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Chapter 14: Water

There is potential for conflict over water resources among all of the following pairs of countries except
a. Sudan and Egypt.
b. Syria and Jordan.
c. Syria and Israel.
d. Turkey and Egypt.
e. Syria and Iraq.
d. Turkey and Egypt.
Approximately ____% of earth’s water supply is available to us as liquid freshwater.
a. .02
b. .2
c. 2
d. 22
e. 42
a. .02
The hydrologic cycle will naturally purify and recycle fresh water as long as humans don’t
a. pollute the water faster than it is replenished.
b. withdraw water from groundwater supplies faster than it is replenished.
c. overload it with slowly degradable and nondegradable wastes.
d. a and b only.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Porous water-saturated layers of underground rock are known as
a. aquifers.
b. recharge areas.
c. watersheds.
d. runoff areas.
e. water tables.
a. aquifers.
Which of the following statements is false?
a. Recharging of water is a slow process.
b. The water table moves down in dry weather.
c. Water in a confined aquifer is under pressure.
d. Groundwater is stationary and does not move.
e. The water table is located at the top of the zone of saturation.
d. Groundwater is stationary and does not move.
Throughout the world, the most water is used for
a. irrigation.
b. industrial processes.
c. needs of animals and humans.
d. transportation.
e. cooling towers of power plants.
a. irrigation.
Which of the following uses tends to consume the smallest amount of water?
a. irrigation
b. public use
c. industry
d. energy production.
e. transportation.
b. public use
)The largest use of water in the western United States is
a. energy production.
b. cooling.
c. irrigation.
d. hosing down livestock pens.
e. manufacturing.
c. irrigation.
Major water problems of the western United States include
a. flooding.
b. insufficient water for some urban areas.
c. chronic drought and insufficient runoff.
d. pollution of rivers, lakes, and groundwater.
e. insufficient water for industry
c. chronic drought and insufficient runoff.
Water can be scarce because of
a. water stress.
b. dry climate.
c. desiccation.
d. drought.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Most of the world’s rivers are
a. found in one country.
b. shared by two countries.
c. shared by three to five countries.
d. shared by six to ten countries.
e. shared by more than ten countries.
b. shared by two countries.
In 2005, the United Nations reported that ____ people lack regular access to enough clean water for drinking, cooking, washing, and sanitation.
a. one out of every four
b. one out of every five
c. one out of every six
d. one out of every eight
e. one out of every ten
c. one out of every six
Aquifers provide almost ____ of the world’s water.
a. 1/6
b. 1/4
c. 1/3
d. 1/2
e. ?
b. 1/4
The term subsidence refers to
a. failure of the groundwater supply.
b. accumulation of silt behind a dam.
c. sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn.
d. intrusion of salt water into a freshwater aquifer.
e. loss of water due to evaporation.
c. sinking of ground when water has been withdrawn.
Overuse of groundwater can lead to
a. saltwater intrusion.
b. subsidence.
c. aquifer depletion.
d. All of these answers.
e. None of these answers.
d. All of these answers.
Currently, groundwater in the United States is being withdrawn ____ its replacement rate. a. at one-half
b. equal to
c. two times
d. four times
e. five times
d. four times
Saudi Arabia gets about 70% of its drinking water from
a. deep aquifers
b. water imports
c. rainfall
d. desalination
e. lakes and rivers
d. desalination
All of the following are ways to prevent or slow groundwater depletion except
a. subsidize water conservation
b. waste less water
c. a ban on new well construction
d. grow more water-intensive crops
e. buy and retire groundwater withdrawal rights
d. grow more water-intensive crops
Large dams and reservoirs
a. reduce danger of flooding upstream.
b. are inexpensive to build.
c. cannot be used for outdoor recreation.
d. can be used to provide electric power.
e. All of these answers.
d. can be used to provide electric power.
Dams
a. are relatively inexpensive to build.
b. destroy agricultural land and scenic areas.
c. facilitate migration of fish.
d. provide downstream areas with nutrients.
e. prevent flooding.
b. destroy agricultural land and scenic areas.
China’s Three Gorges project will
a. be the world’s largest hydroelectric plant.
b. displace few people.
c. flood large areas of forest.
d. increase habitat for endangered pandas.
e. prevent flooding.
a. be the world’s largest hydroelectric plant.
Because of increased irrigation, Africa’s Lake Chad has shrunk by ____% since the 1960s.
a. 55
b. 65
c. 75
d. 85
e. 95
e. 95
Which of the following bodies of water has experienced an 11-meter drop in its water level since 1941 when water began being diverted to Los Angeles?
a. Lake Mead
b. Mono Lake
c. Lake Tahoe
d. the Colorado River
e. Lake Powell
b. Mono Lake
Most water-transfer projects illustrate
a. the climate-biome principle.
b. the principle that you can’t do just one thing.
c. the concept of ecological succession.
d. the principle of genetic variability.
e. energy is conserved.
b. the principle that you can’t do just one thing.
In California, the greatest user of water is
a. pollution dilution.
b. industry.
c. agriculture.
d. urban dwellers.
e. manufacturing.
c. agriculture.
The volume of the world’s fourth largest freshwater lake has been decreased by almost 75% to provide water for agriculture. This lake is located in
a. China.
b. Bangladesh.
c. the former Soviet Union.
d. Africa.
e. the USA
c. the former Soviet Union.
Which of the following statements about the Aral Sea is false?
a. Water has been diverted from the Aral Sea and the two rivers that replenish its water primarily for use in manufacturing.
b. The volume of the Aral Sea has dropped by about 75%.
c. The salinity levels have risen threefold.
d. All native fish species have disappeared.
e. The surface area has decreased by 54%.
a. Water has been diverted from the Aral Sea and the two rivers that replenish its water primarily for use in manufacturing.
All of the following would improve the Aral Sea ecological/economic situation except
a. charging farmers more for irrigation water.
b. introducing water-saving technologies.
c. shifting displaced fishermen to logging.
d. slowing the area’s rapid population growth.
e. All of these answers.
c. shifting displaced fishermen to logging.
The relationship between water demand and policies that subsidize water-thirsty crops exemplifies
a. a positive feedback loop.
b. a negative feedback loop.
c. a delay.
d. a synergistic interaction.
e. a competitive relationship.
a. a positive feedback loop.
Desalination may be accomplished by
a. distillation.
b. osmosis.
c. salt-eating bacteria.
d. macrofiltration.
e. reverse filtration.
a. distillation.
Which of the following statements about desalination is true?
a. The common methods of desalination are reverse-osmosis and evaporation.
b. Desalination is expensive.
c. The greatest amount of desalination occurs in the United States.
d. Desalination is the best approach to solving irrigation problems.
e. Desalination is the best method of acquiring clear water for drinking.
b. Desalination is expensive.
Which choice completes the sentence incorrectly? Cloud seeding
a. is most useful in very dry areas.
b. could change regional rainfall patterns.
c. could introduce large amounts of cloud-seeding chemicals into natural ecosystems.
d. is impeded by legal disputes.
e. None of these answers.
a. is most useful in very dry areas.
The largest producer of freshwater from seawater is
a. the United States
b. Saudi Arabia
c. Israel
d. China
e. Egypt
b. Saudi Arabia
It is most economically and environmentally sound to focus water resource management on
a. increasing the water supply.
b. controlling the “mining” of groundwater.
c. increasing the efficiency of the way we use water.
d. developing desalination plants.
e. cloud seeding and towing icebergs to arid regions.
c. increasing the efficiency of the way we use water.
Approaches to increasing the water supply can be outstripped by
a. increased industrialization.
b. soaring population.
c. increased food needs.
d. All of these answers.
e. None of these answers.
d. All of these answers.
All of the following are advantages to using drip irrigation systems except that they
a. reduce soil salinization
b. maximize water input reaching crops
c. are very costly
d. cannot be moved around
e. increase crop yields over conventional systems
d. cannot be moved around
In the United States, the single largest use of the domestic water supply is
a. washing dishes
b. bathing and showering
c. watering lawns
d. washing clothes
e. flushing toilets
e. flushing toilets
Which U. S. city reduced its water use by 31% from 1987 to 2004 through repairing leaks, retrofitting homes with efficient toilets and showerheads, conducting water audits of industries, better water metering, and public education?
a. Los Angeles
b. Boston
c. New York
d. San Francisco
e. Washington DC.
b. Boston
World Resources Institute estimates that ____ of the water people use throughout the world is wasted through evaporation, leaks, and other losses.
a. 25?30%
b. 45?50%
c. 65?70%
d. 75?80%
e. 78?90%
c. 65?70%
Water is wasted because
a. the responsibility for water resource management of a single watershed is often divided among many state and local governments.
b. outdated laws encourage unnecessary water waste.
c. water prices are artificially low.
d. All of these answers.
e. None of these answers.
d. All of these answers.
Water would be used more efficiently if
a. the price of water reflected its true cost.
b. laws governing access to and use of water resources were reformed.
c. water authorities were based on natural watershed boundaries.
d. None of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Most irrigation systems lose about half of their water to
a. runoff.
b. evaporation.
c. seepage.
d. b and c.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Which of the following offers the greatest conservation of water?
a. center-pivot sprinkler systems
b. low-energy precision-application (LEPA) sprinkler systems
c. trickle or drip irrigation
d. gravity-flow canal systems
e. diagonal-pivot systems
c. trickle or drip irrigation
Wasting water through irrigation could be reduced by
a. treating urban wastewater and using it for irrigation.
b. using organic farming techniques.
c. using computer-controlled systems that monitor soil moisture.
d. All of these answers.
e. None of these answers.
d. All of these answers.
All of the following are available to improve water efficiency except
a. xeriscaping.
b. policies allowing use of gray water.
c. systems to purify and completely recycle wastewater from houses, apartments, or office buildings.
d. condensing water vapor from indoor air.
e. using water meters to monitor and charge for municipal water use.
d. condensing water vapor from indoor air.
People have often settled on floodplains because
a. the soil is fertile.
b. the flat surfaces are ideal for buildings.
c. they want access to water for irrigation and transportation.
d. the flat surfaces are ideal for railroads.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
The main human activity that increases flooding is
a. constructing dams
b. directing stream flow
c. destroying vegetation
d. irrigation
e. urbanization
c. destroying vegetation
Floods and droughts are
a. strictly natural disasters.
b. human-activated problems.
c. decreased by increases in human population.
d. independent of human activity.
e. All of these answers.
b. human-activated problems.
Humans increase the likelihood of flooding by
a. building on floodplains.
b. urbanization.
c. removing water-absorbing vegetation.
d. draining wetlands.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
The monsoon season can
a. leach soil nutrients.
b. cause water to overflow its channels.
c. wash away topsoil and crops.
d. All of these answers.
e. None of these answers.
d. All of these answers.
Which of the following conditions in the Himalayan watershed contribute(s) to flooding in Bangladesh?
a. rapid population growth
b. forest conservation
c. dam construction
d. sustainable farming practices
e. low population growth
a. rapid population growth
Overpopulation and poverty force people to live on floodplains and deplete mangrove forests. Chances of flooding increase and the death toll rises. This case best exemplifies
a. an accumulation.
b. synergy.
c. a positive feedback loop.
d. a negative feedback loop.
e. cooperation.
d. a negative feedback loop.
Increased flooding can be caused by
a. heavy rainfall.
b. rapid snowmelt.
c. removal of vegetation.
d. destruction of wetlands.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Stream channelization
a. increases the rate of water discharge.
b. decreases erosion.
c. is one form of irrigation.
d. is the process of building ditches along natural streams.
e. decreases the rate of water discharge.
a. increases the rate of water discharge.
Ecologically, the best way to approach flooding is
a. flood control dams.
b. artificial levees.
c. channelization.
d. floodplain management.
e. dams.
d. floodplain management.
Sustainable use of water involves
a. participatory decision making.
b. preservation of ecological integrity of water supply systems.
c. efficient use of water.
d. integrated governance of water pollution.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.
Sustainable use of water
a. requires integrated governance of water pollution among all users of a watershed.
b. might be encouraged by water marketing.
c. is discouraged by government subsidies of water.
d. requires integrated governance of water use, sewage treatment among all users of a watershed.
e. All of these answers.
e. All of these answers.

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