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Chapter 10 and 11

Explain how Republican presidents dominated the post war era and tended to support big business
HAYES
Supported temperance
sought to limit Chinese immigration (eliminate cultural haze)
election ended the reconstruction era
GARFIELD
Patronage problem was addressed by the Pendleton act 1883
only served 4 months assassinated
Battle with “Stalwarts” and more reform minded “half breeds.”
Couldn’t agree with his own party
ARTHUR
supported a strong Navy (republican)
opposition to high Tariffs
HARRISON
one term in congress played second to congress
More Americans voted for his opponent electoral college
Explain how the grange, farmers’ alliance, and populist emerged to contest big business’s control over the market place ****
The Grange
created to help educated its members on new developments in agricultural created a social and cultural bond among its members
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry which was formed both to educate its members about new development in agricultural and to create a social and cultural bond among its members
Granger laws:
grain elevator prices, short, and long haul rates for rail lines.
Short haul: Can be completed in one day
Long haul: longer than one day

Court cases
Munn v. Illinois- if the product is for public use the court ruled the states could place regulations
Pelik v. the chicago and northwestern railroad- granger laws are not in violation.
Illinois v. wabash- ruled that commerce and trade that crossed state lines was directly under the authority of the federal government not the states.

Explain how the populist were a diverse coalition that sought to confront a wide variety of urban and rural problems **
Government owns the major utilities (socialism)
unlimited coinage of silver
Immigrants should be limited
single term for president (republican)
direct election of the US senator
fixed income tax should be replaced with a graduated income tax
all excess lands granted to the railroads should be returned to public ownership
Laborers should have 8 hour work day as well as the right to bargaining
Understand that the populist and democratic party fused over in the late 19th century.
Many opposed a “fusion” ticket for fear that their goals would be neutralized by allying themselves with a Democratic candidate
Southern and Western delegates had earlier fused with the Democrats on the State and local levels; southern delegates opposed such an alliance
In order to satisfy the southerners, Tom Watson, a populist, was selected as the vice-presidential candidate instead of a Democratic candidate.
The populist party nominated Bryan as their candidate
Describe how the state and federal governments played significant roles in promoting business interests.
Imposed protective tariffs
encouraged a boom in railroad construction through land grants. The Pacific Railroad Act provided enormous tracts of land to railroad companies and also granted them substantial loans as well.
By aiding in the settlement of the west, a national market was created Homestead Act 1862
Support this statement: this period witnessed the rise of the corporation.
Anti trade unions to get the working class to be happy with their wages so the industrialist can keep growing.
Social darwinism, little government regulation to let the strong businesses survive.
Pro tariffs to protect american business and let them grow.
Describe how proponents and opponents of the government in assisting laissez-faire capitalism offered numerous justifications for their positions.
Horatio Alger: Rags to riches stories helped some overcome poverty and related success and social status. His fictional characters such a Mark the Matchstick boy, became an inspiration to young wn pursuing the American Dream
Russell Conwell: for those who were poor and could see no way out of their predicament, Cornwell’s “Acres of Diamonds” sermon was deflating “it is your duty to get rich. It is wrong to be poor.
Carnegie’s “Gospel of Wealth”: It is the duty of the wealthy to contribute to society the wealth they have accrued through philanthropic program.
Explain how the U.S. economy expanded enormously during the late 19th century, easily surpassing European industrial nations
Andrew Carnegie: Bessemer process for cheaper steel than all of his competition. Used vertical integration
Vertical integration: the combination in one company of or more stages of production normally operated operated by separate companies

John D. Rockefeller: Founded standard oil, USed horizontal to control nearly 90% of the nation’s oil market. Price went down from $10/barrel in 1861 to 10 cents/barre, in 1862
Horizontal integration: The establishment of control over all companies in one stage of the process

William H. Vanderbilt: railroad magnate for decades his family would dominate the railroad industry.

J. P. Morgan: Purchasing carnegie steel industry, morgan went on to create U.S steel the nation’s first billion dollar industry. Morgan was a lucky man at the minute he cancelled a cruise on the luxury liner Titanic

Describe how representing different objectives and memberships, labor unions formed, and major strikes occurred in the period.
National Labor Union (NLU):
First trade union regardless race and gender
goals higher wages 8 hour work days and gender and racial equality
able to win the 8 hour workday for federal employees
Knights of Labor:
Led by Terence Powderly in 1869
favored racial and gender equality favored arbitration rather than strikes
American Federation of Labor (AFL):
Led by Samuel gompers towards skilled workers
win concession from management
Industrial workers of the World (IWW)-
Led by colorful figure “Big Bill” Haywood
Means of production to the working class rather than better wages and working figures
Railroad Strike of 1877:
employees struck when the company lowered their wages. Turing violence, President Hayes used the Army to suppress the strike
Haymarket Square (Chicago) Riot of 1886:
Protest the treatment of the workers at the nearby McCormick Harvester factory as well as methods used by the police in dealing with the protesters abruptly ended when an unknown assailant threw a bomb that killed a number of police officers who had been ordered to break up the demonstration
The Homestead (Pennsylvania) Strike of 1892:
Carnegie steel company cut wages
The workers went on strike which provided the company the opportunity to crush the union by hiring a private security company, the Pinkerton detective agency to engage strikes
Open fire on the pinkerton killing several the state militia was called in
The Pullman Strike of 1894:
wage cut during the depression to ensure that stockholders dividends remained high at eh pullman palace car company
Led by American Railway union leader Eugene Debs a boycott was established that greatly affected the railroad industry in the Midwest. Members of the Railway Managers Association called on the gov to intervene arguing that the strikers were in the restraint of trade.
Describe how the Supreme Court handed down decisions that for the most part favored business by controlling unions and undoing legislation that would interfere with capital accumulation.
Housing laws
regulation safety and health conditions in workplace
Regulated corporation when their behaviors and actions contradicted the well-being of citizens and of the capitalist system
Sanitation laws
Minimum wage and maximum hour laws
Child Labor laws
In the late nineteenth century, industry in the United States
saw the federal government eager to assist in its growth.
Who among the following began to develop an oil empire by taking control of competing oil companies in Ohio?
John D. Rockefeller
Prior to the Civil War, the steel industry in the United States
barely developed at all.
The process of making steel developed by Henry Bessemer
All these answers are correct.
In the United States, the steel industry first emerged in
Pennsylvania and Ohio.
All of the following cities became important centers for steel production EXCEPT
Atlanta.
The first significant oil production in the United States occurred in
Pennsylvania.
In the 1870s, the “internal combustion engine” was developed in
Europe
Orville and Wilbur Wright’s first successful airplane flight in 1903
Kitty Hawk North Carolina
A key to Henry Ford’s success in mass production of automobiles was
Interchangeable parts
Model T base price
$630
During the late nineteenth century, the growth of large corporations was helped
All these answers are correct.
The business structure of Carnegie Steel was a good example of
vertical integration.
The business structure of Standard Oil was a good example of
vertical and horizontal integration.
The social theory of Social Darwinism
promoted the idea that capitalism offered all people a chance for great wealth.
In 1900, in regards to the work conditions in American factories,
laborers could expect to work at least sixty hours a week.
During the late nineteenth century, child labor in the United States
increased significantly.
The Molly Maguires were a militant
labor union in the coal industry.
At its height in 1886, the Knights of Labor were led by
Terence V. Powderly.
Samuel Gompers was the leader of the
American Federation of Labor
In what industry did the Homestead strike of 1892 occur?
steel
The Haymarket Square Riot of 1886
resulted in a strike at the McCormick Harvester Company.
The Pullman strike of 1894 began when George Pullman, owner of the company,
cut wages by twenty-five percent due to a slumping economy.
The Pullman strike of 1894
saw the president of the United States order federal troops to break the strike.
Of the choices below, a voter’s party identification in the nineteenth century was usually a reflection of
cultural background
The political battles between Stalwarts and Half-Breeds constituted a fight
between traditionalists and reformers.
In the election of 1884, “Mugwumps” were
unhappy Republicans who threatened to vote for the Democrats.
The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
was used by the federal government against labor unions
The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887
All these answers are correct.
In the late nineteenth century, the Granger laws supported the interests of
farmers.
In the 1890s, Populism appealed to
small scale farmers
In the late nineteenth century, American Populism
favored the direct election of United States senators.
In the 1890s, farmers favored the federal government’s coinage of silver because
inflation on currency
The “Cross of Gold” speech was given in 1896 by
William Jennings Bryan.
The “Cross of Gold” speech appealed primarily to
farmers

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