes cultures in which people feel equal; hence they reject authoritarianism, and fail to show deference to others because of their wealth, position, seniority or age.
nonverbal communication
All unwritten and unspoken messages whether intended or not; silent signals conveyed in body language, gestures, eye contact, appearance and other factors.
In a Fortune Poll, 1,000 executives cited
Writing, critical thinking, and problem-solving along with self-motivation, and team skills as their top choices in new-hires
Soft Skills
Essential career attributes.
Soft Skills Include
The ability to communicate, work well with others, solve problems, make ethical decisions, and appreciate diversity.
Employees who learn to communicate
Will reflect positive images of themselves and of the company they represent
Ability to communicate has been described as a
“Career Sifter” leading to job opportunities or to the door.
The Digital Revolution
Social media requires more written communication, with messages that can travel instantly to distant locations, and teams can collaborate and meet deadlines even when separated.
Barriers to Effective Listening
Language Problems, Faking Attention, Physical Barriers, psychological barriers, language problems, nonverbal distractions, thought speed, grandstanding
Physical Barriers (Barriers to Effective Listening)
Noisy surroundings, hearing impairments, or being tired
Psychological Barriers (Barriers to Effective Listening)
Perceptions differ from others, causing us to tune out
Nonverbal Distractions (Barriers to Effective Listening)
Include inappropriate clothing, or speech mannerisms
Thought Speed (Barriers to Effective Listening)
Our minds often wander because we process thoughts more rapidly than words.
Grandstanding (Barriers to Effective Listening)
Trying to monopolize on a conversation
Stop Talking (Building Powerful Listening Skills)
Let others Speak
Be Respective (Building Powerful Listening Skills)
Keep an open mind
Capitalize on Lag Time (Building Powerful Listening Skills)
During lag time, anticipate what will be next
Listen Between the Lines (Building Powerful Listening Skills)
Think about unspoken thoughts or feelings
Judge Ideas, Not Appearances (Building Powerful Listening Skills)
Judge the content of the message, rather than the appearance of the speaker
Building Strong Nonverbal Skills
Establish/Maintain Eye Contact, Use Posture to show Interest, reduce/eliminate physical barriers, improve decoding skills, probe for more info.
Maintaining Eye Contact (Building Strong Nonverbal Skills)
Signals attentiveness
Posture to show Interest (Building Strong Nonverbal Skills)
Lean forward slightly to show interest, or simply look alert
Reduce/eliminate physical barriers (Building Strong Nonverbal Skills)
Do this to create an open atmosphere. Arrange chairs in a circle rather than in front of a desk.
Improve Decoding Skills (Building Strong Nonverbal Skills)
Noticing facial expressions, and body language of speakers
Probe for More Information (Building Strong Nonverbal Skills)
Ask clarifying questions when non-verbal cues are confusing
Dimensions of Culture
High and Low Context, Individualism and Collectivism, Time Orientation, Power Distance, Communication Style
Low Context Cultures (dimensions of culture)
Tend to be logical, linear and action oriented. Prefer explicit messages that they consider to be efficient, objective and professional. Time is precious.
High Context Cultures (dimensions of culture)
Tend to be relational, collectivists, intuitive and contemplative. Leave much unsaid and share communication cues by posture, voice inflection, gestures and facial expression. Time is unlimited and never-ending.
Examples of Low Context Cultures (dimensions of culture)
North American, and Northern European cultures.
Examples of High Context Cultures (dimensions of culture)
Southern European and Asian cultures.
Power Distance Index (dimensions of culture)
Developed by Hofstede, and compares societies based on how far the less powerful people accept an unequal distribution of power.
High Power Distance Countries (dimensions of culture)
Subordinates expect formal hierarchies and embrace relatively authoritarian, paternalistic power relationships.
Examples of High Power Distance Countries (dimensions of culture)
Russia, China and Japan
Low Power Distance Countries (dimensions of culture)
Subordinates consider themselves as equals of their superiors. Relationships between people of varying power tend to be democratic, egalitarian and informal.
Examples of High Power Distance Countries (dimensions of culture)
Sweden, England, the United State
Communication Style-Low Context (dimensions of culture)
Emphasize words, directness and openness. People tend to be impatient, informal and literal.
Communication Style-High Context (dimensions of culture)
Rely on non-verbal cues and the total picture to communicate. Meanings are embedded in many sociocultural levels.
ethnocentrism
Believing that your culture is superior to all others.
How to Curb Ethnocentrism
Build cultural self-awareness, understand basis for generalizations and stereotyping, practice empathy, remain open minded
Stereotype
An oversimplified behavioral pattern applied uncritically to groups.
Improving Intercultural Written Communication
Consider local styles and conventions, use short sentences/paragraphs, avoid ambiguous wording, hire a translator, cite numbers carefully
Diverse Work Force Benefits
Consumers, work teams and budinesses
Diverse Staff Better Able to Respond
To increasingly diverse customer base locally and globally
Team Members with Various Experience
More likely to create products that customers demand
soft skills
The ability to communicate, work well with others, solve problems, make ethical decisions, appreciate diversity, and display professionalism.
Nonverbal Communication
Unwritten, and unspoken messages. Conveyed by body language, gestures, appearance and other factors.
time orientation
A cultural dimension that refers to how individuals perceive and use time.
communication style
how people in a culture communicate and use words
context
The stimuli, environment or ambiance surrounding an event
tolerance
learning about and practicing beliefs different from our own and being open minded and receptive to new experiences.

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