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Chapter 1- Introduction to Operating Systems

Microcomputer
Computer built around a special intergrated circuit that perfroms the calculations, or processing, of the computer.
Central Processing Unit
The brain of the computer
Microprocessor
An integrated circuit which peforms the calculations, or processing, for a computer
Server
A computer that plays one of several important roles in a network.
Clients
A software component on a computer that accesses services from a network server
Input/Output
Anything sent into the computer; anything coming out of the computer.
Motherboard
Central Circuit board of the computer.
Memory
Involves chips that store programs and data.
RAM
Volatile memory that stores active programs and data while the computer is operating.
ROM
Type of memory that storess programs more or less permanently.
ROM BIOS
A set of program instructions for starting the computer, as well as for controlling communications between the processor and other components.
Display Screen
A monitor or a flat screen panel display for visual output from the computer.
Cursor
A graphical pointer that can be moved around a GUI by a mouse.
Mouse
The most common pointing device.
Disk Drive
A data and program storage that works by encoding data onto the surface of platters called disks.
Peripheral Device
All computer components that are non essential add-on devices.
Operating System
A program that acts as the central control program for the computer
Kernel
The main component of the Operating System that always remains in memory while a computer is running.
User Interface
The Software layer through which the user communicates with the OS.
Graphical User Interface
Offers menus and graphical icons that allow you to use the pointing device to select programs to run and perfrom many other tasks.
Job Management
An operating system function that controls the order and time in which the programs are run.
Task Management
Allows the user to switch back and forth between multiple tasks.
Multitasking
A computer that is simulttaneously running two or more programs at the same time.
Memory Management
Operating System function that manages the placement of programs and data in memory, while keeping track of where it put them.
Virtual Memory
A system of memory management in which the OS moves programs and data in and out of memory as needed.
File Management
Operating system fuction that allows the operating system to read, write, and modify data.
Folder
A special file that can contain files as well as other directories.
Device managment
Operating system function controls hardware devices through the use of special hardware
Device Drivers
Special software added to the OS to control a physical component.
Security
Fuction of the operationg system that provides pasward protected authentication of the user before allowing access.
Network Operating System
Software that enhances a basic OS by adding network features.
Open Source
A certification standard issued by the OSI that requires that the source code of a computer program be made available free of charge to the general public.

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