Chapter 10 and 11
sought to limit Chinese immigration (eliminate cultural haze)
election ended the reconstruction era
Patronage problem was addressed by the Pendleton act 1883
only served 4 months assassinated
Battle with “Stalwarts” and more reform minded “half breeds.”
Couldn’t agree with his own party
supported a strong Navy (republican)
opposition to high Tariffs
one term in congress played second to congress
More Americans voted for his opponent electoral college
created to help educated its members on new developments in agricultural created a social and cultural bond among its members
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry which was formed both to educate its members about new development in agricultural and to create a social and cultural bond among its members
grain elevator prices, short, and long haul rates for rail lines.
Short haul: Can be completed in one day
Long haul: longer than one day
Munn v. Illinois- if the product is for public use the court ruled the states could place regulations
Pelik v. the chicago and northwestern railroad- granger laws are not in violation.
Illinois v. wabash- ruled that commerce and trade that crossed state lines was directly under the authority of the federal government not the states.
unlimited coinage of silver
Immigrants should be limited
single term for president (republican)
direct election of the US senator
fixed income tax should be replaced with a graduated income tax
all excess lands granted to the railroads should be returned to public ownership
Laborers should have 8 hour work day as well as the right to bargaining
Southern and Western delegates had earlier fused with the Democrats on the State and local levels; southern delegates opposed such an alliance
In order to satisfy the southerners, Tom Watson, a populist, was selected as the vice-presidential candidate instead of a Democratic candidate.
The populist party nominated Bryan as their candidate
encouraged a boom in railroad construction through land grants. The Pacific Railroad Act provided enormous tracts of land to railroad companies and also granted them substantial loans as well.
By aiding in the settlement of the west, a national market was created Homestead Act 1862
Social darwinism, little government regulation to let the strong businesses survive.
Pro tariffs to protect american business and let them grow.
Russell Conwell: for those who were poor and could see no way out of their predicament, Cornwell’s “Acres of Diamonds” sermon was deflating “it is your duty to get rich. It is wrong to be poor.
Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth”: It is the duty of the wealthy to contribute to society the wealth they have accrued through philanthropic program.
Vertical integration: the combination in one company of or more stages of production normally operated operated by separate companies
John D. Rockefeller: Founded standard oil, USed horizontal to control nearly 90% of the nation’s oil market. Price went down from $10/barrel in 1861 to 10 cents/barre, in 1862
Horizontal integration: The establishment of control over all companies in one stage of the process
William H. Vanderbilt: railroad magnate for decades his family would dominate the railroad industry.
J. P. Morgan: Purchasing carnegie steel industry, morgan went on to create U.S steel the nation’s first billion dollar industry. Morgan was a lucky man at the minute he cancelled a cruise on the luxury liner Titanic
First trade union regardless race and gender
goals higher wages 8 hour work days and gender and racial equality
able to win the 8 hour workday for federal employees
Knights of Labor:
Led by Terence Powderly in 1869
favored racial and gender equality favored arbitration rather than strikes
American Federation of Labor (AFL):
Led by Samuel gompers towards skilled workers
win concession from management
Industrial workers of the World (IWW)-
Led by colorful figure “Big Bill” Haywood
Means of production to the working class rather than better wages and working figures
Railroad Strike of 1877:
employees struck when the company lowered their wages. Turing violence, President Hayes used the Army to suppress the strike
Haymarket Square (Chicago) Riot of 1886:
Protest the treatment of the workers at the nearby McCormick Harvester factory as well as methods used by the police in dealing with the protesters abruptly ended when an unknown assailant threw a bomb that killed a number of police officers who had been ordered to break up the demonstration
The Homestead (Pennsylvania) Strike of 1892:
Carnegie steel company cut wages
The workers went on strike which provided the company the opportunity to crush the union by hiring a private security company, the Pinkerton detective agency to engage strikes
Open fire on the pinkerton killing several the state militia was called in
The Pullman Strike of 1894:
wage cut during the depression to ensure that stockholders dividends remained high at eh pullman palace car company
Led by American Railway union leader Eugene Debs a boycott was established that greatly affected the railroad industry in the Midwest. Members of the Railway Managers Association called on the gov to intervene arguing that the strikers were in the restraint of trade.
regulation safety and health conditions in workplace
Regulated corporation when their behaviors and actions contradicted the well-being of citizens and of the capitalist system
Minimum wage and maximum hour laws
Child Labor laws
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