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Chapter 15 Goal Setting – Sport Psychology

It is recommended that appropriate goals be short term or long term goals?
a combination of short- and long- term goals
Focusing on performance (as opposed to outcome goals) during competition has been shown to be associated with _____ anxiety and _____ performance.
less anxiety and superior performance
Which of the following (according to research by Filby and colleagues) would produce the best performance?
a. performance goals
b. process goals
c. outcome goals
d. subjective goals
a combination of the goals
Studies of goal setting in business have concluded that
a. although goals work in some situations, more often than not, specific goals are not better than “do your best” goals
b. it does not matter how difficult your goals are—any goal will be effective
c. goal setting works very well
d. goal setting is effective but only when the goals are easy
e. all of the above
c. goal setting works well
Burton (1989a), in a study of basketball skills, found that
a. general goals were just as effective as specific goals
b. goal setting was effective for all tasks
c. short-term goals were more effective than long-term goals
d. goal setting enhanced performance better on low- as compared with high-complexity tasks
e. goal setting improved performance more for the subjects who were told to “do their best” than for those who were told “improve 15%”
d. goal setting enhanced performance better on low- as compared with high-complexity tasks
Directing a performer’s attention to important elements of a skill is one way in which _______ ________ can influence performance.
one way in which goal setting can influence performance
The mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of goal setting includes
a. directing the performer’s attention to important elements of a skill
b. mobilizing effort and increasing persistence by providing incentives
c. the development and employment of new learning strategies
d. all of the above
e. a and b
d. all of the above

a. directing the performer’s attention to important elements of a skill
b. mobilizing effort and increasing persistence by providing incentives
c. the development and employment of new learning strategies

Burton contends that athletes who set outcome goals will experience more anxiety and lower self-confidence in competition; this is
a. because their goals are not within their complete control
b. one of the mechanistic explanations for the effectiveness of goal setting
c. one of the indirect thought-process explanations for the effectiveness of goal setting
d. all of the above
e. a and c
e. a and c

a. because their goals are not within their complete control
c. one of the indirect thought-process explanations for the effectiveness of goal setting

After a five-month goal-setting program, swimmers were found to have learned to set ___________________ goals
have learned to set performance goals
Having a goal to win the race is an example of a(n) _____ goal, whereas having a goal to “improve my best time” is an example of a(n) ______ goal.
Having a goal to win the race is an example of an outcome goal, whereas having a goal to “improve my best time” is an example of a process and performance goal.
According to the text, goals should be difficult enough to be a challenge, yet ____________ enough to achieve
realistic enough to achieve
Which of the following is NOT a common obstacle in setting goals?
a. It is too time consuming.
b. There are previous negative experiences in setting goals.
c. Goals are too unstructured.
d. a and c
e. b and c
c. Goals are too unstructured.
The phrase “out of sight, out of mind” is a reminder to write your goals down and place them where they can be easily _________
write your goals down and place them where they can be easily seen
Dishman (1988) found that a spouse’s support is what relating to exercise adherence?
a critical factor affecting exercise adherence
Which of the following is (are) a common problem when setting goals?
a. setting too few goals
b. failing to adjust goals
c. failing to recognize individual differences
d. all of the above
e. b and c
b. failing to adjust goals
c. failing to recognize
A formal assessment of an athlete’s current ability or needs is
a. part of the instructor’s or leader’s preparation stage of implementing a goal-setting program
b. great for identifying what areas you think the athlete needs to improve
c. part of the education and acquisition stage of implementing a goal-setting program
d. a and b
e. none of the above
a. part of the instructor’s or leader’s preparation stage of implementing a goal-setting program
b. great for identifying what areas you think the athlete needs to improve
When formulating a goal-setting program with a novice goal setter, it is best to help the person select _______ goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
help the person select one goal from a list of multiple goals she would like to pursue
It is important to _____ throughout the entire goal-setting process.
a. provide feedback
b. provide support
c. provide encouragement
d. reevaluate goals
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
In developing a goal-setting program, it is important for individuals to set what 3 types of goals?
performance goals
process goals
outcome goals
Which of the following is (are) useful for setting team goals?
a. establishing short-term goals first
b. monitoring progress toward team goals
c. fostering team confidence concerning team goals
d. all of the above
e. b and c
b. monitoring progress toward team goals
c. fostering team confidence concerning team goals
Which of the following is (are) true regarding goal-setting practices of high school and collegiate coaches?
a. The most important part of goal commitment is goal specificity.
b. Coaches were consistent in writing down their goals.
c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.
d. a and b
e. a and c
c. The only disadvantage noted was setting goals unrealistically high.
“Chip a bucket of golf balls onto a practice green three days a week” is an example of
a _______________ for attaining the goal of “lower my handicap by three strokes”
a strategy for attaining the goal of “lower my handicap by three strokes”
Simply telling an athlete to “do your best” is not ____________ enough
not specific enough
In an attempt to build hope, Gould and colleagues created the Power 4W program. Which of the following is NOT one of the Power 4W components?
a. want power
b. wish power
c. wade power
d. will power
e. way power
c. wade power
According to Snyder, hope involves having a realistic goal and what?
and being able to reach that goal
One of the most common errors made when setting goals is failing to provide for goal ________________ and ______________
failing to provide for goal evaluation and feedback
The most frequent problem to watch out for, as noted by the text, when helping individuals in sport and exercise settings to set their goals is their failure to set _____________ goals
their failure to set specific goals

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