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Chapter 10 Leadership

Manager
Someone who coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish desired goals and objectives, using available resources efficiently and effectively
Leader
someone who can influence others to achieve goals
Why is leadership so important?
it gets followers to embrace a vision and to ultimately achieve the organization’s goals
What are the 3 secrets to leadership?
1) Emotional and Social Competence
2) Power
3) Ethics
What is the secret to effective leadership?
Emotional and Social competence
What is the secret to influential leadership?
Power
What is the secret to responsible leadership?
Ethics
Competencies
capabilities or abilities that include both intent and action, and that can be directly linked to how well a person performs on a task or in a job
What differentiates great leaders from average ones?
Emotional intelligence
What are the 3 things that EI enables leaders to do?
1) Motivate subordinates to commit to their vision
2) Develop an identity for the organization and instill trust and cooperation
3) Respond appropriately when they realize they’ve made a mistake
What are the 5 sources of Power?
1) Legitimate
2) Reward
3) Coercive
4) Expert
5) Referent
Legitimate power
the ability to influence others by right of the one’s position in the organization, the office held, or formal authority
Reward power
the ability to influence others by giving or withholding rewards such as pay, promotions, time off, attractive projects, learning experiences, and the like
Coercive power
the attempt to influence others through punishment
Expert Power
the ablility to influence followers through a combination of special knowledge/skills
Referent power
power that comes from personal characteristics that people value and want to emulate and that cause people to feel respect or admiration
Empowerment
trusting employees to make decisions and to take responsibility for their decisions and actions
What are the 3 things that you need to be empowered?
1) Knowledge and tools
2) Responsibility and accountability
3) Authority within a span of control
What are 3 ways how empowerment contributes to effective leadership?
1) Increasing a manager’s ability to get things done and spend less time on daily supervision
2) Increasing workers’ involvement, motivation, and commitment
3) Allowing for quick decisions to be made at all levels
Theory z
focused on increasing employee loyalty to the company by providing a job for life with a strong focus on the well being of the employee, both on and off the job
According to the Trait Model, what were the 8 traits that a good leader should have?
1) Intelligence
2) Knowledge and Expertise
3) Dominance
4) Self-confidence
5) High energy
6) Tolerance for stress
7) Integrity and Honesty
8) Maturity
How does having intelligence help managers?
understand complex issues and solve problems
How does having knowledge and expertise help managers?
make good decisions and discover ways to increase efficiency and effectiveness
How does having dominance help managers?
influence their subordinates to achieve organizational goals
How does having self-confidence help managers?
contributes to managers’ effectively influencing subordinates and persisting when faced with obstacles or difficulties
How does having high energy help managers?
deal with many demands they face
How does having tolerance for stress help managers?
deal with uncertainty and make difficult decisions
How does having integrity and honesty help managers?
behave ethically and earn their subordinates’ trust and confidence
How does having maturity help managers?
avoid acting selfishly, control their feelings, and admit when they have made a mistake
What are two major dimensions of leadership behavior according to Ohio State’s behavior models?
1) Consideration
2) Initiating Structure
Consideration
people-orientated behaviors such as respect, openness to employee’s ideas, and concern for employee well-being
Initiating Structure
behaviors related to task and goal orientation, such as giving clear directions, monitoring employees’ performance, and planning and setting work schedules and deadlines
What were the 2 dimensions of behavior according to Michigan’s behavior models?
1) Job-centered behavior
2) Employee-Centered Behavior
Job centered behavior
focus primarily on the work a subordinate is doing
Employee centered behavior
focus primarily on subordinates as people
Country club manager
high people, low task
Team manager
high people, high task
Impoverished manager
low people, low task
Authority obedience manager
low people, high task
Contingency Models
propose that the effectiveness of a leader with certain traits in contingent on the situation or context in which he/she performs
Fiedler’s Model
Leadership effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the leader and the situation styles
What were the 2 leader styles according to Fiedler?
1) Relationship-oriented
2) Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented
leaders concerned with developing good relations with their subordinates and to be liked by them
Task-oriented
leaders whose primary concern is to ensure that subordinates perform at a high level and focus on task accomplishment
How does the situation affect leaders?
situational characteristics determine how favorable a situation is for leading
Leader-member relations
the degree of confidence, trust, and respect employees have for their leader
Task structure
degree to which job assignments are formalized and structured
Position power
degree of influence a leader has over activities such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases
House’s path-goal theory (2)
1) leader is responsible for motivating employees to obtain goals
2) clarify the path toward organizational and person goals and link rewards to those goals
What are the 4 kinds of interchangeable leadership behaviors that motivate subordinates?
1) Directive
2) Supportive
3) Participative
4) Achievement-oriented
Directive
defines clear expectations, offers guidance, established performance standards, and schedules work tasks
Supportive
creates a pleasant, cooperative environment
Participative
collaborates with employees by soliciting input and participative in the decision making process
Achievement-oriented
establishes clear, challenging goals, emphasizes performance excellence, and shows belief in employees’ ability to attain goals
Leadership Substitutes Model
direct leadership may be unnecessary depending on characteristics of subordinates and the situation
Transformational leadership
leaders have a high level of social and emotional intelligence and can inspire others to seek an extraordinary vision
3 Characteristics of subordinates of transformational leaders
1) increased awareness of the importance of their jobs and high performance
2) aware of their own needs for personal growth and development
3) work for the good of the organization, not just themselves
3 Characteristics of Transformational managers
1) Charismatic
2) Intellectually stimulate subordinates
3) Engage in developmental consideration
Developmental consideration
behavior a leader engages in to support and encourage followers and help them develop and grow on the job
2 characteristics of Transactional leadership
1) a more traditional approach to management
2) lower levels of job satisfaction and performance than transformational

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